A field experiment involving seven cultural practices was begun in 1974 in an area heavily infested with velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic.) seed. Our objective was to determine the time required to eradicate velvetleaf seed from the soil. This paper reports the results of the first 4 yr of a long-term study. A cultural practice is repeated on the same plot year after year. Since the experiment was begun, no velvetleaf plants have been allowed to produce seed in any plots. The number of viable velvetleaf seeds is monitored by yearly soil sampling. In 1978, after 4 yr of a fallow treatment involving intensive tillage (two plowings per yr plus monthly tillage throughout the growing season), only 10% of the original seed population remained. However, that 10% was 1,300 viable seeds per m2 (to a depth of 23 cm). Four other practices that involved tillage gave generally similar results. Under undisturbed, continuous alfalfa, 56% of the original seed population remained after 4 yr, and under undisturbed, continuous chemical fallow, 37% remained. The results thus far demonstrate the extreme difficulty of eradicating velvetleaf seeds from the soil, and generally agree with reports in the literature, which primarily include studies conducted under more artificial conditions than we used. Our results also suggest that, in soil, velvetleaf seeds that have become water permeable (nonhard) may later again become water impermeable (hard).