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The incidence of infections from extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E) is increasing in the United States. We describe the epidemiology of ESBL-E at 5 Emerging Infections Program (EIP) sites.
During October–December 2017, we piloted active laboratory- and population-based (New York, New Mexico, Tennessee) or sentinel (Colorado, Georgia) ESBL-E surveillance. An incident case was the first isolation from normally sterile body sites or urine of Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae/oxytoca resistant to ≥1 extended-spectrum cephalosporin and nonresistant to all carbapenems tested at a clinical laboratory from a surveillance area resident in a 30-day period. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from medical records. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) performed reference antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing on a convenience sample of case isolates.
We identified 884 incident cases. The estimated annual incidence in sites conducting population-based surveillance was 199.7 per 100,000 population. Overall, 800 isolates (96%) were from urine, and 790 (89%) were E. coli. Also, 393 cases (47%) were community-associated. Among 136 isolates (15%) tested at the CDC, 122 (90%) met the surveillance definition phenotype; 114 (93%) of 122 were shown to be ESBL producers by clavulanate testing. In total, 111 (97%) of confirmed ESBL producers harbored a blaCTX-M gene. Among ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, 52 (54%) were ST131; 44% of these cases were community associated.
The burden of ESBL-E was high across surveillance sites, with nearly half of cases acquired in the community. EIP has implemented ongoing ESBL-E surveillance to inform prevention efforts, particularly in the community and to watch for the emergence of new ESBL-E strains.
We aimed to identify a threshold number of Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI) for acute-care hospitals (ACHs) to notify public health agencies of outbreaks and we aimed to determine whether thresholds can be used with existing surveillance strategies to further infection reduction goals.
Descriptive analysis of laboratory-identified CDI reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network by Colorado and Tennessee ACH inpatient units in 2018.
Threshold levels of ≥2, ≥3, and ≥4 CDI events per calendar month per unit (unit month) were assessed to identify units that would trigger facility reporting to public health. Values meeting thresholds were defined as alerts. Recurrent alerts were defined as alerts from units meeting the threshold ≥2 times within 12 months. The presence of alerts was compared to the number of excess infections to identify high-burden facilities.
At an alert threshold of ≥2 CDI events per unit month, 204 alerts occurred among 43 Colorado ACHs and 290 among 78 Tennessee ACHs. At a threshold of ≥3, there were 59 and 61 alerts, and at a threshold of ≥4, there were 17 and 10 alerts in Colorado and Tennessee, respectively. In both Colorado and Tennessee, at a threshold of ≥3 nearly 50% of alerts were recurrent, and facilities with at least one alert in 2018 accounted for ∼85% of the statewide excess infections.
An alert threshold of ≥3 CDI events per unit month is feasible for rapid identification of outbreaks in ACHs. This threshold can facilitate earlier assessments and interventions in high-burden facilities.
Background: In February 2019, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) identified a cluster of 3 invasive group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections in residents receiving wound care in a long-term care facility (LTCF). An investigation revealed a larger outbreak that extended to nonresidents receiving outpatient wound care at the LTCF. Methods: A case was defined as a positive culture for GAS emm type 82 from an individual with exposure to the LTCF between January and June 2019. Cases were categorized as clinical (symptoms of GAS disease or GAS isolated from a wound or sterile site) or carriage (no symptoms). Carriers were identified via samples collected from throat and skin lesions. Screening occurred in 2 rounds and included residents of affected units followed by screening of all wound-care staff and residents facility-wide. Available isolates were sent for emm type testing and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) at the CDC. CDPHE staff performed infection control observations. Results: We identified 14 cases: 8 clinical and 6 carriage (from 5 residents and 1 staff member). Two patients with invasive GAS died. Of 8 patients with clinical GAS, 6 resided in the facility on or 1 day prior to symptom onset; 2 were not residents but received outpatient therapy at the LTCF. All 8 patients with clinical GAS (100%) and 3 carriers had received wound care. The staff member with emm 82 carriage had provided wound care and occupational therapy to the affected residents and the 2 outpatients. Two additional cases were detected with onset dates following staff member decolonization. Moreover, 13 of the 14 emm 82 isolates were found to be identical by WGS. Infection control observations identified lapses in staff wound care and hand hygiene practices in the residential and outpatient settings of the facility. Conclusions: This investigation details a large GAS outbreak in an LTCF associated with asymptomatic carriage in residents and staff that included patients who had only received care in the outpatient portion of the facility. The outbreak was halted following decolonization of a staff member and improvements in infection control, including in the outpatient setting. Outpatient services, particularly wound care, provided by LTCFs should be considered when investigating LTCF-related GAS cases and outbreaks.
Background: Healthcare-associated group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections can cause severe morbidity and death. Invasive GAS is a reportable condition in the 5-county metropolitan area of Denver, Colorado. Prior to August 2018, methodology to identify long-term care facility (LTCF) residency among reported GAS cases was accomplished by reviewing addresses reported electronically, and identification of postsurgical cases and outbreaks relied on reporting by healthcare facilities. We evaluated whether the use of a health information exchange (HIE) to identify healthcare exposures improved our ability to detect and rapidly respond to these events. Methods: In August 2018, we implemented a review of health records available in the HIE accessible by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment for all incoming reports of GAS for selected healthcare exposures: LTCF residency, surgery, delivery, wound care, and other relevant exposures. We defined an LTCF-related case as GAS in a current or recent resident (ie, in the 14 days prior to the positive culture) of an LTCF. Postpartum and postsurgical cases were defined as GAS isolated from a sterile site or wound during the inpatient stay or within 7 days of discharge following a delivery or surgical procedure. Outbreaks in each of these settings were defined as 2 or more cases within a 3-month period. We compared the number of cases and outbreaks identified in each category during a 1-year period before and after implementation of the use of the HIE in the case ascertainment process. Results: During August 2017 through July 2018, prior to implementation of the HIE process, we detected 45 LTCF cases and conducted outbreak investigations in 9 facilities. Moreover, 1 postsurgical case and 1 postpartum outbreak were reported by healthcare facilities; none were detected via surveillance. During August 2018 through July 2019, after the implementation of HIE process, we identified 70 LTCF cases and conducted outbreak investigations in 13 LTCFs. We detected 5 postsurgical cases and 3 postpartum cases, which resulted in 2 outbreak investigations. Conclusions: Enhanced GAS surveillance through use of a HIE resulted in detection of more healthcare-associated GAS infections and outbreaks. Timely identification of healthcare-associated GAS infections can allow for prompt response to outbreaks and promotion of proper infection control practices to prevent further cases. Jurisdictions in which GAS is a reportable condition should consider the use of HIEs as part of routine surveillance to identify GAS outbreaks in high-risk settings. HIEs should be made available to public health agencies for case ascertainment and outbreak identification.
Background:Clostridioides difficile remains a pervasive issue throughout healthcare facilities in the United States. Currently, no national guidelines exist for healthcare facilities to notify public health about suspected C. difficile transmission. Identification of a threshold for public health notification is needed to improve efforts to target prevention in facilities and to contain the spread of C. difficile.Methods: We analyzed C. difficile data reported by acute-care hospitals (ACHs) during October 2017–September 2018 via the CDC NHSN in Colorado and Tennessee. Threshold levels of ≥2, ≥3, and ≥4 C. difficile infections per calendar month per unit were assessed to identify ACH units that would trigger facility reporting to public health. Values meeting thresholds were defined as “alerts.” Facilities were further stratified by size and medical teaching status. Recurrent alerts were defined as meeting the threshold at least twice within 12 months. Presence and recurrence of facility alerts were compared to facility-specific standardized infection ratios (SIRs) and cumulative attributable differences (CADs). Results: Of 105 ACHs in Tennessee and 50 in Colorado, 46 in Tennessee (44%) and 28 in Colorado (56%) had alerts with a threshold of ≥2 cases per calendar month per unit; 20 in Tennessee (19%) and 19 in Colorado (38%) had ≥3 cases per calendar month per unit; and 7 in Tennessee (7%) and 10 in Colorado (20%) had ≥4 cases per calendar month per unit. Most alerts with each threshold were in facilities with ≥400 beds and in major teaching hospitals. Using a threshold of ≥2, 64% of Tennessee and 79% of Colorado alerts were associated with recurrent alerting units. Using an alert threshold of ≥3, 85% of Tennessee facilities (17 of 20) and 75% of Colorado facilities (15 of 20) with the highest CAD values had at least 1 alert. Using state-based CAD values, 79% of the CAD value for Tennessee (356 of 449) and 91% of the CAD value for Colorado (309 of 340) were attributable to facilities with at least 1 alert. Facilities above a threshold of ≥3 had a pooled SIR of 0.92 in Tennessee (range, 0.46–7.94) and 1.07 in Colorado (range, 0.74–1.74). Conclusions: Using alert threshold levels identified ACHs with higher levels of C. difficile. Recurrent alerts account for a substantial proportion of the total alerts in ACHs, even as thresholds increased. Alerts were strongly correlated with high CAD values. Because NHSN C. difficile data are not available to public health departments until several months after cases are identified, public health departments should consider working with ACHs to implement a threshold model for public health notification, enabling earlier intervention than those prompted by SIR and CAD calculations.
Background: Antibiotics are among the most commonly prescribed drugs in nursing homes; urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a frequent indication. Although there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of UTIs, various criteria have been developed to inform and standardize nursing home prescribing decisions, with the goal of reducing unnecessary antibiotic prescribing. Using different published criteria designed to guide decisions on initiating treatment of UTIs (ie, symptomatic, catheter-associated, and uncomplicated cystitis), our objective was to assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing among NH residents. Methods: In 2017, the CDC Emerging Infections Program (EIP) performed a prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections and antibiotic use in 161 nursing homes from 10 states: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee. EIP staff reviewed resident medical records to collect demographic and clinical information, infection signs, symptoms, and diagnostic testing documented on the day an antibiotic was initiated and 6 days prior. We applied 4 criteria to determine whether initiation of treatment for UTI was supported: (1) the Loeb minimum clinical criteria (Loeb); (2) the Suspected UTI Situation, Background, Assessment, and Recommendation tool (UTI SBAR tool); (3) adaptation of Infectious Diseases Society of America UTI treatment guidelines for nursing home residents (Crnich & Drinka); and (4) diagnostic criteria for uncomplicated cystitis (cystitis consensus) (Fig. 1). We calculated the percentage of residents for whom initiating UTI treatment was appropriate by these criteria. Results: Of 248 residents for whom UTI treatment was initiated in the nursing home, the median age was 79 years [IQR, 19], 63% were female, and 35% were admitted for postacute care. There was substantial variability in the percentage of residents with antibiotic initiation classified as appropriate by each of the criteria, ranging from 8% for the cystitis consensus, to 27% for Loeb, to 33% for the UTI SBAR tool, to 51% for Crnich and Drinka (Fig. 2). Conclusions: Appropriate initiation of UTI treatment among nursing home residents remained low regardless of criteria used. At best only half of antibiotic treatment met published prescribing criteria. Although insufficient documentation of infection signs, symptoms and testing may have contributed to the low percentages observed, adequate documentation in the medical record to support prescribing should be standard practice, as outlined in the CDC Core Elements of Antibiotic Stewardship for nursing homes. Standardized UTI prescribing criteria should be incorporated into nursing home stewardship activities to improve the assessment and documentation of symptomatic UTI and to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use.
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is a serious threat to patient safety due to limited treatment options and propensity to spread in healthcare settings. Using Emerging Infections Program (EIP) data, we describe changes in CRAB incidence and epidemiology. Methods: During January 2012 to December 2018, 9 sites (Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee) participated in active laboratory- and population-based surveillance. An incident case was defined as the first isolation of A. baumannii complex, in a 30-day period, resistant to ≥1 carbapenem (excluding ertapenem) from a normally sterile site or urine of a surveillance area resident. Cases were considered hospital-onset (HO) if the culture was collected >3 days after hospital admission; all others were community-onset (CO). Cases were classified as device-associated (DA) if the patient had 1 or more medical devices (ie, urinary catheter, central venous catheter (CVC), endotracheal/nasotracheal tube, tracheostomy, or another indwelling device) present in the 2 days prior to culture collection. Temporal trends were estimated using generalized linear models adjusted for age, race, sex, and EIP site. Results: Overall, 984 incident CRAB cases were identified, representing 849 patients. Among these patients, 291 (34%) were women, 510 (61%) were nonwhite, and the median age was 62 years (mean, 59; range, 0–102). Among the cases, 226 (23%) were HO; 758 (77%) were CO; and 793 (81%) were DA. Overall incidence rates in 2012 and 2018 were 1.58 (95% CI, 1.29–1.90) and 0.60 (95% CI, 0.40–0.67) per 100,000 population, respectively. There was a 15% annual decrease in incidence (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] 0.85; 95% CI: 0.82-0.88, P < .0001). Decreases were observed among sterile site (aRR 0.88; 95% CI, 0.84–0.93) and urine cases (aRR 0.83; 95% CI, 0.80–0.87). Annual decreases occurred for HO cases (aRR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.73–0.85) and CO cases (aRR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.83–0.9). The DA cases decreased 16% annually overall (aRR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.81–0.88). Decreases among cases in patients with CVC (aRR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.80–0.90) and urinary catheters (aRR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80–0.88) were smaller than what was seen in patients with other indwelling devices (aRR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.77–0.86). Discussion: Overall, from 2012 to 2018, the incidence of CRAB decreased >60%. Decreases were observed in all case groups, regardless of source, infection onset location, or types of devices. Smaller annual decreases in rates of CO-CRAB than HO-CRAB suggest that there may be opportunities to accelerate prevention outside the hospital to further reduce the incidence of these difficult-to-treat infections.
Acute change in mental status (ACMS), defined by the Confusion Assessment Method, is used to identify infections in nursing home residents. A medical record review revealed that none of 15,276 residents had an ACMS documented. Using the revised McGeer criteria with a possible ACMS definition, we identified 296 residents and 21 additional infections. The use of a possible ACMS definition should be considered for retrospective nursing home infection surveillance.
Reports of bloodstream infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among chronic hemodialysis patients to 2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance systems (National Healthcare Safety Network Dialysis Event and Emerging Infections Program) were compared to evaluate completeness of reporting. Many methicillin-resistant S. aureus bloodstream infections identified in hospitals were not reported to National Healthcare Safety Network Dialysis Event.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(2):205–207
To investigate an outbreak of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)–producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and determine interventions to interrupt transmission.
Design, Setting, and Patients.
Epidemiologic investigation of an outbreak of NDM-producing CRE among patients at a Colorado acute care hospital.
Case patients had NDM-producing CRE isolated from clinical or rectal surveillance cultures (SCs) collected during the period January 1, 2012, through October 20, 2012. Case patients were identified through microbiology records and 6 rounds of SCs in hospital units where they had resided. CRE isolates were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction for blaNDM. Medical records were reviewed for epidemiologic links; relatedness of isolates was evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole genome sequencing (WGS). Infection control (IC) was assessed through staff interviews and direct observations.
Two patients were initially identified with NDM-producing CRE during July–August 2012. A third case patient, admitted in May, was identified through microbiology records review. SC identified 5 additional case patients. Patients had resided in 11 different units before identification. All isolates were highly related by PFGE. WGS suggested 3 clusters of CRE. Combining WGS with epidemiology identified 4 units as likely transmission sites. NDM-producing CRE positivity in certain patients was not explained by direct epidemiologic overlap, which suggests that undetected colonized patients were involved in transmission.
A 4-month outbreak of NDM-producing CRE occurred at a single hospital, highlighting the risk for spread of these organisms. Combined WGS and epidemiologic data suggested transmission primarily occurred on 4 units. Timely SC, combined with targeted IC measures, were likely responsible for controlling transmission.