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We aimed to investigate the association between plasma retinol and incident cancer among Chinese hypertensive adults. We conducted a nested case–control study, including 231 patients with incident cancer and 231 matched controls during a median 4·5-year follow-up of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. There was a significant, inverse association between retinol levels and digestive system cancer (per 10 μg/dl increases: OR 0·79; 95 % CI 0·69, 0·91). When compared with participants in the first quartile of retinol (< 52·3 μg/dl), a significantly lower cancer risk was found in participants in quartile 2–4 ( ≥ 52·3 μg/dl: OR 0·31; 95 % CI 0·13, 0·71). However, there was a U-shaped association between retinol levels and non-digestive system cancers where the risk of cancers decreased (although not significantly) with each increment of plasma retinol (per 10 μg/dl increases: OR 0·89; 95 % CI 0·60, 1·31) in participants with retinol < 68·2 μg/dl, and then increased significantly with retinol (per 10 μg/dl increase: OR 1·65; 95 % CI 1·12, 2·44) in participants with retinol ≥ 68·2 μg/dl. In conclusion, there was a significant inverse dose–response association between plasma retinol and the risk of digestive system cancers. However, a U-shaped association was observed between plasma retinol and the risk of non-digestive cancers (with a turning point approximately 68·2 μg/dl).
To investigate the relationship between different types and levels of physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including oxidative stress, blood lipids and insulin resistance, in a healthy female population in China.
Healthy women (n = 761) aged 35 to 65 years participated in this study. The habitual physical activity was evaluated by self-administered questionnaire (MOSPA). The dietary intakes of nutrients were calculated from 3-day recall records. Anthropometric data of each subject were measured, fasting blood samples were taken, and erythrocytes and serum were prepared for the measurement of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity, serum malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, insulin, glucose and lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein AI (apo A) and apolipoprotein B (apo B)) concentrations.
Low level of physical activity was related to a lower concentration of serum apo B, and higher energy expenditure from household physical activity had a reverse relationship with serum apo B and triglyceride levels. In the group with moderate occupational energy expenditure, the concentration of serum triglycerides was lower, but that of high-density lipoprotein was higher. Moderate energy expenditure (less than 1700 kcal day−1) from leisure-time physical activity was positively related to total antioxidant capacity and insulin sensitivity. However, heavy occupational physical activity may be not beneficial for the cardiovascular system.
This study indicates that leisure-time, moderate occupational and household physical activity levels decreased risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
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