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We examined demographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics of a large cohort (n = 368) of adults with dissociative seizures (DS) recruited to the CODES randomised controlled trial (RCT) and explored differences associated with age at onset of DS, gender, and DS semiology.
Prior to randomisation within the CODES RCT, we collected demographic and clinical data on 368 participants. We assessed psychiatric comorbidity using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) and a screening measure of personality disorder and measured anxiety, depression, psychological distress, somatic symptom burden, emotional expression, functional impact of DS, avoidance behaviour, and quality of life. We undertook comparisons based on reported age at DS onset (<40 v. ⩾40), gender (male v. female), and DS semiology (predominantly hyperkinetic v. hypokinetic).
Our cohort was predominantly female (72%) and characterised by high levels of socio-economic deprivation. Two-thirds had predominantly hyperkinetic DS. Of the total, 69% had ⩾1 comorbid M.I.N.I. diagnosis (median number = 2), with agoraphobia being the most common concurrent diagnosis. Clinical levels of distress were reported by 86% and characteristics associated with maladaptive personality traits by 60%. Moderate-to-severe functional impairment, high levels of somatic symptoms, and impaired quality of life were also reported. Women had a younger age at DS onset than men.
Our study highlights the burden of psychopathology and socio-economic deprivation in a large, heterogeneous cohort of patients with DS. The lack of clear differences based on gender, DS semiology and age at onset suggests these factors do not add substantially to the heterogeneity of the cohort.
To describe the types of psychotropic drugs ingested during intentional drug overdose (IDO) in subjects consecutively admitted to an emergency department and to assess which ones were a prognostic factor associated with increased morbidity during hospitalization.
Demographic characteristics, psychiatric history, current drug treatment, characteristics of the IDO were collected for 1654 patients admitted for IDO with psychotropic drugs (anxiolytics, hypnotics, antidepressants, antipsychotics and mood stabilizers). IDOs were a priori categorized as serious if associated with at least one of the following outcomes or technical events: death, hospitalization in the ED longer than 48 hours, respiratory support, use of vasopressive drugs, cardiac massage or dialysis. All types of psychotropic drugs were entered into a logistic regression model adjusted for age and gender. A stepwise selection was used to assess the types independently associated with serious IDO. Then, numerous confounding variables were entered one at a time in the final model.
Nearly all the patients ingested psychotropic medications during the IDO (88.4%), most often benzodiazepines (71.6%), and half used at least two various psychotropic products. Serious IDO was associated with tricyclics (OR 5.7; 95%CI 3.3-9.8), lithium (OR 4.3; 95%CI 1.6-11.6), carbamates (OR 2.7; 95%CI 1.8-4), anticonvulsants (OR 2.4: 95%CI 1.4-4.3), first-generation antipsychotics (OR 2.4; 95%CI 1.7-3.5) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.1-2.3).
Some drugs may be dangerous because of low toxic doses; prescriptions of short duration may be recommended. Moreover, for safety reasons, prescribers may prefer SSRIs to tricyclics and benzodiazepines to carbamates or phenothiazines.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a significant public health concern closely linked to obesity, affecting an estimated 25% of adults in Europe. Understudied in Ireland, the aim of this research was to examine the effects of a 12-week multi-component dietary intervention on weight loss and markers of liver injury in Irish NAFLD patients in tertiary care. Biopsy confirmed NAFLD patients (n = 27) were recruited from St James’ Hospital in Dublin, Ireland. Consenting participants underwent a 12-week moderate-intensity intervention incorporating weekly group nutritional education, behavioural change and group support, as well as individualised advice and weigh-ins from a trained nutritionist. Control group participants were given routine clinical care. All participants were clinically reviewed before, immediately after, and 3 months post intervention. Individuals (n = 12) with histological evidence of steatohepatitis underwent a repeat liver biopsy on completion of the intervention. Detailed dietary assessment was performed using both a 4-day diet diary (4DDD) and a novel, recently validated, short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) designed specifically to assess habitual intakes of food items related to NAFLD. Nutrient intakes were analysed using myFood24TM dietary analysis software, and the Mediterranean diet quality score (MDQS) was used to assess the overall change in dietary patterns. Of the 15 participants who completed the intervention, 80% (n = 12) achieved a weight loss exceeding 5%, with 47% (n = 7) achieving > 7%. There were significant improvements from baseline to week 12 in the intervention group for the majority of clinical parameters including HbA1c (p = 0.0054), liver enzymes (ALT, p = 0.0108; GGT, p = 0.0001) and transient elastography (kPA, p = 0.0308; CAP, p = 0.0081). However, these results failed to maintain significance when analysed compared to controls. The overall dietary pattern was significantly improved after 12 weeks as assessed by the MDQS (p = 0.03), with no apparent compromise in micronutrient intake despite the energy reduction. Reductions in energy, saturated fat, carbohydrate and sugar intakes at 12 weeks, were maintained at three months follow up. Analysis of pre- and post-intervention liver biopsies in the intervention group demonstrated a clinically significant improvement in NAS score (p = 0.0273), attributable to reductions in hepatic steatosis (p = 0.0078). A significant correlation was observed between improvement in liver histology and change in sugar intake (r = 0.7534, p = 0.0093). Although results were somewhat limited by small sample size, nutritional education achieved beneficial dietary changes that persisted after the intervention ceased. Notably, achieving reductions in sugar intakes may be particularly beneficial in reducing the severity of hepatic steatosis in Irish adults with NAFLD.
Perinatal depression is a depressive illness that affects 10–15% of women in the UK with an estimated cost of £1.8 billion/year. Zinc deficiency is associated with the development of mood disorders and zinc supplementation has been shown to help reduce the symptoms of depression. Women who are pregnant and breastfeeding are at risk of lower levels of zinc because of the high demand from the developing and feeding baby. However, studies in the perinatal period are limited. With a long-term aim of designing a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to examine if zinc supplementation reduces depressive symptoms in pregnant and lactating women;the objective of this review was to systematically evaluate previous RCTs assessing zinc supplementation and depressive symptoms, in order to establish a zinc dosing regimen with regards to Galenic formulation, unit dose and frequency. The review was conducted by independent reviewers in accordance with PRISMA guidelines and is registered at Prospero (CRD42017059205). The Allied and Complimentary Medicine, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Cochrane databases were searched since records began, with no restrictions, for intervention trials assessing Galenic formulation, unit dose and frequency of zinc supplementation to reduce the symptoms of depression. From a total of 66 identified records, 7 articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria; all assessed the effect of zinc supplementation on mood. Risk of bias was independently assessed using the standard ‘Cochrane risk of bias tool’. Overall, 5 of the 7 papers were rated as high-quality trials; of the other two, one was rated poor and the other fair but both had a number of learning points. Preliminary findings indicate at the end of supplementing zinc, depression scores were reduced significantly. In one study, the Beck score decreased in the placebo group, but this reduction was not significant compared to the baseline. In two of the studies there was a significant correlation between serum zinc and self-reported mood questionnaires. Results also suggest that 25 mg zinc supplementation combined with antidepressant drugs can be effective in the treatment of major depression in women. This supports other work where researchers supplemented 25 mg of elemental zinc for 12 weeks or longer and found a reduction of symptoms in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Thus, an early conclusion is that 25 mg of elemental zinc is an effective dose for improving low mood and is achievable in a trial setting.
Recent comparisons between classical Wagner theory for the impact of two liquid droplets and direct numerical simulations in Cimpeanu & Moore (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 856, 2018, pp. 764–796) show that, in some regimes, the inviscid theory over-predicts the thickness of the root of the splash jet that forms in the impact, while also struggling to predict the angle at which the jet is emitted. The effect of capillary and viscous perturbations to Helmholtz flows was investigated in a previous study, see Moore et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 742, 2014, R1). However, the paper in question ignored a term in the second-order perturbation analysis, which needs to be included in order to predict the displacement of the inviscid free boundary to lowest order. In this paper, we derive a singular integro-differential equation for the free-surface perturbations caused by viscosity in Helmholtz flows and discuss its application both in the context of Wagner theory and more generally. In particular, viscosity can induce non-monotonic behaviour in the free boundary profiles near points of maximum curvature.
Moral reasoning and decision making help guide behavior and facilitate interpersonal relationships. Accounts of morality that position commonsense psychology as the foundation of moral development, (i.e., rationalist theories) have dominated research in morality in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Given the well-documented differences in commonsense psychology among autistic individuals, researchers have investigated whether the development and execution of moral judgement and reasoning differs in this population compared with neurotypical individuals. In light of the diverse findings of investigations of moral development and reasoning in ASD, a summation and critical evaluation of the literature could help make sense of what is known about this important social-cognitive skill in ASD. To that end, we conducted a systematic review of the literature investigating moral decision making among autistic children and adults. Our search identified 29 studies. In this review, we synthesize the research in the area and provide suggestions for future research. Such research could include the application of an alternative theoretical framework to studying morality in autism spectrum disorder that does not assume a deficits-based perspective.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
With regionalized trauma care, medical transport times can be prolonged, requiring paramedics to manage patient care and symptoms. Our objective was to evaluate pain management during air transport of trauma patients.
We conducted a 12-month review of electronic paramedic records from a provincial critical care transport agency. Patients were included if they were ≥18 years old and underwent air transport to a trauma centre, and excluded if they were Glasgow Coma Scale score <14, intubated, or accompanied by a physician or nurse. Demographics, injury description, and transportation parameters were recorded. Outcomes included pain assessment via 11-point numerical rating scale, patterns of analgesia administration, and analgesia-related adverse events. Results were reported as mean ± standard deviation, [range], (percentage).
We included 372 patients: 47.0 years old; 262 males; 361 blunt injuries. Transport duration was 82.4 ± 46.3 minutes. In 232 (62.4%) patients who received analgesia, baseline numerical rating scale was 5.9 ± 2.5. Fentanyl was most commonly administered at 44.3 [25–60] mcg. Numerical rating scale after first analgesia dose decreased by 1.1 [-2–7]. Thereafter, 171 (73.7%) patients received 2.4 [1-18] additional doses. While 44 (23.4%) patients had no change in numerical rating scale after first analgesia dose, subsequent doses resulted in no change in numerical rating scale in over 65% of patients. There were 43 adverse events recorded, with nausea the most commonly reported (39.5%).
Initial and subsequent dose(s) of analgesic had minimal effect on pain as assessed via numerical rating scale, likely due in part to inadequate dosing. Future research is required to determine and address the barriers to proper analgesia.
The sternocleidomastoid can be used as a pedicled flap in head and neck reconstruction. It has previously been associated with high complication rates, likely due in part to the variable nature of its blood supply.
To provide clinicians with an up-to-date review of clinical outcomes of sternocleidomastoid flap surgery in head and neck reconstruction, integrated with a review of vascular anatomical studies of the sternocleidomastoid.
A literature search of the Medline and Web of Science databases was conducted. Complications were analysed for each study. The trend in success rates was analysed by date of the study.
Reported complication rates have improved over time. The preservation of two vascular pedicles rather than one may have contributed to improved outcomes.
The sternocleidomastoid flap is a versatile option for patients where prolonged free flap surgery is inappropriate. Modern vascular imaging techniques could optimise pre-operative planning.
The Wisconsin Twin Project comprises multiple longitudinal studies that span infancy to early adulthood. We summarize recent papers that show how twin designs with deep phenotyping, including biological measures, can inform questions about phenotypic structure, etiology, comorbidity, heterogeneity, and gene–environment interplay of temperamental constructs and mental and physical health conditions of children and adolescents. The general framework for investigations begins with rich characterization of early temperament and follows with study of experiences and exposures across childhood and adolescence. Many studies incorporate neuroimaging and hormone assays.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To explore rural African American parents’ and their community advisors’ perspectives on the Safety Baby Shower’s acceptability, feasibility, and adaptability. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Collaborating with a local community organization, we explored community advisors’ and expectant women’s SBS experiences to understand intervention delivery and adoption in a rural underserved community (RUC). The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research guided our data collection and analysis using focus groups and key informant interviews. We used directed content analysis to generate themes and sub codes. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Five focus groups (21 participants) and one key informant interview were conducted. Identified barriers that hinder feasibility and acceptability included resources, time/ flexibility, intervention location, cultural norms and beliefs, and the lack of a birthing hospital in the county. “Baby proofing”, “reinforcement products” and “teaching sleep safety on the same day as infant clinical appointment” are expectant mothers’ exemplars for what comes to their minds when asked to think about safety baby showers. To improve feasibility, both community advisors and expectant mothers suggested adaptations ranging from decentralizing or rotating intervention location, using different delivery sites such as churches, scheduling intervention outside business hours, to incorporating intervention into school health fairs and barbeque events. Social media emerged as a facilitator, and integrating safe sleep education into personal baby showers emerged as an implementation strategy. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The community advisors and expectant mothers identified a wide spectrum of potential adaptations that have potential to improve safe sleep knowledge and practices. In the next study phase, identified themes will inform intervention adaptation and suggested implementation strategies will support uptake of the adapted SBS. Identifying transformative implementation strategies and conducting a community-informed SBS adaptation using a collective decision-making process between intervention experts and local community partners will support improved safety baby shower delivery, adoption and sustainability in RUCs.
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have an impact on women's adaptation to parenthood, but mechanisms are poorly understood. Autonomic nervous system reactivity was tested as a potential mediating mechanism in a sample of 193 at-risk primiparous women. ACEs were measured retrospectively during pregnancy. A baby cry-response task was administered during pregnancy while indicators of sympathetic reactivity (pre-ejection period; PEP) and parasympathetic reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA) were recorded. Parenting self-efficacy, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were measured during pregnancy and 1 year after giving birth. Harsh discipline was measured 2 years after giving birth. Structural equation modeling was employed to test whether baseline PEP and RSA and reactivity mediated links between ACEs and postnatal outcomes, adjusted for prenatal variables. High ACEs predicted less RSA reactivity (p = .02), which subsequently predicted increases in depressive symptoms (p = .03). The indirect effect was not significant (p = .06). There was no indirect link between high ACEs and harsh parenting through PEP nor RSA (n = 98). The parasympathetic nervous system may be involved in negative affective responses in the transition to parenthood among women exposed to childhood trauma.
In a cohort of inpatients with hematologic malignancy and positive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Clostridium difficile tests, we found that clinical characteristics and outcomes were similar between these groups. The method of testing is unlikely to predict infection in this population, and PCR-positive results should be treated with concern.
Traumatic stressors during childhood and adolescence are associated with psychopathology, mostly studied in the context of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. We investigated broader associations of traumatic stress exposure with psychopathology and cognition in a youth community sample.
The Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (N = 9498) is an investigation of clinical and neurobehavioral phenotypes in a diverse (56% Caucasian, 33% African American, 11% other) US youth community population (aged 8–21). Participants were ascertained through children's hospital pediatric (not psychiatric) healthcare network in 2009–2011. Structured psychiatric evaluation included screening for lifetime exposure to traumatic stressors, and a neurocognitive battery was administered.
Exposure rate to traumatic stressful events was high (none, N = 5204; one, N = 2182; two, N = 1092; three or more, N = 830). Higher stress load was associated with increased psychopathology across all clinical domains evaluated: mood/anxiety (standardized β = .378); psychosis spectrum (β = .360); externalizing behaviors (β = .311); and fear (β = .256) (controlling for covariates, all p < 0.001). Associations remained significant controlling for lifetime PTSD and depression. Exposure to high-stress load was robustly associated with suicidal ideation and cannabis use (odds ratio compared with non-exposed 5.3 and 3.2, respectively, both p < 0.001). Among youths who experienced traumatic stress (N = 4104), history of assaultive trauma was associated with greater psychopathology and, in males, vulnerability to psychosis and externalizing symptoms. Stress load was negatively associated with performance on executive functioning, complex reasoning, and social cognition.
Traumatic stress exposure in community non-psychiatric help-seeking youth is substantial, and is associated with more severe psychopathology and neurocognitive deficits across domains, beyond PTSD and depression.