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The 1947 Partition had a major impact on issues of citizenship and rights in India and Pakistan in the decades that followed. Boundaries of Belonging shows how citizenship evolves at a time of political transition and what this meant for ordinary people, by directing attention away from South Asia's Partition 'hotspots' - Bengal and Punjab - to Partition's 'hinterlands' of Uttar Pradesh and Sindh. The analysis, based on rich archival research and fieldwork, brings out commonalities, differences, and the mutual co-construction of the 'citizen' in both places. It also reveals the way in which developments across the border, such as communal violence, could directly impact on minority rights in its neighbour. Questioning stereotypes of an increasingly 'authoritarian' Pakistan and 'democratic' India, Sarah Ansari and William Gould make a major contribution to recent scholarship that suggests the differences between India and Pakistan are overstated.
This article explores the politics of civic engagement during India's long decolonization between 1938 and 1952 for communities—the erstwhile ‘criminal tribes’—whose lifestyles were complicated by controls on their movement before and shortly following India's independence. It argues that their varied and contingent strategies of mobilization increasingly identified community particularities—notably, their marking as ‘criminals’ and a history of movement—as a basis for negotiating their problematic inclusion within the evolving citizenship frameworks of the late colonial, then post-colonial, state. These early forms of civic consciousness set the parameters for later strategies that sought to mobilize communities by engaging with ‘universal’, ‘differentiated’, and indigenized conceptions of civic responsibility and rights. The most surprising finding of this research is that these strategies (via anti-colonialism) often embraced and celebrated forms of illegality and criminality. The romanticism of the dacoit (bandit)-cum-freedom fighter charged Dhaku Sultan-like figures with political heroism. In the context of independence and the founding of the Constitution, strategies turned to the (un)realized promises of freedom and citizenship rights. The final part of the article turns to the implications of ‘denotification’ for the so-called criminal tribes in the early 1950s, which provided both obstacles and avenues to strategies of mobilization after independence.
We conducted research into the ‘Data Deficient’ and endemic Tagula Honeyeater Microptilotis vicina of the Louisiade Archipelago, Papua New Guinea. This species was only observed on Sudest and Junet Islands. Islands were visited between October and January in the years from 2012–2014 and in 2016. We conducted the first assessment of spatial and habitat use by this species using radio-tracking in 2016. These findings were also used to inform estimates using traditional population density methods. CTMM package in R was used for home-range estimation for the tracked honeyeaters. Our results supported that members of this species display territoriality during the breeding season, occupying a mean of 2.0 ± 0.6 (SE) ha on Junet Island (n = 5). Whether individuals defended defined territories at other times of the year was not known but re-sightings of marked birds confirmed them to be locally resident. Population estimates ranged between 53,000 and 85,000 individuals. However, more conservative estimates nearing 50,000 individuals were considered prudent given lower population densities observed on parts of the larger Sudest Island (0.64/ha). This species utilised the canopy and understorey layers in a range of habitats from mangroves at sea-level, gardens and regrowth of various ages to cloud forest on the highest point of Sudest Island (∼800 m asl). Dietary observations support that like many closely related species, Tagula Honeyeaters have a broad diet of mostly insects supplemented with nectar and fruit. Observations indicated that this species had life history attributes toward the slower end of the spectrum but similar to other congeners. Vocalisations were more diverse in both structure and complexity than those of suspected close relatives the Mimic Microptilotis analogus and Graceful Microptilotis gracilis Honeyeaters. Morphological measures were similarly different, supporting species level recognition.