All four major southern pines can be killed by the southern pine beetle, but loblolly and shortleaf are much more susceptible than longleaf and slash. Oleoresin from more than 50 trees of each species was tested for composition and amount of monoterpenes and resin acids, viscosity, flow (rate, duration, and amount), and rate of crystallization. Discriminant function analyses were used to classify the loblolly and shortleaf trees as to probable resistance. The best classification used physical properties (total flow, flow rate, viscosity, time to crystallization). Supposedly resistant and susceptible trees were subjected to controlled attack, and the chemical and physical properties of four loblolly pines that survived natural attack were measured. Resistance is strongly related to the physical properties of the oleoresin, and can be predicted by these properties. Loblolly and shortleaf trees with “average” properties usually succumb to 100 or more attacks per sq. m of bark surface. Several trees classified as resistant survived a much higher rate of attack.