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No standardized surveillance criteria exist for surgical site infection after breast tissue expander (BTE) access. This report provides a framework for defining postaccess BTE infections and identifies contributing factors to infection during the expansion period. Implementing infection prevention guidelines for BTE access may reduce postaccess BTE infections.
Romance has most often been viewed as an escapist mode, comparable to contemporary fantasy and romantic fiction. Northrop Frye characterises romance as ‘secular scripture’, built on universal human desires and archetypal patterns – a genre, one might suppose, with little space for the law. Yet medieval romance is fluid and various: writing in ‘romanz’, the vernacular, only gradually came to have generic associations. Subjects range from classical to historical to legendary, linked most of all by recurring motifs: love, adventure, the supernatural. Often exotic and fantastical, romance is also profoundly concerned with social contexts, and this balance between mimetic and non-mimetic is acutely evident in its engagement with law. Middle English romances reflect a growing ‘legal consciousness’ that shapes ‘values, beliefs and aspirations’ and ‘provid[es] a reserve of knowledge, memory and reflective thought’. Their treatment of legal concepts and processes can be remarkably specific, while the idea of ‘good laws’ also informs their deep structures, founded on notions of order, honour and right. Romances repeatedly dramatise issues of inheritance and outlawry, accusations of felony and treason, trials by combat and ordeal, oaths and contracts, and debates over property and marriage. In Malory’s Morte Darthur, these motifs are woven into a tragic disquisition on the need for social order founded on good laws.
The discovery of a tenth-century AD high-status burial at Prague Castle in 1928 led to multiple identifications in the context of two world wars and the Cold War. Recognised variously as both a Viking and Slavonic warrior according to Nazi and Soviet ideologies, interpretation of the interred individual and associated material culture were also entangled with the story of the burial's excavator, the remains and commemorative monuments of two Czech Unknown Soldiers and the creation of the Czechoslovak state. This epic narrative reflects the circumstances of Czechoslovakia and Central Europe across the twentieth century.
Tebufenozide (Mimic) kills Lepidoptera larvae that ingest it. Aerial applications of tebufenozide were made against spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens)) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in boreal forest in Manitoba, Canada, in 1999 and 2000. In 2000 and 2001, moths in sprayed and unsprayed plots were sampled with light traps; trapping was supplemented by foliage sampling. Relative to unsprayed plots, catches of spruce budworm moths in plots sprayed in 1999 and 2000 were depressed in 2000, but not in 2001. Host tree defoliation was reduced in 2000 by 1999 and 2000 applications; the 2000 application reduced numbers of spruce budworm larvae in 2000 and 2001. Multivariate analysis revealed negative effects of tebufenozide application on two species of non-target moths in 2000 and no negative effects in 2001. Negatively affected species have larvae feeding in the tree canopy at the time of spray application. Higher catches of non-target species in sprayed treatments were observed for three species in 2000 and two species in 2001. We conclude that tebufenozide can depress the numbers of spruce budworm larvae and provide foliage protection during the year of application and the following year, and that negative effects on non-target species are detectable for about 15 months after application.
Chaucer treats the subject of love in many forms and across genres from fabliau to romance, with a unique variety and flexibility. His works draw on classical, continental and English traditions; on courtly and chivalric ideals and practices; and the tropes of Christianity. It is often in the reshaping, adapting and undercutting of material and motifs that the originality of Chaucer’s works lies. In exploring love, Chaucer also probes the psychology of loss and grief, the physiology of love, the paradoxes of fin’ amor, and the ways in which love can open onto the sublime. Chaucer’s treatment of love is intimately connected with questions of gender, in particular, the possibilities of female agency and voice. This essay makes reference to a range of Chaucer’s works, in the context of their sources and analogues, but focuses in particular on his romance narratives, The Book of the Duchess, The Legend of Good Women, The Knight’s Tale and Troilus and Criseyde.
Donald Trump promised to build a wall along the US–Mexico border and to make Mexico pay for it, but this seems to violate the principle of ‘no taxation without representation’ on which the United States was founded. Some democratic theorists propose even more radical principles of inclusion, such as that all those affected by or subject to a decision should have a say in it. But even a more moderate principle, requiring that those who pay must be represented, is sufficient to show that Trump's proposed border wall lacks democratic legitimacy.
Patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernias often have concomitant congenital heart disease (CHD), with small left-sided cardiac structures as a frequent finding. The goal of this study is to evaluate which left-sided heart structures are affected in neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernias.
Retrospective review of neonates between May 2007 and April 2015 with a diagnosis of a congenital diaphragmatic hernia was performed. Clinical and echocardiographic data were extracted from the electronic medical record and indexed to body surface area and compared to normative values. Univariable regression models assessed for associations between different variables and length of stay.
Data of 52 patients showed decreased mean z scores for the LVIDd (–3.16), LVIDs (–3.05), aortic annulus (–1.68), aortic sinuses (–2.11), transverse arch (–3.11), and sinotubular junction (–1.47) with preservation of the aorta at the diaphragm compared to age-matched normative data with similar body surface areas. Regression analysis showed a percent reduction in length of stay per 1 mm size increase for LVIDd (8%), aortic annulus (27%), aortic sinuses (18%), sinotubular junctions (20%), and transverse arches (25%).
Patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernias have significantly smaller left-sided heart structures compared to age-matched normative data. Aortic preservation at the diaphragm provides evidence for a mass effect aetiology with increased right-to-left shunting at the fetal ductus resulting in decreased size. Additionally, length of stay appears to be prolonged with decreasing size of several of these structures. These data provide quantitative evidence of smaller left-sided heart structures in patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernias.
This article examines issues of island sovereignty and lighthouse administration in maritime Southeast Asia in the context of post-war decolonisation. It does so by demonstrating how lax and complacent colonial governance in British North Borneo led to the construction of a lighthouse on contested island territory. By the late 1940s these islands became the focal point of a regional dispute between the Philippines, North Borneo's colonial government, and the United Kingdom. While lighthouses were, in the colonial mind-set, deemed essential for illuminating the coasts and projecting order onto the seas, the Philippine government sought to renege on colonial-era obligations and wrest a new sense of post-colonial legitimacy.
The legacy of the Turtle Island transfer was therefore significant in recalibrating imperial lighting in the Sulu Sea, as well as giving rise to a Philippine post-colonial authority that was characterised by an acknowledgement of indigenous Suluk maritime heritage. Similarly, it reflected an extension of previous instances of transnational disputes in the region, where the island shoal had been simultaneously claimed and administered by the United States, the United Kingdom and the historical Sulu Sultanate. While the lighthouse remained destroyed, and the seas dimmed, by mid-1948 the Turtle Islands had attained a new post-colonial and transnational status. Utilising a range of archival sources, memoirs and published material, this article sheds light on an under-examined period of Southeast Asian history.
More than 4000 Indigenous Australian students enrol and take up a placement at boarding school each year. While reasons for attending boarding school vary, the impetus for many remote and very remote-dwelling students is restricted secondary educational opportunities in their home communities. A large multi-site study is being undertaken across Queensland to understand the conditions required for these students to be resilient while studying away from home. This paper reports on levels of student satisfaction with Queensland Department of Education's Transition Support Service (TSS) that provide assistance to remote-dwelling Indigenous students in the transition to boarding schools. A survey instrument administered to students included 22 close-ended questions to elicit levels of student satisfaction with TSS. Data were collected electronically using SurveyMonkey™ and analysed in SPSS v24. Descriptive statistics were calculated for variables assessing service support, student perceptions and experiences. A total of 294 primary, secondary and re-engaging students across 21 sites responded. Nearly all primary students (97%) anticipated that TSS would assist their move to boarding school. All secondary students identified that TSS had assisted their transition to boarding school. All re-engaging students agreed that TSS support had increased their capacity to cope when things go wrong. Lower scores related to students’ ability to access TSS when needed. Very high levels of satisfaction with TSS were countered by constraints of distance between TSS and students, and resources available to support the work of TSS. Findings point to the need for equitable provision of transition services in Queensland that emphasise the importance of relationship between service provider and student, and can inform the design of similar transition services across Australia.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an independent, non-governmental, not-for-profit organization that develops and publishes fully consensus-based International Standards. ISO members are national standards bodies (NSBs), which may be government, private, or public-private entities. 163 NSBs are members of ISO. The ISO standards portfolio numbers more than 20,000 standards. ISO also has a large network of liaison organizations—which can participate in the ISO process but do not vote. These include many treaty organizations, including the World Health Organization, Codex, the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and so on; as well as numerous other international organizations.
The book brings together papers covering the most recent scientific research from the top endophyte researchers in the world. It presents the state of the art in our knowledge and technical capacity and explores future directions of this work. It is highly relevant and timely because of the need to improve global food security and its sustainability, and also to provide novel bioactive molecules for medicine. There is also a need to protect forestry in a changing and growing world. Endophytes offer a huge potential to reduce environmentally damaging agricultural inputs such as fertilisers and pesticides. They are also a largely overlooked group of organisms where much basic science remains to be undertaken. For example, new molecular tools of DNA profiling using high throughput environmental sequencing are allowing the exploration of a previously largely unknown resource. There is a pressing need to convert scientific research on endophytes into practical application. This book describes how that will be achieved.
A study to detect the diversity of endophytic Actinobacteria from Australian rice was conducted using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Rice samples were collected from the rice growing area near Yanco, New South Wales, Australia. Isolation of the endophytic Actinobacteria was done over two consecutive growing seasons. The results demonstrated that most isolates were obtained from plants 10 weeks and older, and only a few were found in younger plants. Microbispora spp. were the most commonly isolated endophytic Actinobacteria (94%) with Streptomyces spp. and other genera present at lower numbers (6%). The culture-dependent method findings were confirmed by T-RFLP profile analysis. Restriction digests using HhaI and RsaI also showed an abundance of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) profiles related to the genus Microbispora. Furthermore, other biological properties of the endophytic Actinobacteria isolates were also determined. Four isolates, Saccharothrix OSH21, Saccharopolyspora OSR26, Streptomyces OSR46 and Microbispora OSR61, were found to suppress the growth of the pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Moreover, these isolates might be able to promote plant growth by producing indole acetic acid or to solubilise phosphate making this nutrient available for plant uptake.
The fortuitous discovery of penicillin from Penicillium chrysogenum heralded the golden era of antibiotics. Since then, fungi have significantly contributed to the welfare of humans by producing bioactive compounds which have been used as antibacterial, anticancer, antioxidant and immunomodulatory agents. However, in recent years, microorganisms associated with plants have emerged as fountainheads of bioactive molecules with high therapeutic potential. In general terms, endophytes are an extremely diverse and ubiquitous group of microorganisms that resides within the living internal tissues of a host plant in a non-invasive manner. Endophytes communicate with their host plant through metabolic interactions which enables them to produce signal molecules with interesting biological activities. Further, the genetic recombination of endophytes with the host plant enables them to mimic the biological properties of the host and produce analogous bioactive compounds. Thus, they start producing the host plant phytochemicals when cultured independently. The endless need for potent drugs has prompted researchers to explore alternative avenues for finding novel bioactive molecules, and endophytes appear to be a plausible target for drug discovery. This chapter reviews the current research trends with these promising organisms.
In some environments, the survival and production of ryegrass and fescue is heavily reliant on its mutualistic association with Epichloë endophytes. Epichloë endophytes produce a range of bioactive alkaloids, or secondary metabolites that can be effective in deterring insect pests, although some have also been shown to be toxic to grazing animals. These endophytes are being used in grassland farming systems in Australia, New Zealand, USA and some parts of South America. However, to achieve this outcome there has been considerable investment into developing a research pipeline for delivery of animal-safe endophyte strains that are still capable of deterring insect pests and providing protection against abiotic stresses. The pipeline starts with the discovery and isolation of endophytes from wild populations of ryegrass and fescue, characterisation of the known alkaloids they produce, use of genetic markers to determine the relationship between known well-characterised strains and new strains entering the collection, determination of their bioactivity against insect pests of economic significance, understanding issues of compatibility of a strain of interest with the elite germplasm into which it has been inoculated, determining ease of transmission to subsequent seed generations, and ensuring there will be no or minimal animal health and welfare issues associated with using the strain in grazing systems.
Endophytes are any microbes that can live within plants. We divide them into three major functional groups: endosyms (endosymbionts), endopaths (pathogens) and endosympaths (those that exist in both forms along a mutualism–parasitism continuum). Within these groups, endophytologists recognise harmful pathogenic microbes and a diverse range of beneficial/commensal microbes, including bacteria and archaea, such as diazotrophs, and fungi, such as the vertically transmitted clavicipitaceous endophytes, the generally horizontally transmitted class 2 fungal endophytes, mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate endophytes. This chapter introduces the science of endophyte biology and its application for a world population that is projected to grow to over 9 billion by 2050. It explores the potential of endophytes for improved agricultural and silvicultural sustainability including: yield improvement and nutrition; biocontrol of pests and diseases; and abiotic stress resistance in the context of climate change. It outlines how bioprospectors are using endophytes as sources of novel metabolites for the pharmaceutical and biochemical industries, and describes how endophytes can be used in vitro to elicit the increased production of known secondary metabolites from plants.