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Glufosinate is an effective postemergence herbicide, and overreliance on this herbicide for weed control is likely to increase and select for glufosinate-resistant weeds. Common assays to confirm herbicide resistance are dose–response and molecular sequencing techniques; both can require significant time, labor, unique technical equipment, and a specialized skillset to perform. As an alternative, we propose an image-based approach that uses a relatively inexpensive multispectral sensor designed for unmanned aerial vehicles to measure and quantify surface reflectance from glufosinate-treated leaf disks. Leaf disks were excised from a glufosinate-resistant and glufosinate-susceptible corn (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] varieties and placed into a 24-well plate containing eight different concentrations (0 to 10 mM) of glufosinate for 48 h. Multispectral images were collected after the 48-h incubation period across five discrete wave bands: blue (475 to 507 nm), green (560 to 587 nm), red (668to 682 nm), red edge (717 to 729 nm), and near infrared (842 to 899 nm). The green leaf index (GLI; a metric to measure chlorophyll content) was utilized to determine relationships between measured reflectance from the tested wave bands from the treated leaf disks and the glufosinate concentration. Clear differences of spectral reflectance were observed between the corn, cotton, and soybean leaf disks of the glufosinate-resistant and glufosinate-susceptible varieties at the 10 mM concentration for select wave bands and GLI. Leaf disks from two additional glufosinate-resistant and glufosinate-susceptible varieties of each crop were subjected to a similar assay with two concentrations: 0 and 10 mM. No differences of spectral reflectance were observed from the corn and soybean varieties in all wave bands and the GLI. The leaf disks of the glufosinate-resistant and glufosinate-susceptible cotton varieties were spectrally distinct in the green, blue, and red-edge wave bands. The results provide a basis for rapidly detecting glufosinate-resistant plants via spectral reflectance. Future research will need to determine the glufosinate concentrations, useful wave bands, and susceptible/resistant thresholds for weeds that evolve resistance.
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) populations resistant to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides and glyphosate are fairly common throughout the state of North Carolina (NC). This has led farm managers to rely more heavily on herbicides with other sites of action (SOA) for A. palmeri control, especially protoporphyrinogen oxidase and glutamine synthetase inhibitors. In the fall of 2016, seeds from A. palmeri populations were collected from the NC Coastal Plain, the state’s most prominent agricultural region. In separate experiments, plants with 2 to 4 leaves from the 110 populations were treated with field use rates of glyphosate, glufosinate-ammonium, fomesafen, mesotrione, or thifensulfuron-methyl. Percent visible control and survival were evaluated 3 wk after treatment. Survival frequencies were highest following glyphosate (99%) or thifensulfuron-methyl (96%) treatment. Known mutations conferring resistance to ALS inhibitors were found in populations surviving thifensulfuron-methyl application (Ala-122-Ser, Pro-197-Ser, Trp-574-Leu, and/or Ser-653-Asn), in addition to a new mutation (Ala-282-Asp) that requires further investigation. Forty-two populations had survivors after mesotrione application, with one population having 17% survival. Four populations survived fomesafen treatment, while none survived glufosinate. Dose–response studies showed an increase in fomesafen needed to kill 50% of two populations (LD50); however, these rates were far below the field use rate (less than 5 g ha−1). In two populations following mesotrione dose–response studies, a 2.4- to 3.3-fold increase was noted, with LD90 values approaching the field use rate (72.8 and 89.8 g ha−1). Screening of the progeny of individuals surviving mesotrione confirmed the presence of resistance alleles, as there were a higher number of survivors at the 1X rate compared with the parent population, confirming resistance to mesotrione. These data suggest A. palmeri resistant to chemistries other than glyphosate and thifensulfuron-methyl are present in NC, which highlights the need for weed management approaches to mitigate the evolution and spread of herbicide-resistant populations.
Overreliance on herbicides for weed control has led to the evolution of herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth populations. Farm managers should consider the long-term consequences of their short-term management decisions, especially when considering the soil weed seedbank. The objectives of this research were to (1) determine how soybean population and POST herbicide application timing affects in-season Palmer amaranth control and soybean yield, and (2) how those variables influence Palmer amaranth densities and cotton yields the following season. Soybeans were planted (19-cm row spacing) at a low-, medium-, and high-density population (268,000, 546,000, and 778,000 plants ha–1, respectively). Fomesafen and clethodim (280 and 210 g ai ha–1, respectively) were applied at the VE, V1, or V2 to V3 soybean growth stage. Nontreated plots were also included to assess the effect of soybean population alone. The following season, cotton was planted into these plots so as to understand the effects of soybean planting population on Palmer amaranth densities in the subsequent crop. When an herbicide application occurred at the V1 or V2 to V3 soybean stage, weed control in the high-density soybean population increased 17% to 23% compared to the low-density population. Economic return was not influenced by soybean population and was increased 72% to 94% with herbicide application compared to no treatment. In the subsequent cotton crop, Palmer amaranth densities were 24% to 39% lower 3 wk after planting when following soybean sprayed with herbicides compared to soybean without herbicides. Additionally, Palmer amaranth densities in cotton were 19% lower when soybean was treated at the VE stage compared to later stages. Thus, increasing soybean population can improve Palmer amaranth control without adversely affecting economic returns and can reduce future weed densities. Reducing the weed seedbank and selection pressure from herbicides are critical in mitigating resistance evolution.
Much research has examined Moffitt's developmental taxonomy, focusing almost exclusively on the distinction between life-course persistent and adolescence-limited offenders. Of interest, a handful of studies have identified a group of individuals whose early childhood years were marked by extensive antisocial behavior but who seemed to recover and desist (at least from severe offending) in adolescence and early adulthood. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development to examine the adult adjustment outcomes of different groups of offenders, including a recoveries group, in late middle adulthood, offering the most comprehensive investigation of this particular group to date. Findings indicate that abstainers comprise the largest group of males followed by adolescence-limited offenders, recoveries, and life-course persistent offenders. Furthermore, the results reveal that a host of adult adjustment problems measured at ages 32 and 48 in a number of life-course domains are differentially distributed across these four offender groups. In addition, the recoveries and life-course persistent offenders often show the greatest number of adult adjustment problems relative to the adolescence-limited offenders and abstainers.
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