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Childhood maltreatment is associated with altered neural reactivity during autobiographical memory (ABM) recall and a pattern of overgeneral memory (OGM). Altered ABM and OGM have been linked with psychopathology and poorer social functioning. The present study investigated the association between altered ABM and subsequent socio-emotional functioning (measured two years later) in a sample of adolescents with (N = 20; maltreatment group, MT) and without (N = 17; non-MT group) documented childhood maltreatment histories.
At baseline, adolescents (aged 12.6 ± 1.45 years) were administered the Autobiographical Memory Test to measure OGM. Participants also recalled specific ABMs in response to emotionally valenced cue words during functional MRI. Adolescents in both groups underwent assessments measuring depressive symptoms and prosocial behavior at both timepoints. Regression analyses were carried out to predict outcome measures at follow-up controlling for baseline levels.
In the MT group, greater OGM at baseline significantly predicted reduced prosocial behavior at follow-up and showed a trend level association with elevated depressive symptoms. Patterns of altered ABM-related brain activity did not significantly predict future psycho-social functioning.
The current findings highlight the potential value of OGM as a cognitive mechanism that could be targeted to reduce risk of depression in adolescents with prior histories of maltreatment.
Overweight and obesity are universal health challenges. Recent evidence emphasises the potential benefits of addressing psychological factors associated with obesity in dietary programmes. This pilot study investigated the efficacy and acceptability of a combined online and face-to-face dietary intervention that used self-compassion, goal-setting and self-monitoring to improve dietary behaviour, as well as psychological factors associated with dietary behaviour.
Embedded mixed methods including a 4-week before-after trial and a one-on-one interview. Quantitative outcomes of the study were the levels of self-compassion; eating pathology; depression, anxiety and stress; and dietary intake. Qualitative outcomes were participants’ perceptions about the acceptability of the intervention.
UNSW Kensington campus.
Fourteen participants with overweight and obesity aged between 18 and 55 years old.
Results showed that the intervention significantly improved self-compassion and some aspects of dietary intake (e.g. decrease in energy intake) at Week Four compared with Week Zero. Some aspects of eating pathology also significantly decreased (e.g. Eating Concern). However, changes in self-compassion over the 4 weeks did not significantly predict Week Four study outcomes, except for level of stress. Most participants found self-compassion, goal-setting and self-monitoring to be essential for dietary behaviour change. However, participants also indicated that an online programme needed to be efficient, simple and interactive.
In conclusion, the current study provides preliminary but promising findings of an effective and acceptable combined online and face-to-face intervention that used self-compassion, goal-setting and self-monitoring to improve dietary habits. However, the results need to be examined in future long-term randomised controlled trials.
Spot-spraying POST herbicides is an effective approach to reduce herbicide input and weed control cost. Machine vision detection of grass or grass-like weeds in turfgrass systems is a challenging task due to the similarity in plant morphology. In this work, we explored the feasibility of using image classification with deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN), including AlexNet, GoogLeNet, and VGGNet, for detection of crabgrass species (Digitaria spp.), doveweed [Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan], dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.), and tropical signalgrass [Urochloa distachya (L.) T.Q. Nguyen] in bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.]. VGGNet generally out-performed AlexNet and GoogLeNet in detecting selected grassy weeds. For detection of P. dilatatum, VGGNet achieved high F1 scores (≥0.97) and recall values (≥0.99). A single VGGNet model exhibited high F1 scores (≥0.93) and recall values (1.00) that reliably detected Digitaria spp., M. nudiflora, P. dilatatum, and U. distachya. Low weed density reduced the recall values of AlexNet at detecting all weed species and GoogLeNet at detecting Digitaria spp. In comparison, VGGNet achieved excellent performances (overall accuracy = 1.00) at detecting all weed species in both high and low weed density scenarios. These results demonstrated the feasibility of using DCNN for detection of grass or grass-like weeds in turfgrass systems.
Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of various environmental factors and burial depth on germination and seedling emergence of common beggar’s-tick[Bidens alba (L.) DC.] seeds at two different stages of after-ripening. Mature B. alba seeds were stored at 4 C for 3-5 months (new seed lot) and 13-15 months (old seed lot) until experiment initiation. Germination exponentially decreased with increasing moisture stress. Germination rate decreased from 87 ± 2.9 % to 13 ± 6.1% as osmotic potential decreased from 0 to –0.5 MPa and was completely inhibited at osmotic potentials below –0.83 MPa. A large portion of the new seeds tested positively photoblastic but seeds that had after-ripened for 1 additional year were partially desensitized to the light requirement. New and old seeds still germinated to a greater percentage in the presence of light than under continuous dark at temperatures ranging from 15 to 35 C. Both new and old seeds germinated over a range of temperatures from 5 to 35 C, but the optimum temperatures for germination was 15 to 30 C in the presence of light. Regardless of seed lot, seedling emergence was the greatest when seeds were sown at the soil surface. Seedling emergence was abruptly reduced when burial depth was 1 cm or greater. Based on these results, we conclude that shallow cultivation could effectively suppress this population of B. alba from emerging when incorporated into an integrated control strategy. The information obtained in this research identifies some important factors that facilitate the widespread presence of B. alba in Florida and may contribute to weed management programs.
In acknowledgment of the continued tension between the need to dimensionalize personality pathology in youth, and the reality of a categorical nosology in clinical settings, the goal of the present chapter is to review research on child and adolescent personality pathology from both these perspectives. While the review highlights several differences in constructs, methodology, and clinical implications of the two approaches, it also highlights significant commonalities in conclusions drawn from the traditions underlying categorical versus dimensional approaches. In particular, both categorical and dimensional approaches seem to support the idea that adolescence presents a unique developmental period for the crystallization of personality pathology.
This rejoinder is aimed at responding to the respective commentaries by Vernberg and Abel and Beauchaine; however, most of the rejoinder focuses on the commentary by Vernberg and Abel given the fact that Vernberg and Abel appear to challenge the basic premise that maladaptive traits denote personality disturbance beyond that of externalizing and internalizing disorder, which according to them, renders the concept of youth BPD obsolete. The authors of this rejoinder provide two points of rebuttal in this regard. First, while it is true that Axis I and II show a very similar empirical structure and can thus be represented from a unified perspective, the construct of youth BPD lies in the co-occurrence and interplay of specific symptoms. BPD is therefore more than a sum of its symptoms, and assessing these symptoms individually from established internalizing-externalizing measures (as Vernberg and Abel suggest) would not adequately capture the dynamics between symptoms that largely account for the downward spiral of BPD functioning. Second, they view the DSM-5 Criterion A function as the feature of personality pathology that distinguishes it from trait function; in particular the self-concept manifestations of Criterion A that are not readily captured by trait (Criterion B) personality function.
Recent scholarship has shown the increasing likelihood that Shakespeare’s very first work was collaborative, or at least that collaboration as a practice dominates his pre-1594 writing in ways that we are finally beginning to understand, something many chronologies of Shakespeare have failed to acknowledge satisfactorily. While the matter of firm dates for Shakespeare’s early work remains elusive, its collaborative nature must change both our conception of Shakespeare’s working practices in his early career as well as our sense of how collaborative writing may be better understood as part of his development as a literary and dramaturgical craftsman. This essay charts the various arguments for collaboration, canon, and chronology in Shakespeare’s early career, and proposes some ways of understanding how they map onto possible company affiliations in Shakespeare’s beginnings as a dramatist.
Individuals with persecutory delusions have been reported to make external and stable attributions for negative events and to have a tendency towards internal attributions for positive events. It remains unclear whether this abnormality is present in individuals with non-persecutory delusions. Using the Attributional Style Questionnaire, we assessed the attributional style of 19 individuals with persecutory or grandiose delusions (PG), 12 individuals whose delusional beliefs were non-persecutory and non-grandiose (NPG) and 24 controls. The PG group displayed externality in their causal attributions for bad events but those in the NPG group did not differ from controls. Both deluded groups were significantly more stable in their attributions for bad events in comparison to controls. Such findings argue against a primary role for attributional biases in the genesis of delusions, although a role in shaping delusional content and maintaining the disorder and a role for external attributions in defending against reductions in self-esteem cannot be excluded.
Attitudes, and in some cases legislation, make it decreasingly acceptable to admit people younger than 18 years to adult psychiatric inpatient units. One strategy to reduce the number of under 18s admitted to adult psychiatric units is the commissioning of specialist Child and Adolescent Mental Health (CAMHS) inpatient units.
Map the flow of admissions toacute adult psychiatric inpatient units and paediatric medical units in the years before and after the opening of specialist CAMHS inpatient units.
Determine if opening CAMHS inpatient increases or decreases the flow of admissions to acute adult psychiatric inpatient units and paediatric medical units
Analysis of statewide admission data for under 18s to specialist CAMHS inpatient units, acute adult psychiatric inpatient units, and paediatric medical units for the period January 2001 to December 2013 in New South Wales, Australia.
Five of 8 health districts experienced an increase in juvenile admissions to adult units in the year of opening a CAMHS unit. Admissions to related paediatric medical units increased in 3 of 7 health districts. Admissions to adult and paediatric units rose with time but there was no interaction between time and health district type (with/without CAMHS unit).
Opening CAMHS units may temporarily increase the number of juveniles admitted to adult units, but does not influence the flow of patients to non-CAMHS facilities in the longer term. CAMHS units appear to fulfil an additional as opposed to replacement role in the care pathway for young people with mental illness.
Arkansans have some of the worst breast cancer mortality to incidence ratios in the United States (5th for Blacks, 4th for Whites, 7th overall). Screening mammography allows for early detection and significant reductions in mortality, yet not all women have access to these life-saving services. Utilization in Arkansas is well below the national average, and the number of FDA-approved screening facilities has decreased by 38% since 2001. Spatial accessibility plays an important role in whether women receive screenings.
We use constrained optimization models within a geographic information system (GIS) to probabilistically allocate women to nearby screening facilities, accounting for facility capacity and patient travel time. We examine accessibility results by rurality derived from rural–urban commuting area (RUCA) codes.
Under most models, screening capacity is insufficient to meet theoretical demand given travel constraints. Approximately 80% of Arkansan women live within 30 minutes of a screening facility, most of which are located in urban and suburban areas. The majority of unallocated demand was in Small towns and Rural areas.
Geographic disparities in screening mammography accessibility exist across Arkansas, but women living in Rural areas have particularly poor spatial access. Mobile mammography clinics can remove patient travel time constraints to help meet rural demand. More broadly, optimization models and GIS can be applied to many studies of healthcare accessibility in rural populations.
Purple nutsedge is a troublesome weed in tomato grown in plasticulture systems. Field trials were conducted in the fall of 2017 and spring of 2018 at Balm, FL, to evaluate multiple herbicide programs applied pretransplanting (pre-T), post-transplanting (post-T), and pre-T followed by (fb) post-T for purple nutsedge control in plasticulture tomato. Pre-T treatment of sulfentrazone or S-metolachlor alone were ineffective and did not decrease purple nutsedge density compared with the nontreated control. Post-T application of halosulfuron did not reduce purple nutsedge density at 12 wk after initial treatment (WAIT) in fall 2017 but reduced the purple nutsedge density at 17 WAIT in both seasons. Pre-T sulfentrazone or S-metolachlor application fb halosulfuron applied post-T were the most effective treatments and consistently reduced purple nutsedge population in both seasons. Herbicide treatments did not injure or reduce tomato height or yield. Overall, these results suggest sequential herbicide programs, including pre-T application of sulfentrazone or S-metolachlor fb post-T application of halosulfuron generally resulted in greater purple nutsedge control compared with pre-T or post-T application only. Halosulfuron applied post-T is critical to provide season-long purple nutsedge control in plasticulture tomato.
One of the main innovations in monastic life—one that marks a real caesura between the two halves of the Middle Ages—is the explosion of diversitas religionum, that is, the multiplication of the forms of communal regular life. At the start of the eleventh century, monasticism was not uniform, but these differences were not considered to be a defining feature. This was the form of monasticism that the fourteenth-century papacy would later designate the ordo sancti Benedicti. From the eleventh century on, there was growing diversity among religious communities, which later led to the construction of many religious orders with well-defined institutional and legal structures. The most famous example (but also the most innovative) was that of the Cistercian order, which during the first two decades of the twelfth century laid the foundation for a complex organization that was at once decentralized through the system of filiation and firmly unified by the general chapter. This new diversity justifies starting with the sources that accompanied this institutional transformation, before returning in the final two sections of this essay, first to the sources of monastic history that are less specific to the late Middle Ages (such as the privileges and letters of the popes and other supervisory authorities), and then to a consideration of recent methodological developments.
“The power of bishops is harmful to the monastic way of life (regimini religiosorum).” So the Cistercian abbot Jacques de Thérines (d. 1321) summed up the relationship between bishops and monks around the year 1300. Whether or not the abbot was correct about the effect of episcopal power, most scholars have agreed that tension, if not outright conflict, was a normal part of this relationship. To some extent this was inevitable. Tightly knit communities with a strong sense of vocation and heritage rarely welcome outside interventions, even if they are well-meaning. Nonetheless, there was also a happier aspect to monastic–episcopal relations. Bishops could act as patrons, providing monasteries with resources and defending their interests, while preventing serious internal abuses. Monasteries, for their part, could serve an important role for bishops’ flocks as pilgrimage sites, and centers for networks of devotion and learning.