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Ethnohistoric accounts indicate that the people of Australia's Channel Country engaged in activities rarely recorded elsewhere on the continent, including food storage, aquaculture and possible cultivation, yet there has been little archaeological fieldwork to verify these accounts. Here, the authors report on a collaborative research project initiated by the Mithaka people addressing this lack of archaeological investigation. The results show that Mithaka Country has a substantial and diverse archaeological record, including numerous large stone quarries, multiple ritual structures and substantial dwellings. Our archaeological research revealed unknown aspects, such as the scale of Mithaka quarrying, which could stimulate re-evaluation of Aboriginal socio-economic systems in parts of ancient Australia.
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are a primary manifestation of brain dysfunction in dementia and a great challenge in caregiving. While BPSD are historically associated with caregiver distress, it is unclear whether there is an identifiable point where BPSD number is associated with heightened caregiver distress. The purpose of this study was to determine if such a tipping point exists to assist clinicians in identifying caregiver compromise.
Analyses were performed with three datasets totaling 569 community-dwelling persons with dementia and their caregivers. Each included identical demographic, BPSD, cognitive, and caregiver well-being measures. Linear regression was performed with 16 BPSD symptoms on caregiver well-being measures and predictive values determined with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and pre-defined scores for clinically significant distress.
Of the 569 persons with dementia, 549 (96%) displayed at least one BPSD, mean of 5.7 (SD = 3.06) symptoms in the past month. After controlling for covariates, BPSD symptom number was significantly associated with caregiver depression and burden (p < 0.01 for both models). Findings indicate ≥ 4 BPSD has strong predictive values for depression (sensitivity 85%, specificity 44%, area under ROC curve 0.62, p < 0.01), and burden (sensitivity 84%, specificity 43%, area under ROC curve 0.67, p < 0.01).
Caring for persons with four or more BPSD appears to reflect a tipping point for clinically meaningful distress. Findings have implications for clinicians working with persons with dementia and their caregivers and suggest need for continuous monitoring of BPSD and identification of at risk caregivers.
To estimate the folate status of New Zealand women of childbearing age following the introduction, in 2010, of a new voluntary folic acid fortification of bread programme.
The 2011 Folate and Women’s Health Survey was a cross-sectional survey of women aged 18–44 years carried out in 2011. The survey used a stratified random sampling technique with the Electoral Roll as the sampling frame. Women were asked about consumption of folic-acid-fortified breads and breakfast cereals in a telephone interview. During a clinic visit, blood was collected for serum and erythrocyte folate measurement by microbiological assay.
A North Island (Wellington) and South Island (Dunedin) city centre in New Zealand.
Two hundred and eighty-eight women, of whom 278 completed a clinic visit.
Geometric mean serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations were 30 nmol/l and 996 nmol/l, respectively. Folate status was 30–40 % higher compared with women of childbearing age sampled as part of a national survey in 2008/09, prior to the introduction of the voluntary folic acid bread fortification programme. In the 2011 Folate and Women’s Health Survey, reported consumption of fortified bread and fortified breakfast cereal in the past week was associated with 25 % (P=0·01) and 15 % (P=0·04) higher serum folate concentrations, respectively.
Serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations have increased in New Zealand women of childbearing age since the number of folic-acid-fortified breads was increased voluntarily in 2010. Consumption of fortified breads and breakfast cereals was associated with a higher folate status.
A five year collaborative study of influenza in volunteer families from 1973–78 covered a period in which there were outbreaks every year but no major epidemics of influenza. Volunteers over the age of 15 years were bled before and after each of the five winters, and virus isolation was attempted from as many as possible when they reported episodes of illness. Children under 15 in the volunteer families were also swabbed when they were ill. Although most families experienced one or more attacks by influenza viruses, there was little transmission within families.
This chapter focuses on the use of assistive technology (AT) to address residual deficits resultant from a traumatic brain injury (TBI). It specifically discusses the use of AT for neuromotor impairments, cognitive impairments and sensory-perceptual impairments. Prior to recommending assistive devices, a thorough assessment of the individual should be performed. The assessment must consider the individual's physical deficits and strengths, cognitive status, sensory status, functional status, environment, the tasks the person performs or would like to participate in, caregivers, and others living in the person's environment. Common motor deficits resultant from neurologic conditions include impairments in balance, gait, gross and fine motor coordination, and unilateral weakness or paralysis. Finally, the chapter covers AT by categories of activities of daily living (ADL). ADL includes bathing, dressing, grooming, toileting, eating/drinking, walking/mobility, etc.
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