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In  we defined a regularized analytic torsion for quotients of the symmetric space
by arithmetic lattices. In this paper we study the limiting behavior of the analytic torsion as the lattices run through sequences of congruence subgroups of a fixed arithmetic subgroup. Our main result states that for principal congruence subgroups and strongly acyclic flat bundles, the logarithm of the analytic torsion, divided by the index of the subgroup, converges to the
Lithium sulfur (Li–S) batteries have the potential to provide higher energy storage density at lower cost than conventional lithium ion batteries. A key challenge for Li–S batteries is the loss of sulfur to the electrolyte during cycling. This loss can be mitigated by sequestering the sulfur in nanostructured carbon–sulfur composites. The nanoscale characterization of the sulfur distribution within these complex nanostructured electrodes is normally performed by electron microscopy, but sulfur sublimates and redistributes in the high-vacuum conditions of conventional electron microscopes. The resulting sublimation artifacts render characterization of sulfur in conventional electron microscopes problematic and unreliable. Here, we demonstrate two techniques, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning electron microscopy in air (airSEM), that enable the reliable characterization of sulfur across multiple length scales by suppressing sulfur sublimation. We use cryo-TEM and airSEM to examine carbon–sulfur composites synthesized for use as Li–S battery cathodes, noting several cases where the commonly employed sulfur melt infusion method is highly inefficient at infiltrating sulfur into porous carbon hosts.
We study the limiting behavior of the discrete spectra associated to the principal congruence subgroups of a reductive group over a number field. While this problem is well understood in the cocompact case (i.e., when the group is anisotropic modulo the center), we treat groups of unbounded rank. For the groups
we show that the suitably normalized spectra converge to the Plancherel measure (the limit multiplicity property). For general reductive groups we obtain a substantial reduction of the problem. Our main tool is the recent refinement of the spectral side of Arthur’s trace formula obtained in [Finis, Lapid, and Müller, Ann. of Math. (2) 174(1) (2011), 173–195; Finis and Lapid, Ann. of Math. (2) 174(1) (2011), 197–223], which allows us to show that for
the contribution of the continuous spectrum is negligible in the limit.
Dissection of neck levels I and IIB is time-consuming and can cause comorbidity. This study aimed to determine whether level I and IIB neck dissection was necessary in patients with laryngeal cancer and clinically detectable or nondetectable neck nodes.
Patients and methods:
This was a retrospective review of 73 patients with laryngeal cancer. Essential clinical data were obtained and analysed to determine the incidence of neck node metastasis in levels I and IIB.
Of the 48 patients with no clinically apparent neck nodes, none had level I metastases and only one had level IIB metastases. Of the patients with clinically detectable neck nodes, three of 21 patients had level I metastases and three of 25 patients had level IIB metastases; these six patients also had additional metastases in level IIA.
Dissection of neck levels I and IIB is justifiable in laryngeal cancer patients with clinically detectable neck nodes and suspicious lymph nodes in the respective level or level IIA. However, in patients without clinically detectable neck nodes, preservation of levels I and IIB is oncologically safe, economical and reduces the risk of comorbidity.
In the Federal Republic of Germany, the salt dome formation at Gorleben has been selected as a possible site for final disposal of HLW. The waste form will be borosilicate glass, e. g. the French Cogema glass R7T7. The corrosion of this glass has been investigated in three reference salt brines (brine 1: high Mg, brine 2: Ca and Mg, and brine 3: high Na) at three different temperatures, 110°, 150°, and 190°C and three S/V ratios, 10, 100, and 1000m−1. Results are presented for brine 1 and are compared qualitatively with those obtained for the other brines. As in deionized water and pure NaCl, the corrosion rate decreases when silica saturation is approached, but the reaction does not cease. The data after silica saturation were used to calculate upper limiting, i. e. time-independent corrosion rates. The long-term data indicate that a transport process through the growing surface layer may become rate controlling, and that the rate may further decrease after silica saturation.
The synthesis of MS2 (M = Mo, W) onion-like nanoparticles by means of a high temperature MOCVD process starting from W(CO)6 and elemental sulfur is reported. The reaction can also be carried out in two steps where the intermediate amorphous WS2 nanoparticles formed through the high temperature reaction of tungsten and sulfur in the initial phase of the reaction are isolated and converted in a separate annealing step to onion-type WS2 nanoparticles. Based on a study of the temperature dependence of the reaction a set of conditions could be derived where onion-like structures were formed in a one-step reaction. Onion-like structures obtained in the single-step process were filled, whereas the particles obtained by the two-step procedure were systematically hollow. A model could be devised to rationalize the different outcome of the reactions. The MOCVD approach therefore allows a selective synthesis of open and filled fullerene-like chalcogenide nanoparticles. Furthermore, we demonstrate the novel surface functionalization of WS2 nanotubes with polymeric ligands by complexation with a combination of Ni2+ via an scorpionate-type nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and immobilization of TiO2 nanoparticles onto the surface of nanotubes. Synthesis of such a functional polymeric ligand was achieved via a reactive polymer precursor route.
The immobilization of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(IC)] on ã-Fe2O3 maghemite nanoparticles via the phosphor-amidate route using a multifunctional polymer is reported. The dsRNA coupled nanoparticles were used to visualize the Toll-like (TLR3) receptors at the cell surface. The presence of TLR3 was demonstrated independently in the Caki-1 cell line by RT-PCR and immunostaining techniques
Depending on the Zr-concentration crystallization of (Fe-,Co,Ni)-Zr glasses has been found by TEM studies to occur by primary and polymorphic crystallization, however, not by eutectic crystallization reactions. Nucleation and growth rates of these ractions have been analyzed systematically. Thermal stability as indicated by orowth as well as nucleation rates decreases with increasing Zr-content and atomic number of the late transition metal. Using this knowledge on nucleation and orowth rates conditions for designing particular microstructures by crystallization reactions can be predicted.
We report on the extraction of carrier type, and mobility in semiconductor nanowires by adopting experimental nanowire field-effect transistor device data to a long channel MISFET device model. Numerous field-effect transistors were fabricated using n-InAs nanowires of a diameter of 50 nm as a channel. The I-V data of devices were analyzed at low to medium drain current in order to reduce the effect of extrinsic resistances. The gate capacitance is determined by an electro-static field simulation tool. The carrier mobility remains as the only parameter to fit experimental to modeled device data. The electron mobility in n-InAs nanowires is evaluated to µ = 13,000 cm2/Vs while for comparison n-ZnO nanowires exhibit a mobility of 800 cm2/Vs.
MnO nanoparticles were conjugated to single stranded DNA (ssDNA), Cytosin-phosphatidyl-Guanosin oligonucleotide (CpG ODN) to detect and activate Toll-like (TLR9) receptors in cells and to follow nanoparticle cellular trafficking by different means of imaging while at the same time serving as a drug carrier system. By virtue of their magnetic properties these nanoparticles may serve as vehicles for the transport of target molecules into cells, while the fluorescent target ligand allows optical detection simultaneously.x
Initiation of pathways that lead to proliferation and chemoresistance by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is an important factor in cancer progression. Here, we show the response of human cancer cells to TLR signaling inevitably linked to tumor biology. The approach is based on tailored multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles equipped with pathogen-derived ligands (CpG) functioning as TLR agonists (molecular component) to investigate the impact of transcription factor immune activation on human cancer cells. Magnetic nanoparticles (MnO and bifunctional Au-MnO) particles were covalently coated with a multifunctional polymer, displaying no cytotoxicity, to being able to enter cells while carrying foreign DNA (unmethylated CpG) to recognize intracellular TLR 9. Both, the particle and the nucleic acid are tagged with fluorescent markers for simultaneous visualization inside the cell. Apart from optical imaging, the magnetism of the particles also allows magnetic resonance imaging of organisms.
Human milk oligosaccharides, representing the third largest fraction of human milk, have been assigned important protective functions for newborns acting as bifidogenic substrates or as inhibitory agents towards pathogens. Using high-pH anion-exchange chromatography and an enzyme test kit, twenty oligosaccharides and lactose were determined in milk samples of German women from days 3 to 90 postpartum. Twenty-two secretor mothers with Lewis blood group Le(a − b+) synthesised all twenty oligosaccharides, and could be assigned to milk group 1. Five non-secretor mothers (Le(a+b − )) produced all oligosaccharides with the exception of α1,2-fucosylated compounds (milk group 2), whereas three secretor mothers with blood type Le(a − b − ) lacked α1,4-fucosyloligosaccharides, corresponding to milk group 3. Secretor women of milk groups 1 and 3 synthesised significantly higher amounts of total neutral oligosaccharides and of several total core structures (e.g. lacto-N-tetraose) than non-secretor women. Generally, these oligosaccharides significantly decrease during the first 3 months postpartum. By comparing fucosyloligosaccharides within and among the three milk groups, insight into their biosynthesis could be gained. Six acidic oligosaccharides without fucose residues were detected in milk samples of all mothers. Regression analysis confirmed that total acidic oligosaccharides declined threefold during the study period. Milk samples corresponding to the three milk groups exhibited significant qualitative and quantitative differences during the first 3 months of lactation. It can be assumed that particularly milk of non-secretor women (milk group 2) exerts a modified biological protection in the babies in comparison with milks of secretors (groups 1 and 3).
In retrospect, the mid-1970s seem like the high point of what one might call the crisis of the West – or at least the high point of an acute consciousness of crisis in the West. The famous report to the Trilateral Commission claimed that European countries might be in the process of becoming ‘ungovernable’: the oil shock of 1973 had brought the trente glorieuses of unprecedented growth and social peace to a definitive end; the hitherto unknown phenomenon of stagflation – combining high unemployment and runaway inflation – seemed there to stay. In fact, the conservative German philosopher Robert Spaemann claimed that the oil shock was, from the point of view of intellectual history, the most important event since the Second World War. Domestic and international terrorism, from Right and Left, were on the rise; and, not least, the high levels of social mobilisation and political contestation that had begun in the late 1960s continued unabated.
The 1968 phenomenon had not in any narrow sense ‘caused’ large-scale social and cultural transformations, but ‘1968’ became shorthand for them. Because changes there were: a new quasi-libertarian language of subjectivity – foreshadowing the ‘me decade’ – and a new politics of individual life-styles. All over Europe, the traditional family came under attack – in some countries, such as Italy, for the first time. Students, the sons and daughters of the middle classes, who had been on the Right for most of the twentieth century (and highly active in the promotion of fascism in the 1920s and 1930s), all of a sudden were to be found on the Left.
The role of the language network in the pathophysiology of formal thought disorder has yet to be elucidated.
To investigate whether specific grey-matter deficits in schizophrenic formal thought disorder correlate with resting perfusion in the left-sided language network.
We investigated 13 right-handed patients with schizophrenia and formal thought disorder of varying severity and 13 matched healthy controls, using voxel-based morphometry and magnetic resonance imaging perfusion measurement (arterial spin labelling).
We found positive correlations between perfusion and the severity of formal thought disorder in the left frontal and left temporoparietal language areas. We also observed bilateral deficits in grey-matter volume, positively correlated with the severity of thought disorder in temporoparietal areas and other brain regions. The results of the voxel-based morphometry and the arterial spin labelling measurements overlapped in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus and left angular gyrus.
Specific grey-matter deficits may be a risk factor for state-related dysfunctions of the left-sided language system, leading to local hyperperfusion and formal thought disorder.