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Three-dimensional rotational angiography has become a mainstay of congenital cardiac catheterisation. Augmented reality is an exciting and emerging technology that allows for interactive visualisation of 3D holographic images in the user’s environment. This case series reports on the feasibility of intraprocedural augmented reality visualisation of 3D rotational angiography in five patients with CHD.
Assess the acute and short-term haemodynamic impact of transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation on left ventricular systolic and diastolic function stratified by pre-transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation physiology.
Transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation is a widely available option to treat residual or recurrent pulmonary stenosis and pulmonary insufficiency. Transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation acutely increases pulmonary artery size and diastolic pressure in patients with pulmonary insufficiency and acute pulmonary edema has been reported after transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation, possibly related to acute left ventricular volume loading. However, the impact of transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation on left ventricular diastolic function has not been established.
Patients who underwent transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation from 2010 to 2017 at our centre were grouped by indication for transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation as pulmonary stenosis, pulmonary insufficiency, or mixed disease. Separate analysis was performed on those who underwent transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation for pulmonary stenosis versus pulmonary insufficiency or mixed disease. Intracardiac haemodynamics immediately before and after transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation and echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function at baseline, 1-day post transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation, and 1-year post transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation were compared between groups.
In 102 patients who underwent transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation, the indication was pulmonary stenosis in 29 (28%), pulmonary insufficiency in 28 (29%), and mixed disease in 44 (43%). There were no significant differences in left ventricular systolic or diastolic function between groups at baseline, immediately after transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation, or 1-year post implantation. The mean pulmonary artery wedge pressure increased equally across groups.
While patients with pulmonary insufficiency likely have acute left ventricular volume loading following transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation, this does not appear to be haemodynamically significant as transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation was not associated with measurable changes in left ventricular systolic or diastolic function acutely or 1-year post implantation.
Transcatheter right ventricle decompression in neonates with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum is technically challenging, with risk of cardiac perforation and death. Further, despite successful right ventricle decompression, re-intervention on the pulmonary valve is common. The association between technical factors during right ventricle decompression and the risks of complications and re-intervention are not well described.
This is a multicentre retrospective study among the participating centres of the Congenital Catheterization Research Collaborative. Between 2005 and 2015, all neonates with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum and attempted transcatheter right ventricle decompression were included. Technical factors evaluated included the use and characteristics of radiofrequency energy, maximal balloon-to-pulmonary valve annulus ratio, infundibular diameter, and right ventricle systolic pressure pre- and post-valvuloplasty (BPV). The primary end point was cardiac perforation or death; the secondary end point was re-intervention.
A total of 99 neonates underwent transcatheter right ventricle decompression at a median of 3 days (IQR 2–5) of age, including 63 patients by radiofrequency and 32 by wire perforation of the pulmonary valve. There were 32 complications including 10 (10.5%) cardiac perforations, of which two resulted in death. Cardiac perforation was associated with the use of radiofrequency (p=0.047), longer radiofrequency duration (3.5 versus 2.0 seconds, p=0.02), and higher maximal radiofrequency energy (7.5 versus 5.0 J, p<0.01) but not with patient weight (p=0.09), pulmonary valve diameter (p=0.23), or infundibular diameter (p=0.57). Re-intervention was performed in 36 patients and was associated with higher post-intervention right ventricle pressure (median 60 versus 50 mmHg, p=0.041) and residual valve gradient (median 15 versus 10 mmHg, p=0.046), but not with balloon-to-pulmonary valve annulus ratio, atmospheric pressure used during BPV, or the presence of a residual balloon waist during BPV. Re-intervention was not associated with any right ventricle anatomic characteristics, including pulmonary valve diameter.
Technical factors surrounding transcatheter right ventricle decompression in pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum influence the risk of procedural complications but not the risk of future re-intervention. Cardiac perforation is associated with the use of radiofrequency energy, as well as radiofrequency application characteristics. Re-intervention after right ventricle decompression for pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum is common and relates to haemodynamic measures surrounding initial BPV.
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