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Understand fundamental and advanced statistical models and deep learning models for robust speaker recognition and domain adaptation. This useful toolkit enables you to apply machine learning techniques to address practical issues, such as robustness under adverse acoustic environments and domain mismatch, when deploying speaker recognition systems. Presenting state-of-the-art machine learning techniques for speaker recognition and featuring a range of probabilistic models, learning algorithms, case studies, and new trends and directions for speaker recognition based on modern machine learning and deep learning, this is the perfect resource for graduates, researchers, practitioners and engineers in electrical engineering, computer science and applied mathematics.
An ancient metaphor likens attention to an archer pulling her bow - the self directing her mind through attention. Yet both the existence of such a self, and the impact of attention on the mind, have been debated for millennia. Advancements in science mean that we now have a better understanding of what attention is and how it works, but philosophers and scientists remain divided as to its impact on the mind. This book takes a strong stance: attention is the key to the self, consciousness, perception, action, and knowledge. While it claims that we cannot perceive novel stimuli without attention, it argues that we can act on and experience the world without attention. It thus provides a new way of thinking about the mind - as something that can either shape itself through attention or engage with the world as it is given, relying on its habits and skills.
Long before people identified as transgender or lesbian, there were female husbands and the women who loved them. Female husbands - people assigned female who transed gender, lived as men, and married women - were true queer pioneers. Moving deftly from the colonial era to just before the First World War, Jen Manion uncovers the riveting and very personal stories of ordinary people who lived as men despite tremendous risk, danger, violence, and threat of punishment. Female Husbands weaves the story of their lives in relation to broader social, economic, and political developments in the United States and the United Kingdom while also exploring how attitudes towards female husbands shifted in relation to transformations in gender politics and women's rights, ultimately leading to the demise of the category of 'female husband' in the early twentieth century. Groundbreaking and influential, Female Husbands offers a dynamic, varied, and complex history of the LGBTQ past.
Few topics have sparked as much interest, not only among scientists but also among politicians and the general public, as the topic of sex differences. In what specific psychological qualities and behaviors do women differ from men (Hyde, 2007, 2014) and how can such differences be explained (Eagly & Wood, 1999, 2013)? These issues are important because a thorough understanding of them would inform business practices and political debates (for example, about the reasons for the lack of female top executives; Eagly & Carli, 2007; Eagly & Karau, 2002) and because they concern key decisions that people make in their private lives (for example, about the qualities they look for in a mate or the level of income they seek; Tinsley, Howell, & Amanatullah, 2015; Zentner & Mitura, 2012).
People are also intrigued by the question of how technology and electronic media affect societies and individual behaviors.
There was a time when we were all six-sigma-ing. We did so because Jack Welch had bought into the six-sigma phenomenon and he had created a phenomenally performing General Electric (GE). Then we moved along from good to great to the search for excellence to becoming great by choice to whatever superlative Jim Collins told us was the way to a company that was built to last. Then someone moved our cheese. We had no time for that because we were just one-minute managers. We smoothed earnings, incentivized employees, and created three tiers of employees – including getting rid of the bottom tier of employees, whether they deserved termination or kudos. We all wanted to be part of the Fortune 100, the Fortune Most Admired Companies, even as we were led by Fortune CEOs and CFOs of the year – many of whom ended up doing time.
Among the numerous inscriptions that have been digitally archived and uploaded online there is an arresting epitaph of a sixth-century Buddhist nun. The story of this twice-widowed aristocrat, and her eventful life, unearthed nearly a century ago, may serve as a useful example for us to understand the history of women and gender in the Six Dynasties period.
Yuan Chuntuo, born in 475 to a royal family of the Tuoba Northern Wei, was the great-granddaughter of Emperor Wu (428–452) and the fifth daughter of Tuoba Yun, Prince Rencheng (447–481).
It has recently been argued that a sensitivity theory of knowledge cannot account for intuitively appealing instances of higher-order knowledge. In this paper, we argue that it can once careful attention is paid to the methods or processes by which we typically form higher-order beliefs. We base our argument on what we take to be a well-motivated and commonsensical view on how higher-order knowledge is typically acquired, and we show how higher-order knowledge is possible in a sensitivity theory once this view is adopted.
Lithium was added to the hypereutectic Mg–Ni alloy to investigate the effect of volatilization of Li on the hydrogen storage characteristics of the eutectic Mg–Ni alloy at 300 °C. After fully activated at 300 °C, Li was almost completely volatilized and the structure of Li-containing Mg82Ni18 alloy was converted to the structure of Li-free Mg82Ni18 alloy, but hydrogen absorption capacity significantly decreased. This is because volatilization of Li weakened the bonding between eutectic Mg and Mg2Ni, lowering the catalytic effect of Mg2Ni on Mg. The decrease in hydrogen absorption capacity was more obvious with increasing Li content. In addition, experimental alloy in powder form could increase surface area, causing Li to volatilize at 300 °C.
Field trials were conducted at Pontotoc, Mississippi, Chase, Louisiana, and Clinton, North Carolina in 2017 and 2018 to determine the effect of pendimethalin rate and timing on sweetpotato crop tolerance, yield, and storage root quality. Treatments consisted of five pendimethalin rates (266, 532, 1065, 1597, and 2130 g ai ha-1) by two application timings (0 to 1 or 10 to 14 d after transplanting). Additionally, a nontreated check was included for comparison. Crop injury (stunting) was minimal (< 4%) through 6 wk after transplanting (WAP) and no injury was observed from 8 to 14 WAP, regardless of application timing or rate. The nontreated check yielded 6.6, 17.6, 5.5, and 32.1 × 103 kg ha-1 of canner, no.1, jumbo, and total grades, respectively. Neither pendimethalin application timing nor rate influenced jumbo, no.1, marketable or total sweetpotato yield. Overall, these results indicate that pendimethalin will be a valuable addition to the toolkit of sweetpotato growers.
The present opioid epidemic and abuse of fentanyl in the United States has led to an increased risk of exposure to first responders. Law enforcement, fire, and emergency medical services are receiving misinformation on fentanyl health and safety risks and this has led to miscommunication. Understanding the risk perceptions and knowledge of first responders regarding fentanyl can help identify training gaps.
A 15-item 6-point Likert scale online questionnaire was developed and distributed to firefighters, police officers, and emergency medical technicians, regarding perceptions of fentanyl exposure, and additional questions concerning knowledge. The online questionnaire was sent to 15 associations of national and New York State first responders with 3 associations acknowledging and distributing the survey.
Of the 247 participants, 187 served New York State; 92 worked in law enforcement; and the other 95 worked in either fire, emergency medical service, or both. New York State first responders generally agreed with expert risk perceptions and knowledge of fentanyl exposure in the pilot study. Items pertaining to using hand sanitizer, selecting glove type, and dermal exposure to fentanyl had lower agreement with expert beliefs.
Risk perceptions and knowledge could be used to evaluate fentanyl response training among first responders.
There is a shared vision of public enforcement: a government agency investigates suspicious activities. It requests information, interviews persons, inspects firms. If the agency finds a breach of the law, it brings a case before a court or it may directly require that the infringement be ceased or even impose a fine on the infringer. In contrast, private enforcement appears to be less clearly defined. The gist of the concept is that a private individual can bring an action against an infringer to force them to end an illegal activity or to compensate a loss caused by an infringement. Thus, plaintiff s not only protect their own interests but also serve en passant the general interest in effective and efficient enforcement of the law. Consequently, where private individuals are in a position to file suit against a public authority to force it to take enforcement measures, this can be conceived as a hybrid that involves both private initiative and public capacity to enforce the law.
To see clearly that there can be a regulatory choice between private and public enforcement, it is useful to take the type of rule as a point of departure that might be described as ‘incomplete’ since it only imposes obligations on a certain individual, but – if considered in isolation – does not foresee legal consequences in case of breach. Examples may include rules such as:
– ‘A business must not engage in misleading commercial practices.’
– ‘An undertaking must not form a cartel.’
– ‘An issuer that offers a security to the public must previously publish a prospectus.’
– ‘Manufacturers of cars must not use defeat devices that reduce the effectiveness of emission control systems.’
Such obligations can either be supplemented by a set of rules that establish a competent authority and define its investigating and sanctioning powers, or they may be complemented by rights and remedies which are allocated to individuals, typically (but not necessarily) to those individuals who are (potentially) negatively affected by an infringement. Considering the aforementioned examples, such private rights of action can be conferred upon competitors, suppliers, consumers, or investors. Certainly, any kind of mixture or combination of the two enforcement strategies is conceivable as well.
Compound-specific radiocarbon (14C) dating often requires working with small samples of < 100 µg carbon (µgC). This makes the radiocarbon dates of biomarker compounds very sensitive to biases caused by extraneous carbon of unknown composition, a procedural blank, which is introduced to the samples during the steps necessary to prepare a sample for radiocarbon analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (i.e., isolating single compounds from a heterogeneous mixture, combustion, gas purification and graphitization). Reporting accurate radiocarbon dates thus requires a correction for the procedural blank. We present our approach to assess the fraction modern carbon (F14C) and the mass of the procedural blanks introduced during the preparation procedures of lipid biomarkers (i.e. n-alkanoic acids) and lignin phenols. We isolated differently sized aliquots (6–151 µgC) of n-alkanoic acids and lignin phenols obtained from standard materials with known F14C values. Each compound class was extracted from two standard materials (one fossil, one modern) and purified using the same procedures as for natural samples of unknown F14C. There is an inverse linear relationship between the measured F14C values of the processed aliquots and their mass, which suggests constant contamination during processing of individual samples. We use Bayesian methods to fit linear regression lines between F14C and 1/mass for the fossil and modern standards. The intersection points of these lines are used to infer F14Cblank and mblank and their associated uncertainties. We estimate 4.88 ± 0.69 μgC of procedural blank with F14C of 0.714 ± 0.077 for n-alkanoic acids, and 0.90 ± 0.23 μgC of procedural blank with F14C of 0.813 ± 0.155 for lignin phenols. These F14Cblank and mblank can be used to correct AMS results of lipid and lignin samples by isotopic mass balance. This method may serve as a standardized procedure for blank assessment in small-scale radiocarbon analysis.
Across psychopathologies, trauma-exposed individuals suffer from difficulties in inhibiting emotions and regulating attention. In trauma-exposed individuals without psychopathology, only subtle alterations of neural activity involved in regulating emotions have been reported. It remains unclear how these neural systems react to demanding environments, when acute (non-traumatic but ordinary) stress serves to perturbate the system. Moreover, associations with subthreshold clinical symptoms are poorly understood.
The present fMRI study investigated response inhibition of emotional faces before and after psychosocial stress situations. Specifically, it compared 25 women (mean age 31.5 ± 9.7 years) who had suffered severe early life trauma but who did not have a history of or current psychiatric disorder, with 25 age- and education-matched trauma-naïve women.
Under stress, response inhibition related to fearful faces was reduced in both groups. Compared to controls, trauma-exposed women showed decreased left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activation under stress when inhibiting responses to fearful faces, while activation of the right anterior insula was slightly increased. Also, groups differed in brain–behaviour correlations. Whereas stress-induced false alarm rates on fearful stimuli negatively correlated with stress-induced IFG signal in controls, in trauma-exposed participants, they positively correlated with stress-induced insula activation.
Neural facilitation of emotion inhibition during stress appears to be altered in trauma-exposed women, even without a history of or current psychopathology. Decreased activation of the IFG in concert with heightened bottom-up salience of fear related cues may increase vulnerability to stress-related diseases.
Bog bodies are among the best-known archaeological finds worldwide. Much of the work on these often extremely well-preserved human remains has focused on forensics, whereas the environmental setting of the finds has been largely overlooked. This applies to both the ‘physical’ and ‘cultural’ landscape and constitutes a significant problem since the vast spatial and temporal scales over which the practice appeared demonstrate that contextual assessments are of the utmost importance for our explanatory frameworks. In this article we develop best practice guidelines for the contextual analysis of bog bodies, after assessing the current state of research and presenting the results of three recent case studies including the well-known finds of Lindow Man in the United Kingdom, Bjældskovdal (Tollund Man and Elling Woman) in Denmark, and Yde Girl in the Netherlands. Three spatial and chronological scales are distinguished and linked to specific research questions and methods. This provides a basis for further discussion and a starting point for developing approaches to bog body finds and future discoveries, while facilitating and optimizing the re-analysis of previous studies, making it possible to compare deposition sites across time and space.
Field studies were conducted in 2016 and 2017 at Clinton, NC, to quantify the effects of season-long interference of large crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.] and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) on ‘AG6536’ soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Weed density treatments consisted of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 plants m−2 for A. palmeri and 0, 1, 2, 4, and 16 plants m−2 for D. sanguinalis with (interspecific interference) and without (intraspecific interference) soybean to determine the impacts on weed biomass, soybean biomass, and seed yield. Biomass per square meter increased with increasing weed density for both weed species with and without soybean present. Biomass per square meter of D. sanguinalis was 617% and 37% greater when grown without soybean than with soybean, for 1 and 16 plants m−2 respectively. Biomass per square meter of A. palmeri was 272% and 115% greater when grown without soybean than with soybean for 1 and 8 plants m−2, respectively. Biomass per plant for D. sanguinalis and A. palmeri grown without soybean was greatest at the 1 plant m−2 density. Biomass per plant of D. sanguinalis plants across measured densities was 33% to 83% greater when grown without soybean compared with biomass per plant when soybean was present for 1 and 16 plants m−2, respectively. Similarly, biomass per plant for A. palmeri was 56% to 74% greater when grown without soybean for 1 and 8 plants m−2, respectively. Biomass per plant of either weed species was not affected by weed density when grown with soybean due to interspecific competition with soybean. Yield loss for soybean grown with A. palmeri ranged from 14% to 37% for densities of 1 to 8 plants m−2, respectively, with a maximum yield loss estimate of 49%. Similarly, predicted loss for soybean grown with D. sanguinalis was 0 % to 37% for densities of 1 to 16 m−2 with a maximum yield loss estimate of 50%. Soybean biomass was not affected by weed species or density. Results from these studies indicate that A. palmeri is more competitive than D. sanguinalis at lower densities, but that similar yield loss can occur when densities greater than 4 plants m−2 of either weed are present.
In the 2015 review paper ‘Petawatt Class Lasers Worldwide’ a comprehensive overview of the current status of high-power facilities of
was presented. This was largely based on facility specifications, with some description of their uses, for instance in fundamental ultra-high-intensity interactions, secondary source generation, and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). With the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics being awarded to Professors Donna Strickland and Gerard Mourou for the development of the technique of chirped pulse amplification (CPA), which made these lasers possible, we celebrate by providing a comprehensive update of the current status of ultra-high-power lasers and demonstrate how the technology has developed. We are now in the era of multi-petawatt facilities coming online, with 100 PW lasers being proposed and even under construction. In addition to this there is a pull towards development of industrial and multi-disciplinary applications, which demands much higher repetition rates, delivering high-average powers with higher efficiencies and the use of alternative wavelengths: mid-IR facilities. So apart from a comprehensive update of the current global status, we want to look at what technologies are to be deployed to get to these new regimes, and some of the critical issues facing their development.
De Dreu and Gross argue that only asymmetric games allow the motives underlying defense and attack to be disentangled. However, the Prisoner's Dilemma Game Alt matrix (PDG-Alt matrix), a modified symmetric PDG, also allows these motives to be disentangled. Studies using the PDG-Alt matrix produced findings contradicting a central claim of De Dreu and Gross.
The Critically Endangered blue-eyed black lemur Eulemur flavifrons of north-western Madagascar is one of the most threatened primates. The majority of research and conservation efforts for the species have been restricted to the Sahamalaza Peninsula but there are unstudied and unprotected populations farther inland. The dearth of information regarding the transition between E. flavifrons and its parapatric sister species, the Vulnerable black lemur Eulemur macaco, and the possibility of a hybrid population complicates conservation planning for both species. We surveyed 29 forest fragments across both species’ ranges to investigate the boundary between the taxa, whether hybrids persist, and the threats to lemurs in the region. We found E. flavifrons in six fragments and E. macaco in 17. We never observed E. flavifrons and E. macaco in the same location and we found no conclusive evidence of hybrids. Three fragments in which E. flavifrons was present were north of the Andranomalaza River, which had previously been considered the barrier between the two species. Based on these observations and a literature review, we provide updated ranges, increasing the extent of occurrence (EOO) of E. flavifrons by 28.7% and reducing the EOO of E. macaco by 44.5%. We also evaluate the capacity of protected areas to conserve these lemurs. We recommend additional surveys and the implementation of an education programme in this region to help conserve both species.