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Seed shatter is an important weediness trait on which the efficacy of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) depends. The level of seed shatter in a species is likely influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed shatter of eight economically important grass weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to four weeks after maturity at multiple sites spread across eleven states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic U.S. From soybean maturity to four weeks after maturity, cumulative percent seed shatter was lowest in the southern U.S. regions and increased as the states moved further north. At soybean maturity, the percent of seed shatter ranged from 1 to 70%. That range had shifted to 5 to 100% (mean: 42%) by 25 days after soybean maturity. There were considerable differences in seed shatter onset and rate of progression between sites and years in some species that could impact their susceptibility to HWSC. Our results suggest that many summer annual grass species are likely not ideal candidates for HWSC, although HWSC could substantially reduce their seed output at during certain years.
) denote the number of odd-balanced unimodal sequences of size
with even parts congruent to
) and odd parts at most half the peak. We prove that two-variable generating functions for
are simultaneously quantum Jacobi forms and mock Jacobi forms. These odd-balanced unimodal rank generating functions are also duals to partial theta functions originally studied by Ramanujan. Our results also show that there is a single
to which the errors to modularity of these two different functions extend. We also exploit the quantum Jacobi properties of these generating functions to show, when viewed as functions of the two variables
, how they can be expressed as the same simple Laurent polynomial when evaluated at pairs of roots of unity. Finally, we make a conjecture which fully characterizes the parity of the number of odd-balanced unimodal sequences of size
with even parts congruent to
and odd parts at most half the peak.
Strategies that reduce the time to antimicrobial administration, such as the availability of premix antimicrobials (PMAs) in the emergency department (ED), may better align with the goals of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign and improve outcomes in septic patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of antimicrobial preparation on time to administration in septic patients located in the emergency department (ED).
This was a retrospective, single-center, cohort study and adult patients with a diagnosis of sepsis who received at least one initial intravenous (IV) antimicrobial in the ED were included. Time to complete an empiric antimicrobial therapy was defined as the time between prescriber order entry and the infusion initiation time of the final antimicrobial agent of a patient’s antimicrobial regimen. Appropriate, empiric antimicrobial therapy was based on treatment recommendations by nationally accepted guidelines for the specific indication.
The first antimicrobial was initiated earlier when available as a PMA preparation (median (IQR): premix 25 minutes (16.5-42.3) vs. non-premix 46 minutes (20-102), p=0.027). When comparing complete, empiric antimicrobial regimen administration, there was no difference in time to administration between regimens containing one or more non-premix antimicrobials and regimens containing all PMAs (median (IQR): premix 69 minutes (21-115) vs. non-premix 65 minutes (38.5-133.8); p=0.455).
PMA preparations significantly reduced time to administration of the first antimicrobial agent for septic patients treated in the ED, but time to administration of subsequent antimicrobials were not improved.
To determine the relative risk of invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection among non-colonized (NC) patients, intermittently colonized (IC) patients, and persistently colonized (PC) patients.
Observational cohort study of patient data collected longitudinally over a 41-month period.
Department of Veterans Affairs Eastern Colorado Healthcare System, a tertiary care medical center.
Any patient who received ≥5 MRSA nasal swab tests between February 20, 2010, and July 26, 2013. In total, 3,872 patients met these criteria, 0 were excluded, 95% were male, 71% were white, and the mean age was 62.9 years on the date of study entry.
Patients were divided into cohorts based on MRSA colonization status. Physicians reviewed medical records to identify invasive infection and were blinded to colonization status. Cox and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to assess the relationship between colonization status and invasive infection.
In total, 102 patients developed invasive MRSA infections, 16.3% of these were PC patients, 11.2% of these were IC patients, and 0.5% of these were NC patients. PC patients were at higher risk of invasive infection than NC patients (hazard ratio [HR] 36.8; 95% CI, 18.4–73.6; P<.001). IC patients were also at higher risk than NC patients (HR, 22.8; 95% CI, 13.3–39.3; P<.001). The difference in risk between PC and IC patients was not statistically significant (HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 0.94–2.78, P=.084). Alternate analysis methods confirmed these results.
The risk of invasive MRSA infection is much higher among PC and IC patients, supporting routine clinical testing for colonization. However, this risk is similar among PC and IC patients, suggesting that distinguishing between the 2 colonization states may not be clinically important.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1292–1297
The LOw Frequency ARray – LOFAR – is a new radio interferometer designed with emphasis on flexible digital hardware instead of mechanical solutions. The array elements, so-called stations, are located in the Netherlands and in neighbouring countries. The design of LOFAR allows independent use of its international stations, which, coupled with a dedicated backend, makes them very powerful telescopes in their own right. This backend is called the Advanced Radio Transient Event Monitor and Identification System (ARTEMIS). It is a combined software/hardware solution for both targeted observations and real-time searches for millisecond radio transients which uses Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) technology to remove interstellar dispersion and detect millisecond radio bursts from astronomical sources in real-time.
The confounding effects of heterogeneity in biological psychiatry and psychiatric genetics have been widely discussed in the literature. We suggest an approach in which heterogeneity may be put to use in hypothesis testing, and may find application in evaluation of the Crespi & Badcock (C&B) imprinting hypothesis. Here we consider three potential sources of etiologic subtypes for analysis.
The requirement of competency is perhaps less controversial than the mandate for zealousness. Media and lay portrayals of the evils of the legal system circle around a mistaken understanding of the meaning and importance of zealousness, which has become synonymous with frivolous causes of action and with grand incivility among those involved in the legal system. It is not surprising, therefore, that the express requirement of Canon 7 of the ABA Code of Professional Responsibility that “[a] lawyer should represent a client zealously within the bounds of the law” was eliminated from the ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct except in the Preamble and Comments. And the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers has noted that zealous representation “is not always appropriate in family law matters.” In contrast, the concept of competence has received a radically different reception by the public and bar, and it is not surprising that it is the first rule in the ABA Model Rules of Professional Responsibility.
Rather than disappearing, the requirement of competency has not only survived numerous ethical code iterations but it has also been refined and expanded. For instance, in many jurisdictions competency to represent children in child dependency proceedings now requires knowledge in areas well beyond legal theory. For instance, in California the superior court is required to screen and appoint “competent” counsel with sufficient minimum standards of education in “the law of juvenile dependency” and in “child development, child abuse and neglect, substance abuse, [and] domestic violence….”
This case involves four family members, Gail Car (mother), William Car (father), Tifini Car (sister), and Ming Car (sister), in a child abuse dependency action alleging that Gail threw hot water on Tifini, causing her severe burns. The petition also alleges that Tifini is an uncontrollable child who needs to be placed in a court-supervised grouphomewhere shewill learn the importance of being responsible and of following the reasonable demands of her adult custodian. Attached to this set of General Instructions youwill find a 12-page dependency court file that contains all pleadings in the instant case.
Your responsibility in this negotiation and/or mediation is to represent your client(s) during a preadjudication (pretrial) negotiation. You should seek to perfect your client's interests while attempting to resolve this dispute without the necessity of a formal trial (the adjudication hearing). It should be noted that the Department's responsibility is to represent the best interests of the children as determined by the Department. Because the Department's views regarding the children's best interests may conflict with the children's expressed desires, the Code of Professional Responsibility may require the appointment of separate counsel for the children. Assume that you represent both children, Tifini and Ming Car.
The dependency petition alleges that Tifini Car sustained second-degree burns to her body that would not have occurred except for the unreasonable neglectful or intentional acts by her mother, Gail Car. The following petition supplies all the relevant facts.
It is known that approximately 43 percent of marriages in America end in divorce. Even though millions of our children's lives are dramatically affected by the family law child custody system, the shifting character of relationships in the United States is having an equally important impact on children's lives. By 1994 approximately 11 percent of children were born out of wedlock, and 40 percent of American children would live with “their unmarried mother and her boyfriend some time before their 16th birthday….” In 1994 of the 18.6 million children living in single-family homes, two-thirds of those children had one parent as a result of divorce or legal separation. Research has also demonstrated a direct correlation between unwed pregnancy or single-parent families and poverty, poor health, child abuse, and juvenile delinquency. It is therefore not surprising that annually there are more than 2.9 million reports of child abuse in this country and that a significant percentage of those reports result in child dependency actions.
Family child custody and child dependency proceedings take up a significant portion of states' judicial calendars. For instance, in California in the 1998–9 fiscal year there were 1,594,807 civil filings. Of those civil filings, there were 155,920 family law cases and 41,890 child dependency proceedings, for a cumulative total of 12.5 percent of all civilly litigated disputes.