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This chapter seeks to evaluate how student users of English are viewed beyond the English-as-school-subject curriculum, both in and out of classrooms. In particular, it exposes some of the tangible effects of ontologies of English in the education context, with important implications for education policy. Despite extensive scholarly work in Applied Linguistics offering positive reconceptualisations of language use in a variety of approaches, such as World Englishes, English as a Lingua Franca, and translanguaging (e.g. Creese and Blackledge, 2010; Hornberger and Link, 2012; García and Wei, 2014; García and Kleyn, 2016), the notion of a ‘target’ for the learning and teaching of ‘good English’ for most monolingual mainstream teachers in the United Kingdom remains based on the norms of Standard English, or N-English (to adopt the categorisation terminology proposed by Hall, this volume). For more discussion on the nature of linguistic norms, see Harder (this volume). In this chapter, I show how the presentation of Standard English as the ideal, on the assumption that it is “the language we have in common” (DES, 1988, p. 14), alienates not just multilingual learners of English but also many school children who would regard themselves as first-language English speakers.
The prevalence and impact of motor coordination difficulties in children with copy number variants associated with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND-CNVs) remains unknown. This study aims to advance understanding of motor coordination difficulties in children with ND-CNVs and establish relationships between intelligence quotient (IQ) and psychopathology.
169 children with an ND-CNV (67% male, median age = 8.88 years, range 6.02–14.81) and 72 closest-in-age unaffected siblings (controls; 55% male, median age = 10.41 years, s.d. = 3.04, range 5.89–14.75) were assessed with the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire, alongside psychiatric interviews and standardised assessments of IQ.
The children with ND-CNVs had poorer coordination ability (b = 28.98, p < 0.001) and 91% of children with an ND-CNV screened positive for suspected developmental coordination disorder, compared to 19% of controls (OR = 42.53, p < 0.001). There was no difference in coordination ability between ND-CNV genotypes (F = 1.47, p = 0.184). Poorer coordination in children with ND-CNV was associated with more attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (β = −0.18, p = 0.021) and autism spectrum disorder trait (β = −0.46, p < 0.001) symptoms, along with lower full-scale (ß = 0.21, p = 0.011), performance (β = −0.20, p = 0.015) and verbal IQ (β = 0.17, p = 0.036). Mediation analysis indicated that coordination ability was a full mediator of anxiety symptoms (69% mediated, p = 0.012), and a partial mediator of ADHD (51%, p = 0.001) and autism spectrum disorder trait symptoms (66%, p < 0.001) as well as full scale IQ (40%, p = 0.002), performance IQ (40%, p = 0.005) and verbal IQ (38%, p = 0.006) scores.
The findings indicate that poor motor coordination is highly prevalent and closely linked to risk of mental health disorder and lower intellectual function in children with ND-CNVs. Future research should explore whether early interventions for poor coordination ability could ameliorate neurodevelopmental risk.
The authors report on 7Li, 19F, and 1H pulsed field gradient NMR measurements of 26 organosilyl nitrile solvent-based electrolytes of either lithium bis(trifluorosulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) or lithium hexafluorophosphate. Lithium transport numbers (as high as 0.50) were measured and are highest in the LiTFSI electrolytes. The authors also report on solvent blend electrolytes of fluoroorganosilyl (FOS) nitrile solvent mixed with ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethyl carbonate. Solvent diffusion measurements on an electrolyte with 6% FOS suggest both the FOS and EC solvate the lithium cation. By comparing lithium transport and transference numbers, the authors find less ion pairing in FOS nitrile carbonate blend electrolytes and difluoroorganosilyl nitrile electrolytes.
Although this text is regularly classed among the early narratives of Mary’s dormition and assumption, the Coptic Homily on the Theotokos attributed to Cyril of Jerusalem is actually an early example of a Life, or vita, of the Virgin Mary, and indeed, it is one of the earliest such texts to survive.
The veneration of the Mother of God and the imagery dedicated to her developed gradually in the Early Christian Church. Scholars still struggle to single out the earliest and most relevant evidence for the cult of the Virgin and to determine the starting point of devotion that is specifically Marian in focus.
The story of the Annunciation (Lk 1:26–38) inspired a flourishing tradition of homiletic and hymnographic literature in early Christianity. A recurring feature of this strand was the portrayal of characters through dialogue.
This book explores how the Virgin Mary's life is told in hymns, sermons, icons, art, and other media in the Byzantine Empire before AD 1204. A group of international specialists examines material and textual evidence from both Byzantine and Muslim-ruled territories that was intended for a variety of settings and audiences and seeks to explain why Byzantine artisans and writers chose to tell stories about Mary, the Mother of God, in such different ways. Sometimes the variation reflected the theological or narrative purposes of story-tellers; sometimes it expressed their personal spiritual preoccupations. Above all, the variety of aspects that this holy figure assumed in Byzantium reveals her paradoxical theological position as meeting-place and mediator between the divine and created realms. Narrative, whether 'historical', theological, or purely literary, thus played a fundamental role in the development of the Marian cult from Late Antiquity onward.