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To evaluate associations of fast-food items (FFI) and sugar-sweetened drinks (SSD) with mortality outcomes including deaths due to any cause, CVD and total cancers among a large sample of adults.
Using a prospective design, risk of death was compared across baseline dietary exposures. Intakes of FFI and SSD were quantified using a semi-quantitative FFQ (baseline data collected 2000–2002). Deaths (n 4187) were obtained via the Washington State death file through 2008, excluding deaths in the first year of follow-up. Causes of death were categorized as due to CVD (I00–I99) or cancer (C00–D48). Cox models were used to estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI.
The Vitamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) study among adults living in Western Washington State.
Men and women (n 69 582) between 50 and 76 years of age at baseline.
Intakes of FFI and SSD were higher among individuals who were younger, female, African-American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian-American or Pacific Islander, of lower educational attainment, and of lower income (P<0·0001 for all). Higher risk of total mortality was associated with greater intake of FFI (HR=1·16; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·29; P=0·004; comparing highest v. lowest quartile) and SSD (HR=1·19; 95 % CI 1·08, 1·30; P<0·0001; comparing highest v. lowest quartile). Higher intake of FFI was associated with greater cancer-specific mortality while an association with CVD-specific mortality was suggested. Associations between intake of SSD and cause-specific mortality were less clear.
Intake of FFI and SSD has a detrimental effect on future mortality risk. These findings may be salient to socially patterned disparities in mortality.
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