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There are individual differences in rational thinking that are less than perfectly correlated with individual differences in intelligence because intelligence and rationality occupy different conceptual locations in models of cognition. A tripartite extension of currently popular dual-process theories is presented in this chapter that illustrates how intelligence and rationality are theoretically separate concepts. Thus, individual differences in the cognitive skills that underlie rational thinking must be studied in their own right because intelligence tests do not explicitly assess rational thinking. We close the chapter by describing our attempt to develop the first prototype of a comprehensive test of rational thought, the Comprehensive Assessment of Rational Thinking (CART). With the CART, we aim to draw more attention to the skills of rational thought by measuring them systematically and by examining the correlates of individual differences in these cognitive skills.
Cormac McCarthy scholars have long noted the Gnostic themes evident in the author’s work. Like many of his literary influences, McCarthy’s novels focus on the problems of suffering, violence, and evil, but McCarthy displays a unique tendency to examine these matters in the context of the Gnostic worldview, examining the nature of the divine soul in the material world, humanity’s tenuous place within the indifferent cosmos, and questions regarding religious authority, all fundamental both to the Gnostic religious experience and to understanding McCarthy’s literary oeuvre. While critics have most often focused on Outer Dark, Suttree, and Blood Meridian in their analysis of McCarthy’s Gnostic themes and imagery, McCarthy’s general focus on problematic human authorities, and the problematic nature of authority in all human affairs, especially law and religion, appears in practically all of McCarthy’s novels, beginning with The Orchard Keeper. McCarthy’s portrayals of authority demonstrate his knowledge of original Gnostic texts and the influential scholarly works that first explained these texts to the wider world after the discovery of the Nag Hammadi library.
The early developing embryo is initially composed of three tissue layers, the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm, that are generated from the epiblast layer of the embryo during week 3 by a process called gastrulation. The ectoderm, the most dorsal layer, gives rise to the skin, whilst the neuroectoderm, which is induced within the ectoderm at the midline, rolls up to form the neural tube and contains the progenitors of the brain and spinal cord (Figure 3.1A). The endoderm, the most ventral layer, gives rise to the epithelial cells of the lungs, prostate gland, the gastrointestinal tract and its associated organs. Sandwiched between these layers is the mesoderm, which is subdivided. The paraxial mesoderm contributes to the musculoskeletal system and dermis in the trunk, the intermediate mesoderm contributes to the urogenital system and internal reproductive organs, the somatic portion of the lateral plate mesoderm forms the skeleton and connective tissue of the limbs together with the body wall, whilst the splanchnic mesoderm portion of the lateral plate mesoderm forms the smooth muscle layers of the endodermal organs. The cardiogenic mesoderm (not shown) contributes to the heart whilst the notochord (or axial mesoderm) gives rise to the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disks (Figure 3.1A). In addition, a fourth tissue layer, the neural crest, arises at the interface of the ectoderm and neuroectoderm (Figure 3.1A). Neural crest cells form by an epithelial-mesenchymal transformation and are multipotent and migratory. In the trunk, the neural crest cells contribute to the peripheral nervous system, whereas in the head, neural crest cell derivatives include odontoblasts, together with the skeletal system and dermis of the face. Additionally, cranial neural crest cells contribute to the outflow tract and cushions of the heart. For further details of embryonic development, the reader is referred to Larsen’s Human Embryology .
Standardizing healthcare surface sampling requires the evaluation of sampling tools for organism adherence. Here, 7 sampling tools were evaluated to assess their elution efficiencies in the presence of 5 pathogens. Foam sponges (80.6%), microfiber wipes (80.5%), foam swabs (77.9%), and cellulose sponges (66.5%) yielded the highest median elution efficiencies.
Few surviving Greek tragedies have a non-Hellenic setting, and the development of Iphigenia’s story that culminates in Euripides’ Iphigenia among the Taurians (hereafter IT) is closely linked with increasing familiarity with the Black Sea and contact with its northern hinterland and its peoples. Bearing in mind that tragedy was aimed at a mass audience, what might we suppose were the associations and implications of this location for the public whom Euripides had in mind?
Multi-proxy analyses of a sequence spanning the Younger Dryas (YD) in the Glacial Lake Hind basin of Manitoba provides insight into regional paleohydrology and paleovegetation of meltwater rivers and lakes spanning >4000 yr; the sequence is controlled by 25 new accelerator mass spectrometry ages. This lake, dammed by the Laurentide Ice Sheet, overflowed into Lake Agassiz. The pre-YD interval records rapid sedimentation from meltwaters that headed in proglacial lakes in the Canadian Prairies that are known to have been catastrophically released when ice or sediment barriers were breached. Pollen in this phase is dominated by pre-Quaternary forms eroded from Paleocene bedrock. At the onset of the YD at ~12.8 cal ka, the sudden appearance of concentrations of nanodiamonds, high-temperature magnetic spherules, platinum, and iridium provide evidence of an extraterrestrial (ET) event that others have identified at more than 40 sites in North America. Major changes in oceans and climate, and the catastrophic outflow of nearby Lake Agassiz at the onset of the YD, may be related. Lower water levels and a reduction of Souris River inflow to Lake Hind followed, which are reflected by more clayey and organic-rich sediments and a decrease in pre-Quaternary palynomorphs. This may have resulted from the deepening of river valleys caused by the release of meltwater triggered by the ET event. Wetlands then began to develop, leading to peat deposition from 12.3 to 11 cal ka. This was followed by a fluvial episode depositing sand and then by increased Holocene aridity that resulted in accumulation of a thick sequence of dune sands. A dry woodland environment with a mix of conifers (especially Picea and Larix) and deciduous trees (especially Populus and Quercus) covered the uplands from ~13 to 10 cal ka.
Psychopathic traits predispose individuals toward antisocial behavior. Such antagonistic acts often result in “unsuccessful” outcomes such as incarceration. What mechanisms allow some people with relatively high levels of psychopathic traits to live “successful”, unincarcerated lives, in spite of their antisocial tendencies? Using neuroimaging, we investigated the possibility that “successful” psychopathic individuals exhibited greater development of neural structures that promote “successful” self-regulation, focusing on the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). Across two structural magnetic resonance imaging studies of “successful” participants (Study 1: N = 80 individuals in long-term romantic relationships; Study 2: N = 64 undergraduates), we observed that gray matter density in the left and right VLPFC was positively associated with psychopathic traits. These preliminary results support a compensatory model of psychopathy, in which “successful” psychopathic individuals develop inhibitory mechanisms to compensate for their antisocial tendencies. Traditional models of psychopathy that emphasize deficits may be aided by such compensatory models that identify surfeits in neural and psychological processes.
Increasing fluorination of organosilyl nitrile solvents improves ionic conductivities of lithium salt electrolytes, resulting from higher values of salt dissociation. Ionic conductivities at 298 K range from 1.5 to 3.2 mS/cm for LiPF6 salt concentrations at 0.6 or 0.7 M. The authors also report on solvent blend electrolytes where the fluoroorganosilyl (FOS) nitrile solvent is mixed with ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate. Ionic conductivities of the FOS solvent/carbonate blend electrolytes increase achieving ionic conductivities at 298 K of 5.5–6.3 mS/cm and salt dissociation values ranging from 0.42 to 0.45. Salt dissociation generally decreases with increasing temperature.
In the present study, we aimed to compare anthropometric indicators as predictors of mortality in a community-based setting.
We conducted a population-based longitudinal study nested in a cluster-randomized trial. We assessed weight, height and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) on children 12 months after the trial began and used the trial’s annual census and monitoring visits to assess mortality over 2 years.
Children aged 6–60 months during the study.
Of 1023 children included in the study at baseline, height-for-age Z-score, weight-for-age Z-score, weight-for-height Z-score and MUAC classified 777 (76·0 %), 630 (61·6 %), 131 (12·9 %) and eighty (7·8 %) children as moderately to severely malnourished, respectively. Over the 2-year study period, fifty-eight children (5·7 %) died. MUAC had the greatest AUC (0·68, 95 % CI 0·61, 0·75) and had the strongest association with mortality in this sample (hazard ratio = 2·21, 95 % CI 1·26, 3·89, P = 0·006).
MUAC appears to be a better predictor of mortality than other anthropometric indicators in this community-based, high-malnutrition setting in Niger.
The thymus undergoes a critical period of growth and development early in gestation and, by mid-gestation, immature thymocytes are subject to positive and negative selection. Exposure to undernutrition during these periods may permanently affect phenotype. We measured thymulin concentrations, as a proxy for thymic size and function, in children (n = 290; aged 9–13 years) born to participants in a cluster-randomized trial of maternal vitamin A or β-carotene supplementation in rural Nepal (1994–1997). The geometric mean (95% confidence interval) thymulin concentration was 1.37 ng/ml (1.27, 1.47). A multivariate model of early-life exposures revealed a positive association with gestational age at delivery (β = 0.02; P = 0.05) and higher concentrations among children born to β-carotene-supplemented mothers (β = 0.19; P < 0.05). At ∼9–12 years of age, thymulin was positively associated with all anthropometric measures, with height retained in our multivariate model (β = 0.02; P < 0.001). There was significant seasonal variation: concentrations tended to be lower pre-monsoon (β = −0.13; P = 0.15), during the monsoon (β = −0.22; P = 0.04), and pre-harvest (β = −0.34; P = 0.01), relative to the post-harvest season. All early-life associations, except supplementation, were mediated in part by nutritional status at follow-up. Our findings underscore the known sensitivity of the thymus to nutrition, including potentially lasting effects of early nutritional exposures. The relevance of these findings to later disease risk remains to be explored, particularly given the role of thymulin in the neuroendocrine regulation of inflammation.
The authors report on 7Li, 19F, and 1H pulsed field gradient NMR measurements of 26 organosilyl nitrile solvent-based electrolytes of either lithium bis(trifluorosulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) or lithium hexafluorophosphate. Lithium transport numbers (as high as 0.50) were measured and are highest in the LiTFSI electrolytes. The authors also report on solvent blend electrolytes of fluoroorganosilyl (FOS) nitrile solvent mixed with ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethyl carbonate. Solvent diffusion measurements on an electrolyte with 6% FOS suggest both the FOS and EC solvate the lithium cation. By comparing lithium transport and transference numbers, the authors find less ion pairing in FOS nitrile carbonate blend electrolytes and difluoroorganosilyl nitrile electrolytes.
In the context of a motivating study of dynamic network flow data on a large-scale e-commerce website, we develop Bayesian models for online/sequential analysis for monitoring and adapting to changes reflected in node–node traffic. For large-scale networks, we customize core Bayesian time series analysis methods using dynamic generalized linear models (DGLMs). These are integrated into the context of multivariate networks using the concept of decouple/recouple that was recently introduced in multivariate time series. This method enables flexible dynamic modeling of flows on large-scale networks and exploitation of partial parallelization of analysis while maintaining coherence with an over-arching multivariate dynamic flow model. This approach is anchored in a case study on Internet data, with flows of visitors to a commercial news website defining a long time series of node–node counts on over 56,000 node pairs. Central questions include characterizing inherent stochasticity in traffic patterns, understanding node–node interactions, adapting to dynamic changes in flows and allowing for sensitive monitoring to flag anomalies. The methodology of dynamic network DGLMs applies to many dynamic network flow studies.
Maternal systemic inflammation during pregnancy may restrict embryo−fetal growth, but the extent of this effect remains poorly established in undernourished populations. In a cohort of 653 maternal−newborn dyads participating in a multi-armed, micronutrient supplementation trial in southern Nepal, we investigated associations between maternal inflammation, assessed by serum α1-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein, in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy, and newborn weight, length and head and chest circumferences. Median (IQR) maternal concentrations in α1-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein in the first and third trimesters were 0.65 (0.53–0.76) and 0.40 (0.33–0.50) g/l, and 0.56 (0.25–1.54) and 1.07 (0.43–2.32) mg/l, respectively. α1-acid glycoprotein was inversely associated with birth size: weight, length, head circumference and chest circumference were lower by 116 g (P = 2.3 × 10−6), and 0.45 (P = 3.1 × 10−5), 0.18 (P = 0.0191) and 0.48 (P = 1.7 × 10−7) cm, respectively, per 50% increase in α1-acid glycoprotein averaged across both trimesters. Adjustment for maternal age, parity, gestational age, nutritional and socio-economic status and daily micronutrient supplementation failed to alter any association. Serum C-reactive protein concentration was largely unassociated with newborn size. In rural Nepal, birth size was inversely associated with low-grade, chronic inflammation during pregnancy as indicated by serum α1-acid glycoprotein.
Are individual rights, as understood, enjoyed, and deployed in American liberal legal culture, a danger to civil society? As briefly discussed in Chapter 1, for almost forty years, critical legal scholars have argued that while individual rights provide some protections to the individuals and corporations that hold them against an overreaching state, they also damage rather than support our aspirations for equality, by insulating, legitimating, or valorizing the private realm and the subordinating consequences of the individual’s rights-protected behavior within it. According to their many critics from the critical legal studies, feminist legal theory, and critical race theory movements of the last half century, individual rights, whatever good they do, also legitimate inequality. Chapter 1 of this book detailed these critiques in the context of antidiscrimination rights.
What is the nature of the “rights,” jurisprudentially, that the 1964 Civil Rights Act legally prescribed? And, more generally, what is a “civil right”? As discussed in Chapters 1 and 2, modern lawyers tend to think of civil rights, and particularly those that originated in the 1964 Act, as antidiscrimination rights: our “civil rights,” on this understanding, are our rights not to be discriminated against, by employers, schools, landlords, property vendors, hoteliers, restaurant owners, and providers of public transportation, no less than by states and state actors, on the basis of race, gender, ethnicity, age, sexuality, or disability. The ideal guiding implementation and interpretation of those rights of nondiscrimination is formal equality: members of protected groups should be treated like the majority group members because they are for all purposes that should matter to law, the same.