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Liaison psychiatry provision for children and young people in England is poorly evaluated.
We sought to evaluate paediatric liaison psychiatry provision and develop recommendations to improve practice.
The liaison psychiatry surveys of England (LPSE) cross-sectional surveys engage all liaison psychiatry services in England. Services are systematically identified by contacting all acute hospitals with emergency departments in England. Questions are developed in consultation with NHS England and the Royal College of Psychiatrists’ Faculty of Liaison Psychiatry, and updated based on feedback. Responses are submitted by email, post or telephone. Questions on paediatric services were included from 2015 (LPSE-2), and we analysed data from this and the subsequent four surveys.
The number of acute hospitals with access to paediatric liaison psychiatry services increased from 29 (15.9%) in 2015 to 46 (26.6%) in 2019, compared with 100% provision for adults. For LPSE-4, only one site met the Core-24 criteria of 11 full-time equivalent mental health practitioners and 1.5 full-time equivalent consultants, and for LPSE-5, just two sites exceeded them. Acute hospitals with access to 24/7 paediatric liaison psychiatry services increased from 12 to 19% between LPSE-4 and LPSE-5. The proportion of paediatric liaison psychiatry services based offsite decreased from 30 to 24%.
There is an unacceptable under-provision of paediatric liaison psychiatry services compared with provision for adults. Number of services, staffing levels and hours of operation have increased, but continued improvement is required, as few services meet the Core-24 criteria.
With increasing recognition of the prevalence and impact of perinatal mental health (PMH) disorders comes a responsibility to ensure that tomorrow's doctors can support families during the perinatal period. Online surveys seeking information about the inclusion of PMH education in undergraduate curricula were sent to psychiatry curriculum leads and student psychiatry societies from each university medical school in the UK between April and September 2021.
Responses were received from 32/35 (91.4%) medical schools. Two-thirds reported specific inclusion of PMH content in the core curriculum, typically integrated into general adult psychiatry or obstetric teaching. Students at the remaining schools were all likely to be examined on the topic or see perinatal cases during at least one clinical attachment.
PMH education offers an opportunity for collaboration between psychiatry and other disciplines. Future work looking at educational case examples with objective outcomes would be valuable.
The following is a chronology of Beckett’s published poems. It presents the year in which a poem was written and the publication in which it first appeared. The chronology includes information available in the chronologies of the Faber & Faber Reader’s editions, A Samuel Beckett Chronology (2006) and The New Cambridge Companion to Samuel Beckett (2015); it also relies on critical information included in Collected Poems (2012), among other resources.
In his review of The Collected Poems of Samuel Beckett for the New York Times, Paul Muldoon condemns much of Beckett’s poetry as ‘dreadful stuff’ that suffers from a ‘half-done quality’ and is ‘fatally under the sway of his contemporaries in Irish modernism’. His focus is the early poetry, quoting ‘For Future Reference’, rejected by Beckett for inclusion in Echo’s Bones and Other Precipitates, and ‘Cascando’, Beckett’s late thirties love poem. No later poems are included.1 These are hardly fair representations of a writing life, but Muldoon is by no means the first to rubbish the notion that Beckett’s poetry is actually ‘poetic’.2 The common consensus is, rather, that Beckett’s poetry is found largely outside his poems. Responding to Muldoon, Douglas Messerli argues that all of Beckett’s works ‘represent, in one way or another, a kind of poetry in their attention to language above narrative and dramaturgical concerns’.3 Beckett’s work broadly is often described and celebrated as ‘poetic’, yet his reputation is not built on his poetry. It is unlikely that the Nobel Prize committee had the author’s published poems in mind when they described his work as ‘ghost poetry’.4 What, though, do we really mean when we describe Beckett’s writing as ‘poetry’? Messerli’s formulation is a useful starting point: ‘attention to language’. This entails not just the meaning of words but their shape and sound too. With that in mind, this chapter explores the role of sound and rhythm in Beckett’s writing to consider how his ‘poetry’ extends beyond the traditional boundaries of genre, particularly when it comes to the rhythmic and auditory qualities of the author’s late writing.
At a particularly low moment at the end of August 1937, Samuel Beckett wrote to Mary Manning Howe describing his recent fallow period at home in the Dublin suburb of Foxrock after returning from an extended trip to Germany:
I do nothing, with as little shame as satisfaction. It is the state that suits me best. I write the odd poem when it is there, that is the only thing worth doing. There is an ecstasy of accidia – willless in a grey tumult of idées obscures. There is an end to the temptation of light, its polite scorchings & consolations.1
Beckett’s emphasis here is the nothing he is doing, but it might as well have been the ‘odd poem’ that is the occasional product of his acedia. Throughout his life, Beckett only ever wrote odd poems. Odd in a triple sense: of occurring at irregular intervals; of their being formally unusual, sui generis, even while often inspired by historical forms; and in the sense of their being somehow in addition to, awkward for their lack of a clear relation to otherwise so praised a body of work – not ‘the bride herself’, but the ‘odd maid out’, as he put it in an early short story.2 Beckett was also oddly protective of his poetry: when questions of the collation and republication of early works came as he found fame, it was only his poetry collection, Echo’s Bones and Other Precipitates (1935), that he was really willing to see set in type again, this despite the little recognition it received the first time around, or since.3 From start to end, Beckett’s poetry remained an odd endeavour.
The impact of Indigenous populations on historical fire regimes has been controversial and beset by mismatches in the geographic scale of paleofire reconstructions and the scale of land-use behaviors. It is often assumed that anthropogenic burning is linearly related to population density and not different cultural practices. Here we take an off-site geoarchaeology strategy to reconstruct variability in historical fire regimes (<1000 years ago) at geographic scales that match the archaeological, ethnohistorical, and oral tradition evidence for variability in the intensity of Indigenous land use by two different cultural groups (Ancestral Pueblo and Western Apache). We use multiple, independent proxies from three localities in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in east-Central Arizona to reconstruct fire regime variability during four phases of cultural use of different intensities. Elevated charcoal with domesticate pollen (Zea spp.) but otherwise unchanged forest pollen assemblages characterized intensive land use by Ancestral Pueblo people during an early phase, suggesting fire use to support agricultural activities. By contrast, a phase of intensive pre-reservation Western Apache land use corresponded to little change in charcoal, but had elevated ash-derived phosphorus and elevated grass and ruderal pollen suggestive of enhanced burning in fine fuels to promote economically important wild plants.
Samuel Beckett's Poetry is the first book-length study of Beckett's complete poetry, designed for students and scholars of twentieth century poetry and literature, as well as for specialists of Beckett's work. This volume explores how poetry provided Beckett a medium of expression during key moments in his life, from his earliest attempts at securing a reputation as a published writer, to the work of restoring his own speech while suffering aphasia shortly before his death. Often these were moments of desperation and discouragement, when more substantial works were not possible: moments of illness, of personal loss or of public disaster. This volume includes an introduction that contextualizes Beckett as a poet and a chronology of the composition and publication of all his known poems. Essays offer a range of critical perspectives, from translation theory, war poetics and Irish Studies to Beckett's debts to Modernism, Romanticism and the Jazz Age.
As part of surveillance of snail-borne trematodiasis in Knowsley Safari (KS), Prescot, United Kingdom, a collection was made in July 2021 of various planorbid (n = 173) and lymnaeid (n = 218) snails. These were taken from 15 purposely selected freshwater habitats. In the laboratory emergent trematode cercariae, often from single snails, were identified by morphology with a sub-set, of those most accessible, later characterized by cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) DNA barcoding. Two schistosomatid cercariae were of special note in the context of human cercarial dermatitis (HCD), Bilharziella polonica emergent from Planorbarius corneus and Trichobilharzia spp. emergent from Ampullacaena balthica. The former schistosomatid was last reported in the United Kingdom over 50 years ago. From cox1 analyses, the latter likely consisted of two taxa, Trichobilharzia anseri, a first report in the United Kingdom, and a hitherto unnamed genetic lineage having some affiliation with Trichobilharzia longicauda. The chronobiology of emergent cercariae from P. corneus was assessed, with the vertical swimming rate of B. polonica measured. We provide a brief risk appraisal of HCD for public activities typically undertaken within KS educational and recreational programmes.
Quizzes are a ubiquitous part of the dementia social care landscape. This article explores why. Using an ethnographic approach which draws on close analysis of communication, we examine dementia quizzes as a ‘social practice’, and what such a lens can tell us about their popularity in social care settings. Vignettes of real interactions drawn from ten different quizzes recorded in four different group settings attended by 28 people living with dementia and 15 staff members are presented to highlight particular issues. We show that the conditions of post-diagnosis dementia social care are uniquely well suited to an activity such as quizzes which are malleable, requiring little preparation or materials, and impose a communication framework which can help to organise the interactional space. Quizzes also draw on previously forged interactional competences, such as turn-taking and question–answer sequences, a skill that has been shown to persist even as dementia progresses. Finally, we argue that the meaning of quizzes with people with dementia feeds into wider societal values and associations attached to memory, dementia and personhood. The extent to which quizzes are akin to a ‘test’ or a fun and enjoyable social activity rests in how they are enacted. We suggest that practice can be adapted, developed and made more inclusive through input from people living with dementia themselves.
Several Miscanthus species are cultivated in the U.S. Midwest and Northeast, and feral populations can displace the native plant community and potentially negatively affect ecosystem processes. The monetary cost of eradicating feral Miscanthus populations is unknown, but quantifying eradication costs will inform decisions on whether eradication is a feasible goal and should be considered when totaling the economic damage of invasive species. We managed experimental populations of eulaliagrass (Miscanthus sinensis Andersson) and the giant Miscanthus hybrid (Miscanthus × giganteus J.M. Greef & Deuter ex Hodkinson & Renvoize) in three floodplain forest and three old field sites in central Illinois with the goal of eradication. We recorded the time invested in eradication efforts and tracked survival of Miscanthus plants over a 5-yr period, then estimated the costs associated with eradicating these Miscanthus populations. Finally, we used these estimates to predict the total monetary costs of eradicating existing M. sinensis populations reported on EDDMapS. Miscanthus populations in the old field sites were harder to eradicate, resulting in an average of 290% greater estimated eradication costs compared with the floodplain forest sites. However, the cost and time needed to eradicate Miscanthus populations were similar between Miscanthus species. On-site eradication costs ranged from $390 to $3,316 per site (or $1.3 to $11 m−2) in the old field sites, compared with only $85 to $547 (or $0.92 to $1.82 m−2) to eradicate populations within the floodplain forests, with labor comprising the largest share of these costs. Using our M. sinensis eradication cost estimates in Illinois, we predict that the potential costs to eradicate populations reported on EDDMapS would range from $10 to $37 million, with a median predicted cost of $22 million. The monetary costs of eradicating feral Miscanthus populations should be weighed against the benefits of cultivating these species to provide a comprehensive picture of the relative costs and benefits of adding these species to our landscapes.
The Waste Land remains a cultural and social barometer. It is a work that invites responses from each generation of readers, revealing the values of that generation through the shifting hinterlands of appreciation and critique the poem inevitably provokes. Each generation has its own Eliot, too, and this has been no more the case than when the thorny question of Eliot's politics moves into view, especially accusations of misogyny and anti-Semitism. If Eliot remains a revered figure of the twentieth century, his authority has been rocked by the antiquated views which punctuated his thinking at certain stages of his life.
Concurrently, readers, above all students in the classroom, frequently now demand that the social and political content, contexts and contemporary resonances of ‘great’ works be taken seriously. The Waste Land is a prime example. Megan Quigley's 2019 edited cluster for Modernism/modernity, ‘Reading “The Waste Land” with the #MeToo Generation’, provides compelling evidence of students’ perspectives in recent years. Quigley's account of the difference between her own experiences as a student and that of the cohorts coming before her now is illuminating:
The first time I heard ‘The Waste Land’ called an ‘abortion poem’ I thought I had misheard my student; now I hear it frequently (and convincingly) called a poem that stages and performs racial and gender violence and investigates trans* experience. My own teachers directed me away from Lil [and] Philomel to Nightingales and Keats – our students want Keats, but also to discuss, really discuss, the assault of the typist.
What is notable is the demand to blend what we might call traditional Eliot scholarship – hunting for allusions, attempting to pin down meaning – with socially engaged readings that evaluate hitherto neglected or overshadowed topics in Eliot's work. What is equally intriguing, though, is that there is still this demand to read Eliot at all. As Quigley notes, Eliot's reputation has unavoidably suffered a decline:
Eliot went from a heyday of popularity after winning the Nobel Prize in 1948 (14,000 people crammed in to hear him give a public reading in 1956) to a nadir of dislike (that one is harder to place temporally – maybe with the publication of T.S. Eliot and Anti-Semitism , which explored Eliot's prejudice, or Carole Seymour-Jones's biography Painted Shadow  and the film Tom and Viv , which portrayed the breakdown of his first marriage and his wife's institutionalization.
I exploit the leveraged exchange-traded funds’ (ETFs’) primary market to measure aggregate, uninformed, gambling-like demand, that is, speculation sentiment. The leveraged ETFs’ primary market is a novel setting that provides observable arbitrage activity attributed to correcting mispricing between ETFs’ shares and their underlying assets. The arbitrage activity proxies for the magnitude and direction of speculative demand shocks and I use them to form the Speculation Sentiment Index. The measure negatively relates to contemporaneous market returns (e.g., it is bullish in down markets) and negatively predicts returns. The results are consistent with speculation sentiment causing market-wide price distortions that later reverse.