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War can make states, but can it also make regimes? This article brings the growing literatures on authoritarianism and coups into conversation with the older research tradition analyzing the interplay between war and state formation. The authors offer a global empirical test of the argument that regional rebellions are especially likely to give rise to militarized authoritarian regimes. While this argument was initially developed in the context of Southeast Asia, the article deepens the original theory by furnishing a deductively grounded framework embedded in rational actor approaches in the coup and civil–military literatures. In support of the argument, quantitative tests confirm that regional rebellions make political militarization more likely not simply in a single region, but more generally.
A new homological dimension, called rigidity dimension, is introduced to measure the quality of resolutions of finite dimensional algebras (especially of infinite global dimension) by algebras of finite global dimension and big dominant dimension. Upper bounds of the dimension are established in terms of extensions and of Hochschild cohomology, and finiteness in general is derived from homological conjectures. In particular, the rigidity dimension of a non-semisimple group algebra is finite and bounded by the order of the group. Then invariance under stable equivalences is shown to hold, with some exceptions when there are nodes in case of additive equivalences, and without exceptions in case of triangulated equivalences. Stable equivalences of Morita type and derived equivalences, both between self-injective algebras, are shown to preserve rigidity dimension as well.
Individual organisms on land and in the ocean sequester massive amounts of the carbon emitted into the atmosphere by humans. Yet the role of ecosystems as a whole in modulating this uptake of carbon is less clear. Here, we study several different mechanisms by which climate change and ecosystems could interact. We show that climate change could cause changes in ecosystems that reduce their capacity to take up carbon, further accelerating climate change. More research on – and better governance of – interactions between climate change and ecosystems is urgently required.
The objective of the present work was to evaluate the behavior of osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on a double-layer, protective, and bioactive hybrid coating sterilized by 3 different processes: steam autoclave, hydrogen peroxide plasma, and ethylene oxide. The hybrid coating was obtained from a sol consisting of the silane precursors tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES), applied on a Ti6Al4V substrate. To promote bioactivity, hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were dispersed in a second coating (bioactive layer: TEOS/MTES + HA) applied on the first (TEOS/MTES). The sterilized coatings were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, wettability, and micrometer roughness. The behavior of hydrolytic degradation was evaluated by the mass variation of the samples and the release of silicon by the technique of high-resolution atomic absorption spectrometry. All coatings presented morphological and superficial alterations after sterilization. Sterilization by ethylene oxide and hydrogen peroxide plasma intensified the hydrolytic degradation of the bioactive coating causing a greater release of silicon. The sterilized hybrid coatings did not show cytotoxicity to MSCs. Adhesion, viability, and osteogenic differentiation were favored on the sterilized coating of hydrogen peroxide plasma, which is opposite to what was observed for the ethylene oxide-sterilized coating.
Fe deficiency (ID) defined as plasma ferritin <12 µg/l is associated with delayed cognitive development in early childhood and increased incidence of infections; however, the longitudinal association between early-life factors and ID in 18-month-old children in Denmark is unknown. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of ID and to describe risk factors associated with ID in healthy 18-month-old Danish children. Blood samples, anthropometric measurements and self-reported questionnaire data had been obtained in the birth cohort, Odense Child Cohort. The questionnaires were modified from those used in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Plasma ferritin and C-reactive protein in venous, non-fasting samples were analysed in the final sample size of 370 children after exclusion of seventy-nine children due to chronic disease, acute infection, C-reactive protein >10 mg/l, twin birth or prematurity. Associations with ID were analysed by logistic regression, adjusting for sex, maternal education, duration of partial breast-feeding and current intake of milk, fish and meat. Overall, fifty-six children had ID (15·1 %). Factors associated with increased risk were exclusive breast-feeding beyond 4 months (OR 5·97; 95 % CI 1·63, 21·86) and no intake of oral Fe supplements from 6 to 12 months (OR 3·99, 95 % CI 1·33, 11·97. Duration of partial breast-feeding and current diet was not associated with ID. In conclusion, the ID prevalence was 15·1 %, and both exclusive breast-feeding beyond 4 months and no intake of oral Fe supplements from 6 to 12 months were associated with increased risk of ID in 18-month-old children.
The Faraday instability in a system of two conjugated immiscible liquid layers with disparate thicknesses is investigated. The top layer is relatively thick and undergoes short-wavelength instabilities, while the bottom layer is thin and undergoes long-wavelength instabilities. The two layers are coupled by the kinematic and dynamic relations at the interface. Through linear stability analysis, a lubrication effect, which significantly reduces the destabilization threshold, is identified. Especially when the vibration frequency is low, the lubrication effect is seen to influence the transition between the harmonic and subharmonic instability modes. It is studied how far the system with two layers can be approximated by a single-layer system with a Navier-slip boundary condition at the bottom. In corresponding experiments it is found that the time-periodic excitation of the system creates a steady-state deformation of the bottom layer. This indicates nonlinear dynamics of the system and the violation of reversibility. The excellent agreement between experimental and theoretical results for the onset of the instability underpins the validity of the linear stability analysis.
The objective of this study was to assess the prospective association between diet quality, as well as a 6-year change in diet quality, and risk of incident CVD and diabetes in a community-based population.
We used Cox regression models to estimate the prospective association between diet quality, assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 and the Alternative HEI (AHEI)-2010 scores, as well as change in diet quality, and incident CVD and diabetes.
The ARIC Study recruited 15 792 black and white men and women (45–64 years) from four US communities.
We included 10 808 study participants who reported usual dietary intake via FFQ at visit 1 (1987–1989) and who had not developed CVD, diabetes, or cancer at baseline.
Overall, 3070 participants developed CVD (median follow-up of 26 years) and 3452 developed diabetes (median follow-up of 22 years) after visit 1. Higher diet score at the initial visit was associated with a significantly lower risk of CVD (HR per 10 % higher HEI-2015 diet quality score: 0·90 (95 % CI: 0·86, 0·95) and HR per 10 % higher AHEI-2010 diet quality score: 0·96 (95 % CI: 0·93, 0·99)). We did not observe a significant association between initial diet score and incident diabetes. There were no significant associations between change in diet score and CVD or diabetes risk in the overall study population.
Higher diet quality assessed using HEI-2015 and AHEI-2010 was strongly associated with lower CVD risk but not diabetes risk within a middle-aged, community-based US population.
Since the 1990s, facilities for individuals at putative risk for psychosis have mushroomed and within a very short time have become part of the standard psychiatric infrastructure in many countries. The idea of preventing a severe mental disorder before its exacerbation is laudable, and early data indeed strongly suggested that the sooner the intervention, the better the outcome. In this paper, the authors provide four reasons why they think that early detection or prodromal facilities should be renamed and their treatment targets reconsidered. First, the association between the duration of untreated psychosis and outcome is empirically established but has become increasingly weak over the years. Moreover, its applicability to those who are considered at risk remains elusive. Second, instruments designed to identify future psychosis are prone to many biases that are not yet sufficiently controlled. None of these instruments allows an even remotely precise prognosis. Third, the rate of transition to psychosis in at-risk patients is likely lower than initially thought, and evidence for the success of early intervention in preventing future psychosis is promising but still equivocal. Perhaps most importantly, the treatment is not hope-oriented. Patients are more or less told that schizophrenia is looming over them, which may stigmatize individuals who will never, in fact, develop psychosis. In addition self-stigma has been associated with suicidality and depression. The authors recommend that treatment of help-seeking individuals with mental problems but no established diagnosis should be need-based, and the risk of psychosis should be de-emphasized as it is only one of many possible outcomes, including full remission. Prodromal clinics should not be abolished but should be renamed and restructured. Such clinics exist, but the transformation process needs to be facilitated.
Providing care for an older family member is a common experience for women and has been linked with increased depression, anxiety, and stress for some caregivers. This study aimed to investigate the role of self-reassurance and self-efficacy for controlling upsetting thoughts in mitigating the negative effects of caregiving stressors on mental health.
Measures were collected during a pre-intervention assessment for a larger study in the U.S.A. evaluating online interventions for intergenerational caregivers. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine the contribution of self-reassurance and self-efficacy for controlling upsetting thoughts on mental health outcomes, after controlling for caregiving-related contextual variables and stressors.
Participants completed online questionnaires on a computer or tablet at their convenience.
Participants were 150 help-seeking adult women providing health-care assistance to older relatives living in the community.
Measures were completed for the mental health outcomes of depression, anxiety, and stress. Measures also included contextual factors of caregiving and demographics. Cognitive impairment, caregiver assistance, role overload, percentage of care provided, family conflict, self-reassurance, and self-efficacy for controlling upsetting thoughts were also measured.
Regression models revealed that both self-reassurance and self-efficacy for controlling upsetting thoughts predicted depression, anxiety, and perceived stress after controlling for caregiving contextual factors and stressors.
The results indicate that self-reassurance and self-efficacy for controlling upsetting thoughts are effective resources linked to mental health outcomes. Although results were obtained with cross-sectional data, these findings suggest the potential of targeting these resources in transdiagnostic interventions for family caregivers.
In the process of researching this chapter, the first author spent a crisp December day touring London’s major bookshops in an attempt to discover what recent books on health might have to say about leadership and what those on leadership might have to say about health. It was a pleasant way to spend a day, but, as a research exercise, it was something of a failure. Of the books on health, not a single one had an index entry for leadership and most restricted their coverage of the topic to general discussions of team and patient management as aspects of effective healthcare. Conversely, very few of the books on leadership had much to say about health, although the biographies of influential leaders (e.g. Obama, Gillard, Thatcher) typically included significant sections devoted to the biographee’s policy on health (e.g. democratisation, rationalisation, privatisation).
Demands on developers are increasing due to the growing complexity of products in engineering. As many different disciplines are involved in planning the communication and data exchange becomes difficult. Systems engineering and especially the model-based development have proven themselves for this sector. However, the different languages for system modeling, such as SysML, offer considerable potential for optimization. A corresponding data model must be modelled so that data is available continuously and across all levels. Based on this data model, various engineering processes like risk management can be integrated into this model. New stereotypes are defined within SysML so that errors and risks can be implemented in the system model. This makes it possible to determine influences and effects that risks and errors have on other components of a product across all structures.
Vast amounts of information and knowledge is produced and stored within product design projects. Especially for reuse and adaptation there exists no suitable method for product designers to handle this information overload. Due to this, the selection of relevant information in a specific development situation is time-consuming and inefficient. To tackle this issue, the novel approach Intentional Forgetting (IF) is applied for product design, which aims to support reuse and adaptation by reducing the vast amount of information to the relevant. Within this contribution an IF-operator called Cascading Forgetting is introduced and evaluated, which was implemented for forgetting related information elements in ontology knowledge bases. For the evaluation the development process of a test-rig for studying friction and wear behaviour of the cam/tappet contact in combustion engines is analysed. Due to the interdisciplinary task of the evaluation and the characteristics of semantic model, challenges are discussed. In conclusion, the focus of the evaluation is to consider how reliable the Cascading Forgetting works and how intuitive ontology-based representations appear to engineers.
In this article, we discuss the importance of emotions for ethical reflection on technological developments, as well as the role that art can play in this. We review literature that argues that emotions can and should play an important role in the assessment and acceptance of technological risk and in designing morally responsible technologies. We then investigate how technologically engaged art can contribute to critical, emotional-moral reflection on technological risks. The role of art that engages with technology is unexplored territory and gives rise to many fascinating philosophical questions that have not yet been sufficiently addressed in the literature.
The basic income (BI) scheme is a fundamental reform of the welfare state that has recently gained widespread attention. Proposals for different variants of BI schemes have emerged to account for varying political and societal goals. This study investigates what citizens think about the idea of a BI, and to what extent citizens’ perceptions depend on the exact design of such a scheme and the context in which this policy is embedded. Empirically, we rely on conjoint experiments conducted in Finland and Switzerland – the two countries in which the introduction of a BI scheme has recently been discussed most intensely. We find that the level of public support for BI is higher in Finland than it is in Switzerland. Moreover, despite the contrasting designs of the BI proposals in the two countries, both Finnish and Swiss citizens tend to favor more generous schemes restricting non-nationals’ access to the provision.
Bond coats are essential in gas turbine technology for oxidation protection. Freestanding MCrAlY (M = Ni, Co) bond coats were investigated with respect to their creep strength at elevated temperatures. Three types of MCrAlY, a Ni-based bond coat Amdry 386, a Co-based bond coat Amdry 9954 and Amdry 9954 + 2 wt% Al2O3 (ODS = oxide dispersion strengthened) produced by low pressure plasma spraying, were analyzed. The two phase microstructure of the bond coats consists of a fcc γ-Ni solid solution and a B2 β-NiAl phase. Constant load experiments were performed in a thermomechanical analyzer at temperatures between 900 and 950 °C. Microtensile test specimens with a diameter of 450 µm were produced by a high-precision grinding and polishing process. Creep rupture was mainly due to void nucleation along the β–γ interfaces and grain boundaries. The time to failure is larger in Ni-based Amdry 386 compared to that in Co-based Amdry 9954 due to a higher fraction of the high-strength β-NiAl phase at test temperatures. The addition of ODS-particles in the Co-based bond coat Amdry 9954 resulted in a better creep resistance but lower ductility in comparison to ODS-particle-free Amdry 9954.