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UK Biobank is a well-characterised cohort of over 500 000 participants that offers unique opportunities to investigate multiple diseases and risk factors.
An online mental health questionnaire completed by UK Biobank participants was expected to expand the potential for research into mental disorders.
An expert working group designed the questionnaire, using established measures where possible, and consulting with a patient group regarding acceptability. Case definitions were defined using operational criteria for lifetime depression, mania, anxiety disorder, psychotic-like experiences and self-harm, as well as current post-traumatic stress and alcohol use disorders.
157 366 completed online questionnaires were available by August 2017. Comparison of self-reported diagnosed mental disorder with a contemporary study shows a similar prevalence, despite respondents being of higher average socioeconomic status than the general population across a range of indicators. Thirty-five per cent (55 750) of participants had at least one defined syndrome, of which lifetime depression was the most common at 24% (37 434). There was extensive comorbidity among the syndromes. Mental disorders were associated with high neuroticism score, adverse life events and long-term illness; addiction and bipolar affective disorder in particular were associated with measures of deprivation.
The questionnaire represents a very large mental health survey in itself, and the results presented here show high face validity, although caution is needed owing to selection bias. Built into UK Biobank, these data intersect with other health data to offer unparalleled potential for crosscutting biomedical research involving mental health.
Declaration of interest
G.B. received grants from the National Institute for Health Research during the study; and support from Illumina Ltd. and the European Commission outside the submitted work. B.C. received grants from the Scottish Executive Chief Scientist Office and from The Dr Mortimer and Theresa Sackler Foundation during the study. C.S. received grants from the Medical Research Council and Wellcome Trust during the study, and is the Chief Scientist for UK Biobank. M.H. received grants from the Innovative Medicines Initiative via the RADAR-CNS programme and personal fees as an expert witness outside the submitted work.
The synthesis and characterisation of one-dimensional (1D) crystals that have a well-specified chemistry, size and crystal structure have presented a formidable challenge for materials chemistry and analysis. We report here the filling of single (SWNTs) and double walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) by two different p-block halides, TlCl and PbI2. The nanotubes were produced either by the arc synthesis  or by a CVD method , based on the reduction of a Mg0.9Co0.1O solid solution by a hydrogen-methane mixture. In the case of TlCl, the structure of the crystals observed inside the tubes were all found to be derived from the rocksalt form and bilayer crystals were observed which exhibited reduced coordination relative to the fcc structure, as determined from high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). In contrast, the crystal structure of bulk TlCl is a CsCl type structure. These results are consistent with the recently reported reduced coordination KI crystals formed within SWNTs . In the case of PbI2 (i.e. with the CdCl2 structure), the use of HRTEM images combined with image simulations was used to confirm the partially reduced coordination of Pb atoms within the SWNT and DWNT confined 1D crystals.
The microstructural evolution of polymers induced by ion beam irradiation was investigated using gas permeation measurements with different molecule size gases and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) using variable-energy positron. Simultaneous large increases in gas permeability and permselectivity of polymer-ceramic composite membranes modified by 180 keV H+ ion irradiation indicated that ion irradiation of polymers can modify the microstructure of polymer at sub-nanometer level in a controlled way. PAS results were consistent with the gas permeation results. The results of this work demonstrated ion beam irradiation has a promising application potential in the separation industry.
Fat transplantation can be used to fill subcutaneous defects ranging in size from major to minor. Today, many patients are interested in ambulatory procedures with minimal downtime. Small-volume fat transplantation can easily be performed under local anesthesia, allowing the patient to return to public life within one or two days. Although the term may mean different things to different surgeons, small-volume fat transplantation might include augmentation of the malar, nasojugal, and nasolabial areas. These minor lipoaugmentation procedures can be repeated monthly or bimonthly, eventually leading to a significant improvement with minimal time dedicated to recovery.
Small-volume fat transplantation can be performed all over the body but is most commonly used for facial atrophy due to trauma and aging or for traumatic fat dents of the thighs resulting from liposuction or accidents. It is also useful for augmentation of aging hands. Since several small-volume procedures are needed to obtain the best results, patients must be forewarned that they will often see minimal improvement after the first procedure. Augmentation of subcutaneous defects also requires many times the volume of augmentation of cutaneous defects. The comparatively dense dermis requires very little filling volume to achieve a visual improvement, compared to subcutaneous tissue, which often seems to act as a black hole, soaking up filling materials. The physician who moves from injecting dermal fillers into using subcutaneous fillers learns this very quickly.
Small-volume fat transplantation can also be used as part of a combination approach.
In this article we report on reading ability of twin children in kindergarten to Grade 2 as a function of whether members of the pairs are assigned to the same or different classrooms. All analyses were run using mixed model regressions to account for the interdependence between twin pairs. The samples, total N = 1505, are from Australia and the United States. We found a close-to-significant difference in favor of same-class children in kindergarten and Grade 1. However, when results were adjusted to take account of pre-existing differences in disruptive behavior and in preliteracy ability, the class assignment effects disappeared. We suggest that these pre-existing differences, particularly disruptive behavior, are influencing decisions about whether to separate twins or not and also affecting early reading performance, a conclusion supported by significant correlations between the behavioral measures, preliteracy, and school-based reading. We conclude that, on average, early literacy in twins is not directly affected by their assignment to the same or different classrooms.
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a method of nuclear medicine imaging that uses short-lived radiopharmaceuticals to detect and quantify the metabolic abnormalities of disease processes. PET initially was developed in a research environment as a research tool; data from these research studies resulted in the gradual recognition that PET studies would be useful for various routine clinical applications. The diffusion of PET into clinical practice has been slow in comparison with other new imaging methods (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging). This slow diffusion is attributable to several factors, including the complexity and high cost of PET, the uncertain role of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in regulating the radiopharmaceuticals that are produced and used on-site for PET studies, and the apparent slow pace at which the Health Care Financing Administration and other third-party payers are developing policies for reimbursing for PET.
This study examined implicit semantic and rhyming cues on perception
of auditory stimuli among nonaphasic participants who suffered a lesion of
the right cerebral hemisphere and auditory neglect of sound perceived by
the left ear. Because language represents an elaborate processing of
auditory stimuli and the language centers were intact among these
patients, it was hypothesized that interactive verbal stimuli presented in
a dichotic manner would attenuate neglect. The selected participants were
administered an experimental dichotic listening test composed of six types
of word pairs: unrelated words, synonyms, antonyms, categorically related
words, compound words, and rhyming words. Presentation of word pairs that
were semantically related resulted in a dramatic reduction of auditory
neglect. Dichotic presentations of rhyming words exacerbated auditory
neglect. These findings suggest that the perception of auditory
information is strongly affected by the specific content conveyed by the
auditory system. Language centers will process a degraded stimulus that
contains salient language content. A degraded auditory stimulus is
neglected if it is devoid of content that activates the language centers
or other cognitive systems. In general, these findings suggest that
auditory neglect involves a complex interaction of intact and impaired
cerebral processing centers with content that is selectively processed by
these centers (JINS, 2006, 12, 649–656.)
Distant Proximities: Dynamics Beyond Globalization. By James
N. Rosenau. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003. 448p. $65.00
cloth, $24.95 paper.
In this book, James N. Rosenau draws together in a helpful,
systematic way much of his thinking on global governance and
globalization from the past decade. As with other aspects of his work,
it is conceptually creative, detailed, and normative. He believes that
political science needs to move beyond conceptual frameworks where the
nation-state provides the central focus. He justifies this position by
arguing that the “the best way to grasp world affairs today
requires viewing them as an endless series of distant proximities in
which the forces pressing for greater globalization and those inducing
greater localization interactively play themselves out” (p. 2).
Putting these “distant proximities” at the center of our
analysis will challenge distinctions like those between domestic and
foreign affairs or comparative politics and international relations.
This article examines the conditions under which policy discourses can serve as contributing factors to policy change, even in the absence of changes in institutions and interests. It begins with a discussion of the role of ideas in policy analysis and how they can play a "constitutive role" as frames for policy. Drawing on a distinction between "augmentative" discourses that serve to reinforce an existing policy framework and "transformative discourses" that seek to persuade various publics of the need for significant policy change, four types of policy discourse are defined and a methodology is suggested for identifying these types. Two of these types, "challenging" and "truth-seeking," are hypothesized to be more conducive to the occurrence of significant policy change. Drawing then on case studies of policy change in Canada and Germany respectively, the article shows that a "challenging" discourse emerges in both countries, but leads to significant policy change only in Germany. Based on the comparison of the two cases, it is argued that three factors are relevant to whether a challenging discourse is successful or not: a broad consensus among core policy actors on the nature and gravity of the policy problem; the consistency of the discourse with broadly held normative values; and the persuasiveness of the "social facts" brought to bear in favour of proposed new solutions.