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From the Trojan War to the sack of Rome, from the fall of Constantinople to the bombings of World War II and the recent devastation of Syrian towns, the destruction of cities and the slaughter of civilian populations are among the most dramatic events in world history. But how reliable are literary sources for these events? Did ancient authors exaggerate the scale of destruction to create sensational narratives? This volume reassesses the impact of physical destruction on ancient Greek cities and its demographic and economic implications. Addressing methodological issues of interpreting the archaeological evidence for destructions, the volume examines the evidence for the destruction, survival, and recovery of Greek cities. The studies, written by an international group of specialists in archaeology, ancient history, and numismatic, range from Sicily to Asia Minor and Aegean Thrace, and include Athens, Corinth, and Eretria. They highlight the resilience of ancient populations and the recovery of cities in the long term.
Cosmochemistry is a rapidly evolving field of planetary science and the second edition of this classic text reflects the exciting discoveries made over the past decade from new spacecraft missions. Topics covered include the synthesis of elements in stars, behaviour of elements and isotopes in the early solar nebula and planetary bodies, and compositions of extra-terrestrial materials. Radioisotope chronology of the early Solar System is also discussed, as well as geochemical exploration of planets by spacecraft, and cosmochemical constraints on the formation of solar systems. Thoroughly updated throughout, this new edition features significantly expanded coverage of chemical fractionation and isotopic analyses; focus boxes covering basic definitions and essential background material on mineralogy, organic chemistry and quantitative topics; and a comprehensive glossary. An appendix of analytical techniques and end-of-chapter review questions, with solutions available at www.cambridge.org/cosmochemistry2e, also contribute to making this the ideal teaching resource for courses on the Solar System's composition as well as a valuable reference for early career researchers.
Psychological-epistemic accounts take scientific progress to consist in the development of some psychological-epistemic attitude. Disagreements over what the relevant attitude is – true belief, knowledge, or understanding – divide proponents of the semantic, epistemic, and noetic accounts of scientific progress, respectively. Proponents of all such accounts face a common challenge. On the face of it, only individuals have psychological attitudes. However, as I argue in what follows, increases in individual true belief, knowledge, and understanding are neither necessary nor sufficient for scientific progress. Rather than being fatal to the semantic, epistemic, and noetic accounts, this objection shows that these accounts are most plausible when they take the psychological states relevant to scientific progress to be states of communities, rather than individuals. I draw on recent work in social epistemology to develop two ways in which communities can be the bearers of irreducible psychological-epistemic states. Each way yields a strategy by which proponents of one of the psychological-epistemic accounts might attempt to account for the social dimensions of scientific progress. While I present serious reasons for concern about the first strategy, I argue that the second strategy, at least, offers a promising path forward for a psychological-epistemic account of scientific progress.
Time is running out for the earth’s ecosystem as our species has known it and still, in the words of critical race theorist Derrick Bell, “we are not saved.”1 In this afterword, I reflect on the lessons of this volume from a perspective newly emergent in legal scholarship: “law and political economy” (LPE).
Community mobility using private and public transportation is important for maintaining health, social participation and living well in later life. This international cross-sectional cohort study (N = 246) reported on the health and driving status of older adults from seven countries where the mobility patterns of drivers and non-drivers were compared in terms of city and rural areas, weather, as well as their respective differences in the number of out-of-home places accessed and quality of life. Older adults participated in a semi-structured interview and completed four standardised instruments: the EQ-5D-5L, modified PULSES health profile, modified Transportation Questionnaire, and the Transport – Participation in Activities and Places Outside the Home. Results suggested inclement weather and place of residence negatively impacted out-of-home activities but did not increase use of public transportation. Drivers accessed more out-of-home activities than non-drivers, suggesting higher community participation among this group, and quality of life was generally high among all participants, but slightly higher for drivers. Findings indicate that a complex myriad of factors can influence community mobility in older adults and further investigations are needed to understand patterns of transport in later life, particularly with regard to those factors that promote and maintain transport mobility, and relationships between transport mobility, community participation and quality of life.
A dispute brought before an international court or tribunal pursuant to a compromissory clause in a specific treaty may involve issues under rules of international law found outside of the treaty in question. In what circumstances can a court or tribunal determine such external issues? At present, there is no clear answer to this question. This article sets out a framework for how courts and tribunals exercising jurisdiction under compromissory clauses could approach external issues.
Due to climate change, worldwide glaciers are rapidly declining. The trend will continue into the future, with consequences for sea level, water availability and tourism. Here, we assess the future evolution of all glaciers in Scandinavia and Iceland until 2100 using the coupled surface mass-balance ice-flow model GloGEMflow. The model is initialised with three distinct past climate data products (E-OBS, ERA-I, ERA-5), while future climate is prescribed by both global and regional climate models (GCMs and RCMs), in order to analyze their impact on glacier evolution. By 2100, we project Scandinavian glaciers to lose between 67 ± 18% and 90 ± 7% of their present-day (2018) volume under a low (RCP2.6) and a high (RCP8.5) emission scenario, respectively. Over the same period, losses for Icelandic glaciers are projected to be between 43 ± 11% (RCP2.6) and 85 ± 7% (RCP8.5). The projected evolution is only little impacted by both the choice of climate data products used in the past and the spatial resolution of the future climate projections, with differences in the ice volume remaining by 2100 of 7 and 5%, respectively. This small sensitivity is attributed to our model calibration strategy that relies on observed glacier-specific mass balances and thus compensates for differences between climate forcing products.
Individuals with intellectual disabilities face discrimination on a daily basis. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the systemic ableism that is embedded within American culture, particularly through healthcare bias and discrimination. In turn, this creates further marginalization during diagnosis, triage, and treatment of the novel coronavirus. Multiple states have filed complaints against state triage protocols that suggest an abled life is more worthy than a life with a disability. Although many of these protocols have been updated and replaced, generalized triage statements fail to address healthcare bias that is embedded within the American system. In addition to the existing solutions, proposed solutions to addressing healthcare bias include integrating social workers into the emergency management process and the overall disaster management field. To combat bias and ableism across the healthcare system, a social justice perspective which highlights discrimination, inequalities, and inequities in overall individual care must be adopted.
Adolescents who hold an entity theory of personality – the belief that people cannot change – are more likely to report internalizing symptoms during the socially stressful transition to high school. It has been puzzling, however, why a cognitive belief about the potential for change predicts symptoms of an affective disorder. The present research integrated three models – implicit theories, hopelessness theories of depression, and the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat – to shed light on this issue. Study 1 replicated the link between an entity theory and internalizing symptoms by synthesizing multiple datasets (N = 6,910). Study 2 examined potential mechanisms underlying this link using 8-month longitudinal data and 10-day diary reports during the stressful first year of high school (N = 533, 3,199 daily reports). The results showed that an entity theory of personality predicted increases in internalizing symptoms through tendencies to make fixed trait causal attributions about the self and maladaptive (i.e., “threat”) stress appraisals. The findings support an integrative model whereby situation-general beliefs accumulate negative consequences for psychopathology via situation-specific attributions and appraisals.
Roads affect wildlife in a variety of negative ways. Road ecology studies have mostly concentrated on areas in the northern hemisphere despite the potentially greater impact of roads on biodiversity in tropical habitats. Here, we examine 4 years (January 2016–December 2019) of opportunistic observations of mammalian roadkill along a road intersecting Jozani-Chwaka Bay National Park, Unguja, Zanzibar. In particular, we assess the impact of collisions on the population of an endemic primate, the Endangered Zanzibar red colobus Piliocolobus kirkii. Primates accounted for the majority of roadkill in this dataset. Monthly rainfall was not associated with roadkill frequency for mammals generally, nor for the Zanzibar red colobus. No single age–sex class of colobus was found dead more often than expected given their occurrence in the local population. The overall effect of roadkill on colobus populations in habitats fragmented by roads is unknown given the lack of accurate, long-term life history data for this species. Our findings suggest that mortality from collisions with vehicles in some groups of colobus is within the range of mortality rates other primates experience under natural predation. Unlike natural predators, however, vehicles do not kill selectively, so their impact on populations may differ. Although a comparison with historical accounts suggests that the installation of speedbumps along the road near the Park's entrance has led to a significant decrease in colobus roadkill, further actions to mitigate the impact of the road could bring substantial conservation benefits.
Assess the acute and short-term haemodynamic impact of transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation on left ventricular systolic and diastolic function stratified by pre-transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation physiology.
Transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation is a widely available option to treat residual or recurrent pulmonary stenosis and pulmonary insufficiency. Transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation acutely increases pulmonary artery size and diastolic pressure in patients with pulmonary insufficiency and acute pulmonary edema has been reported after transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation, possibly related to acute left ventricular volume loading. However, the impact of transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation on left ventricular diastolic function has not been established.
Patients who underwent transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation from 2010 to 2017 at our centre were grouped by indication for transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation as pulmonary stenosis, pulmonary insufficiency, or mixed disease. Separate analysis was performed on those who underwent transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation for pulmonary stenosis versus pulmonary insufficiency or mixed disease. Intracardiac haemodynamics immediately before and after transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation and echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function at baseline, 1-day post transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation, and 1-year post transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation were compared between groups.
In 102 patients who underwent transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation, the indication was pulmonary stenosis in 29 (28%), pulmonary insufficiency in 28 (29%), and mixed disease in 44 (43%). There were no significant differences in left ventricular systolic or diastolic function between groups at baseline, immediately after transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation, or 1-year post implantation. The mean pulmonary artery wedge pressure increased equally across groups.
While patients with pulmonary insufficiency likely have acute left ventricular volume loading following transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation, this does not appear to be haemodynamically significant as transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation was not associated with measurable changes in left ventricular systolic or diastolic function acutely or 1-year post implantation.
This chapter traces the evolution of the international monetary system and the management of sterling from Britain's suspension of convertibility in September 1931 to the eve of Franklin Roosevelt's inauguration in March 1933. To influence the pound's value now that it was no longer tied to gold, Britain created the Exchange Equalisation Account, an innovation of lasting consequence that led to accusations of currency manipulation. All the while, the world splintered into monetary blocs: many countries followed sterling's lead, some recommitted to gold, and others found refuge in exchange controls. This fragmentation, coupled with sterling's depreciation, the secrecy with which London employed the fund to manage the pound, and the increasing tendency of all to view policy in zero-sum terms, drowned the powers in bad blood and brought monetary cooperation to a halt.
This chapter narrates the twists and turns in monetary relations that culminated in the Tripartite Agreement. After discussing the franc's deteriorating position from the spring of 1935 and the implications for Britain's management of the pound, it turns to the pivotal Anglo-American relationship. Distrust was pervasive, but the two sides eventually came to an understanding, assuring each other that they would not further depreciate their currencies in response to a fall in the franc. With London and Washington talking again, there was now space for an agreement to facilitate French devaluation. The resulting Tripartite Agreement, announced on September 26, 1936, set forth revolutionary principles for monetary cooperation, including the rejection of competitive depreciation and exchange controls. With time, the Agreement--informal and vague, unconventional and pathbreaking--would turn the page on the chaos of earlier years and redefine the international monetary landscape.