To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To develop an FFQ for estimating culture-specific maize intake that can distinguish between home-grown and commercial maize. Home-grown maize is more likely to be contaminated with fumonisins, mycotoxins that are associated with increased risk of oesophageal cancer.
An existing FFQ developed for use in urban Xhosa populations was used as the initial framework for the maize-specific FFQ (M-FFQ). The existing questionnaire contained 126 food items divided into ten food groups (bread, cereals, vegetables, fruit, meat, dairy, snacks, condiments, beverages and fat). The M-FFQ was developed based on additional data obtained from a literature search, 24 h recalls (n 159), in-depth interviews (n 4), focus group discussions (n 56) and expert consultation. Food items available in local shops (n 3) were compared with information obtained from focus group discussions.
Five villages in two rural isiXhosa-speaking areas of the Eastern Cape Province, known to have a high incidence of oesophageal cancer, were randomly selected.
Women aged 18–55 years were recruited by snowball sampling and invited to participate.
The final M-FFQ comprised twenty-one maize-based food items, including traditional Xhosa dishes and beverages. The questionnaire focused on maize-specific dishes and distinguished between home-grown maize and commercial maize consumption.
A culturally specific dietary assessment method was designed to determine maize consumption and therefore fumonisin exposure. The questionnaire will be tested against 24 h recalls and other methods to determine its validity, after which it will be used in various epidemiological studies to determine fumonisin exposure.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.