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Strategies that reduce the time to antimicrobial administration, such as the availability of premix antimicrobials (PMAs) in the emergency department (ED), may better align with the goals of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign and improve outcomes in septic patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of antimicrobial preparation on time to administration in septic patients located in the emergency department (ED).
This was a retrospective, single-center, cohort study and adult patients with a diagnosis of sepsis who received at least one initial intravenous (IV) antimicrobial in the ED were included. Time to complete an empiric antimicrobial therapy was defined as the time between prescriber order entry and the infusion initiation time of the final antimicrobial agent of a patient’s antimicrobial regimen. Appropriate, empiric antimicrobial therapy was based on treatment recommendations by nationally accepted guidelines for the specific indication.
The first antimicrobial was initiated earlier when available as a PMA preparation (median (IQR): premix 25 minutes (16.5-42.3) vs. non-premix 46 minutes (20-102), p=0.027). When comparing complete, empiric antimicrobial regimen administration, there was no difference in time to administration between regimens containing one or more non-premix antimicrobials and regimens containing all PMAs (median (IQR): premix 69 minutes (21-115) vs. non-premix 65 minutes (38.5-133.8); p=0.455).
PMA preparations significantly reduced time to administration of the first antimicrobial agent for septic patients treated in the ED, but time to administration of subsequent antimicrobials were not improved.
Paediatric cardiac services are poorly developed or totally absent in underdeveloped countries. Institutions, foundations and interested individuals in those nations in which sophisticated paediatric cardiac surgery is practised have the ability to alleviate this problem by sponsoring paediatric cardio-surgical missions to provide care, and train local caregivers in developing, transitional, and third world countries. The ultimate benefit of such a programme is to improve the surgical abilities of the host institution. The purpose of this report is to present the impact of our programme over a period of 14 years.
We specifically reviewed our database of patients from our missions, our team lists, surgical results, and the number and type of personnel trained in the institutions that we have assisted. In order for the institution to be entered into the study, the foundation had to provide at least 2 months of training. In addition, the institution had to respond to a simple questionnaire concerning the number and types of surgery performed at their facility before and after intervention by the foundation.
We made 140 trips to 27 institutions in 19 countries, with 12 of the visited institutions qualifying for inclusion. Of these, 9 institutions reported an increase in the number and complexity of cases currently being performed in their facility since the team intervened. This goal had not been accomplished in 3 institutions. The reasons for failure included the economic situation of the country, hospital and national politics, personality conflicts, and continued lack of hardware and disposables.
Paediatric cardiac service assistance can improve local services. A significant commitment is required by all parties involved.
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