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Contrast sensitivity functions reveal information about a subject’s overall visual ability and have been investigated in several species of nonhuman primates (NHPs) with experimentally induced amblyopia and glaucoma. However, there are no published studies comparing contrast sensitivity functions across these species of normal NHPs. The purpose of this investigation was to compare contrast sensitivity across these primates to determine whether they are similar. Ten normal humans and eight normal NHPs (Macaca fascicularis) took part in this project. Previously published data from Macaca mulatta and Macaca nemestrina were also compared. Threshold was operationally defined as two misses in a row for a descending method of limits. A similar paradigm was used for the humans except that the descending method of limits was combined with a spatial, two-alternative forced choice (2-AFC) technique. The contrast sensitivity functions were fit with a double exponential function. The averaged peak contrast sensitivity, peak spatial frequency, acuity, and area under the curve for the humans were 268.9, 3.40 cpd, 27.3 cpd, and 2345.4 and for the Macaca fascicularis were 99.2, 3.93 cpd, 26.1 cpd, and 980.9. A two-sample t-test indicated that the peak contrast sensitivities (P = 0.001) and areas under the curve (P = 0.010) were significantly different. The peak spatial frequencies (P = 0.150) and the extrapolated visual acuities (P = 0.763) were not different. The contrast sensitivities for the Macaca fascicularis, Macaca mulatta, and Macaca nemestrina were qualitatively and quantitatively similar. The contrast sensitivity functions for the NHPs had lower peak contrast sensitivities and areas under the curve than the humans. Even though different methods have been used to measure contrast sensitivity in different species of NHP, the functions are similar. The contrast sensitivity differences and similarities between humans and NHPs need to be considered when using NHPs to study human disease.
Herbicide resistance is ‘wicked’ in nature; therefore, results of the many educational efforts to encourage diversification of weed control practices in the United States have been mixed. It is clear that we do not sufficiently understand the totality of the grassroots obstacles, concerns, challenges, and specific solutions needed for varied crop production systems. Weed management issues and solutions vary with such variables as management styles, regions, cropping systems, and available or affordable technologies. Therefore, to help the weed science community better understand the needs and ideas of those directly dealing with herbicide resistance, seven half-day regional listening sessions were held across the United States between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide resistance management. The major goals of the sessions were to gain an understanding of stakeholders and their goals and concerns related to herbicide resistance management, to become familiar with regional differences, and to identify decision maker needs to address herbicide resistance. The messages shared by listening-session participants could be summarized by six themes: we need new herbicides; there is no need for more regulation; there is a need for more education, especially for others who were not present; diversity is hard; the agricultural economy makes it difficult to make changes; and we are aware of herbicide resistance but are managing it. The authors concluded that more work is needed to bring a community-wide, interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of managing weeds within the context of the whole farm operation and for communicating the need to address herbicide resistance.
Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting to the full group for discussion. The planning process was the same across all the sessions, although the selection of venue, time of day, and stakeholder participants differed to accommodate the differences among regions. The listening-session format required a great deal of work and flexibility on the part of the coordinating team and regional coordinators. Overall, the participant evaluations from the sessions were positive, with participants expressing appreciation that they were asked for their thoughts on the subject of herbicide resistance. This paper details the methods and processes used to conduct these regional listening sessions and provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of those processes.
During 1990 we surveyed the southern sky using a multi-beam receiver at frequencies of 4850 and 843 MHz. The half-power beamwidths were 4 and 25 arcmin respectively. The finished surveys cover the declination range between +10 and −90 degrees declination, essentially complete in right ascension, an area of 7.30 steradians. Preliminary analysis of the 4850 MHz data indicates that we will achieve a five sigma flux density limit of about 30 mJy. We estimate that we will find between 80 000 and 90 000 new sources above this limit. This is a revised version of the paper presented at the Regional Meeting by the first four authors; the surveys now have been completed.
Since the discovery in 1989 that mutations in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) underlie cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common life shortening genetic disorder in Caucasians, it has been possible to identify heterozygous mutation carriers at risk of having affected children. The Human Genetics Society of Australasia has produced a position statement with recommendations in relation to population-based screening for CF. These include: (1) that screening should be offered to all relatives of people with or carriers of CF (cascade testing) as well as to all couples planning to have children or who are pregnant; (2) the minimum CFTR mutation panel to be tested consists of 17 mutations which are those mutations that are associated with typical CF and occur with a frequency of 0.1% or higher among individuals diagnosed with CF in Australasia; (3) that genetic counselling is offered to all couples where both members are known to have one or two CFTR mutations and that such couples are given the opportunity to meet with a physician with expertise in the management of CF as well as a family/individual affected by the condition.
Though originally developed as a means to protect state sovereignty and limit the powers of an international tribunal, complementarity serves critical gate-keeping and case selection functions in the international criminal justice system. Domestic legal systems have well developed means of determining which cases to prosecute, and allocating such cases among courts and tribunals within the system. This chapter revisits the case selection and gate-keeping functions of complementarity through a comparative consideration of mechanisms used to solve similar problems by domestic judiciaries, particularly the US federal judicial system. In so doing, the chapter raises theoretical questions about the purposes and functions of international criminal justice as well as the technical implications of those theoretical choices. The chapter suggests ways that complementarity can be used to allow international criminal tribunals to do better triage, by screening out some cases and striking cooperation agreements or other plea bargains in many more. The chapter suggests how a new theoretical take on complementarity can improve gate-keeping and case selection, plea bargaining and caseloads in the international criminal justice system.
Immediately upon assuming office in 2003, International Criminal Court (ICC) Prosecutor, Luis Moreno-Ocampo, stated: ‘As a consequence of complementarity, the number of cases that reach the Court should not be a measure of its efficiency. On the contrary, the absence of trials before this Court, as a consequence of the regular functioning of national institutions, would be a major success’. The Prosecutor's statement embodies what has been described as positive or proactive complementarity, according to which the Office of the Prosecutor (OTP) would encourage national governments to undertake their own investigations and prosecutions of crimes within the Court's jurisdiction. Consistent with the Prosecutor's statement, one could have imagined the ICC training judges in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, prodding the Ugandan government to prosecute Joseph Kony in Kampala, or bolstering the independence of the Sudanese judiciary.
The purpose of the present study was to compare digestibility of grass hay, faecal and plasma volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, and faecal bacterial abundance in overweight and moderate-condition mares. Five overweight adult mixed-breed mares and five adult mixed-breed mares in moderate condition were housed individually and limit-fed orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) hay at 20 g/kg body weight (as fed) daily for 14 d. Forage DM and fibre digestibility were determined using AOAC methods; digestible energy was measured using bomb calorimetry; plasma and faecal VFA concentrations were determined by use of GC and MS; faecal Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and total bacteria abundance was determined by quantitative real-time PCR using previously designed phylum-specific 16S ribosomal RNA gene primers. No differences in hay digestibility, faecal VFA concentrations or faecal bacterial abundance were detected between overweight and moderate-condition mares. Mean plasma acetate concentrations were higher (P = 0·03) in overweight (1·55 (range 1·43–1·65) mmol/l) v. moderate-condition (1·39 (range 1·22–1·47) mmol/l) mares. We conclude that the higher plasma acetate in overweight mares should be further investigated as a potential link between gut microbes and obesity in horses.
Acute periodontal lesions generally respond to conventional therapy. In AIDS patients, however, further deterioration is the usual consequence. Candida albicans(CA) lesions of the oral mucosa have been observed in 88% of AIDS patients; 59% of male homosexual and IV drug abuser oral candidiasis patients subsequently developed AIDS. Indeed HIV may be hard to find in AIDS patients in whom CA lesions are very prominent.
Rapid reproducible silver stains have been developed in our laboratories to detect Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and protozoa. They demonstrate these microorganisms by the microwave-accelerated metallization of the aldehydes produced in their surface carbohydrates or lipopolysaccharides after periodic acid oxidation (Giammara and Hanker, US Patent No. 4,690,901, 1987; Sigma Diagnostics Kit No. HT-100). We thought that these stains might be useful to demonstrate by microscopy the large numbers of CA which culture studies had suggested were present in subgingival plaque at atypical periodontal disease sites of AIDS patients. Direct staining of plaque smears and their evaluation under the light microscope could be done in much less time than that required for culture. Any equivocal microorganisms could be positively identified as CA by immediate examination of the slide or coverslip by scanning electron microscopy. Although our PATS reaction was more valuable for identifying Gram-negative bacteria especially spirochetes and for studying substructure of CA and their epiphytic interactions with bacteria, the SIGMA DIAGNOSTICS Silver Stain HT-100 was much easier to use for rating CA concentration in disease sites. This test was applied to subgingival plaque smears from 28 periodontal disease sites of 22 HIV-seronegative patients and 45 sites of 12 HIV-seropositive patients. After staining, the smears were examined and scored (Davenport Index). None of the 12 HIVseropositive patients but 15 of the 22 HIV-seronegative patients had a score of zero at all sites. The score ranged from 0 (no CA) to 3 (large numbers of CA in all fields). In the seropositive patients the median score was 2 while in the seronegative group it was 0.
The much higher scores obtained in specimens from periodontal disease sites of the AIDS patients suggest that this simple rapid test might be valuable for screening individuals and indicating those requiring further testing or monitoring for AIDS.
Silicon dioxide films have been deposited using a microwave plasma of (SiH4 + O2) excited by distributed electron cyclotron resonance. The ratio of flow rates of the reactive gas was (O2: SiH4) = 7 and no intentional substrate heating was used. The effect of ion energy during deposition, in the 10 — 150 eV range, has been studied through refractive index, infrared absorption bands, chemical etch rate and electrical measurements. It is found that for an ion energy > 50 eV, many of the film characteristics are close to those of thermal SiO2.
A comparison of ion irradiation-induced intermixing in GaAs-Al0.54Gao46As quantum well structures with H, O and As ions is investigated by low temperature photoluminescence. Very large energy shifts are observed together with good recovery of the photoluminescence intensities after annealing in samples irradiated with protons. No saturation in the energy shifts is observed in samples irradiated even up to a dose of 4.3 x 1016 cm-2. Similar large shifts with low absorption are also observed in O and As implanted samples but at a significantly lower ion dose. However, both the heavier ions show a saturation effect in the degree of intermixng at higher doses. The degree of intermixing is believed to be a delicate balance among multiple competing processes that occurs across the interface.
We present the first reported MBE growth of light emitting diodes (LED's) with active regions made up of InSb/ InNxSbl−x (O<x<0.02) superlattices, grown onto InSb(100) substrates. Such dilute alloys of nitrogen in other III-V materials have been shown to exhibit very large bandgap bowing parameters due to differences in atomic size and the electro-negativity of nitrogen. Novel growth techniques have been developed to enable epitaxy of high quality InNxSbl−x, using an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source. Material characterisation was performed by double crystal x-ray diffraction (DXRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nitrogen composition has been determined using DXRD and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). To determine the effect of nitrogen on bandgap, the structures have been fabricated into LED's with InSb/InNxSbl−x superlattice active regions with period ∼1100A. For a nitrogen content of ∼0.3%, the peak emission of the diodes shifts from ∼6pm to >71µm at room temperature.
For p-type ion implanted SiC, temperatures in excess of 1600 °C are required to activate the dopant atoms and to reduce the crystal damage inherent in the implantation process. At these high temperatures, however, macrosteps (periodic welts) develop on the SiC surface. In this work, we investigate the use of a graphite mask as an anneal cap to eliminate the formation of macrosteps. N-type 4H- and 6H-SiC epilayers, both ion implanted with low energy (keV) Boron (B) schedules at 600 °C, and 6H-SiC substrates, ion implanted with Aluminum (Al), were annealed using a Graphite mask as a cap. The anneals were done at 1660 °C for 20 and 40 minutes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), capacitance-voltage (C-V) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements were then taken to investigate the effects of the anneal on the surface morphology and the substitutional activation of the samples. It is shown that, by using the Graphite cap for the 1660 °C anneals, neither polytype developed macrosteps for any of the dopant elements or anneal times. The substitutional activation of Boron in 6H-SiC was about 15%.
This paper analyses the influence of the sapphire substrate on stress in GaN epilayers in the temperature range between 4K and 600K. Removal of the substrate by a laser assisted liftoff technique allows, for the first time, to distinguish between stress and other material specific temperature dependencies. In contrast to the prevailing assumption in the literature, that the difference in the thermal expansion coefficients is the main cause for stress it is found that the substrate has a rather small influence in the examined temperature range. The measured temperature dependence of stress is in contradiction to the published values for the thermal expansion coefficients for sapphire and GaN.