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The purpose of this study was to analyse the clinical characteristics of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) PCR re-positivity after recovering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients (n = 1391) from Guangzhou, China, who had recovered from COVID-19 were recruited between 7 September 2021 and 11 March 2022. Data on epidemiology, symptoms, laboratory test results and treatment were analysed. In this study, 42.7% of recovered patients had re-positive result. Most re-positive patients were asymptomatic, did not have severe comorbidities, and were not contagious. The re-positivity rate was 39%, 46%, 11% and 25% in patients who had received inactivated, mRNA, adenovirus vector and recombinant subunit vaccines, respectively. Seven independent risk factors for testing re-positive were identified, and a predictive model was constructed using these variables. The predictors of re-positivity were COVID-19 vaccination status, previous SARs-CoV-12 infection prior to the most recent episode, renal function, SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibody levels and white blood cell count. The predictive model could benefit the control of the spread of COVID-19.
This retrospective study investigated the predictive value of the Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score in patients with intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who received transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Nomograms were developed to predict progression-free and overall survival (PFS, OS). The medical data of 228 patients with HCC and treated with TACE were collected. The patients were apportioned to 2 groups according to CONUT score: low or high (<4, ≥4). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using Cox regression for OS and PFS. OS and PFS were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier curve and compared with the log-rank test. Nomograms were constructed to predict patient OS and PFS. The nomograms were evaluated for accuracy, discrimination, and efficiency. The cut-off value of CONUT score was 4. The higher the CONUT score, the worse the survival; Kaplan-Meier curves showed significant differences in OS and PFS between the low and high CONUT score groups (P = 0·033, 0·047). The nomograms including CONUT, based on the prognostic factors determined by the univariate and multivariate analyses, to predict survival in HCC after TACE were generated. The CONUT score is an important prognostic factor for both OS and PFS for patients with intermediate HCC who underwent TACE. The cut-off value of the CONUT score was 4. A high CONUT score suggests poor survival outcomes. Nomograms generated based on the CONUT score were good models to predict patient OS and PFS.
The North Qilian orogenic belt in North China has been defined as a subduction–collision zone between the Alxa Block and the Qilian Block. We present petrography, zircon U–Pb geochronology, major- and trace-element geochemistry, and Sr–Nd–Pb–Hf isotope analysis for the Yushigou diabase from the Longshoushan area, which is located SW of the Alxa Block, aiming to understand its petrogenetic link to subduction processes. The Yushigou diabase belongs to the tholeiite series, and shows enrichment in light rare earth and large-ion lithophile elements, and a depletion in heavy rare earth and high-field-strength elements. Laser ablation – inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry U–Pb zircon dating yielded an emplacement age of 414 ± 9 Ma, with an ϵHf(t) value in the range of −10.3 to 1.8. The whole-rock initial 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios of the diabase range over 16.811–17.157, 15.331–15.422 and 37.768–37.895, respectively. The (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios vary between 0.7086 and 0.7106, and ϵNd(t) values vary between −14.4 and −13.4, which are significantly higher than the ϵHf(t) value (Nd–Hf decoupling). An interpretation of the elemental and isotopic data suggests that the Yushigou diabase was derived from partial melting of an enriched mantle I (EM-I) -type lithospheric mantle in the spinel–garnet transitional zone. Based on the geochemical features and previous regional geological data, we propose that the Silurian magmatism was most likely triggered by slab break-off after the closure of the North Qilian Ocean, and ancient continental materials from the subduction slab metasomatized the overlying lithospheric mantle during exhumation.
Six acidic dykes were discovered surrounding the Laiziling pluton, Xianghualing area, in the western Cathaysia Block, South China. A number of captured zircons are found in two of these acidic dykes. By detailed U–Pb dating, Lu–Hf isotopes and trace-element analysis, we find that these zircons have ages clustered at c. 2.5 Ga. Two acidic dyke samples yielded upper intersection point 206U/238Pb ages of 2505 ± 42 Ma and 2533 ± 22 Ma, and weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb ages of 2500 ± 30 Ma and 2535 ± 16 Ma. The majority of these zircons have high (Sm/La)N, Th/U and low Ce/Ce* ratios, indicating a magmatic origin, but some grains were altered by later hydrothermal fluid. Additionally, the magmatic zircons have high Y, U, heavy rare earth element, Nb and Ta contents, indicating that their host rocks were mainly mafic rocks or trondhjemite–tonalite–granodiorite rock series. Equally, their moderate Y, Yb, Th, Gd and Er contents also indicate that a mafic source formed in a continental volcanic-arc environment. These zircons have positive ϵHf(t) values (2.5–6.9) close to zircons from the depleted mantle, with TDM (2565–2741 Ma) and TDM2 (2608–2864 Ma) ages close to their formation ages, indicating that these zircons originated directly from depleted mantle magma, or juvenile crust derived from the depleted mantle in a very short period. We therefore infer that the Cathaysia Block experienced a crustal growth event at c. 2.5 Ga.
Existing data on folate status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis are scarce. We prospectively examined whether serum folate concentrations at diagnosis were associated with liver cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) among 982 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated HCC, who were enrolled in the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) study between September 2013 and February 2017. Serum folate concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI by sex-specific quartile of serum folate. Compared with patients in the third quartile of serum folate, patients in the lowest quartile had significantly inferior LCSS (HR = 1·48; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·09) and OS (HR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·99) after adjustment for non-clinical and clinical prognostic factors. The associations were not significantly modified by sex, age at diagnosis, alcohol drinking status and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage. However, there were statistically significant interactions on both multiplicative and additive scale between serum folate and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels or smoking status and the associations of lower serum folate with worse LCSS and OS were only evident among patients with CRP > 3·0 mg/l or current smokers. An inverse association with LCSS were also observed among patients with liver damage score ≥3. These results suggest that lower serum folate concentrations at diagnosis are independently associated with worse HCC survival, most prominently among patients with systemic inflammation and current smokers. A future trial of folate supplementation seems to be promising in HCC patients with lower folate status.
This study aimed to investigate the impacts of dietary threonine on intestinal immunity and inflammation in juvenile grass carp. Six iso-nitrogenous semi-purified diets containing graded levels of threonine (3·99–21·66 g threonine/kg) were formulated and fed to fishes for 8 weeks, and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 d. Results showed that, compared with optimum threonine supplementation, threonine deficiency (1) decreased the ability of fish against enteritis, intestinal lysozyme activities (except in the distal intestine), acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 (C3) and C4 contents and IgM contents (except in the proximal intestine (PI)), and it down-regulated the transcript abundances of liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP)-2A, LEAP-2B, hepcidin, IgZ, IgM and β-defensin1 (except in the PI) (P<0·05); (2) could up-regulate intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17D mRNA levels partly related to NF-κB signalling; (3) could down-regulate intestinal anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, IL-4/13A (not IL-4/13B) and IL-10 mRNA levels partly by target of rapamycin signalling. Finally, on the basis of the specific growth rate, against the enteritis morbidity and IgM contents, the optimum threonine requirements were estimated to be 14·53 g threonine/kg diet (4·48 g threonine/100 g protein), 15.05 g threonine/kg diet (4·64 g threonine/100 g protein) and 15·17 g threonine/kg diet (4·68 g threonine/100 g protein), respectively.
A sediment core from Hulun Lake, Inner Mongolia was analyzed for species assemblages and shell chemistry of ostracodes to investigate changes in the hydrology and climate of the East Asian summer monsoon margin during the Holocene. Darwinula stevensoni was abundant, Ilyocypris spp. scarce, littoral ostracodes absent and Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and δ18O were low 11,100 to 8300 yr ago, indicating high lake levels and cool/fresh waters. Darwinula stevensoni declined largely, Ilyocypris spp. throve, littoral ostracodes were rare and chemical indicators remained in low values 8300 to 6200 yr ago, suggesting that the lake continued high stands but water became warm. The lake then contracted and water became cool/brackish 6200 to 4300 yr ago. Littoral ostracodes flourished 4300 to 3350 yr ago, marking the lowest lake levels of the entire Holocene. The lake level recovered and water salinity decreased 3350 to 1900 yr ago. From 1900 to 500 yr ago, the lake maintained the preceding status albeit lowered stands and increased salinities 1100 to 800 yr ago. During the recent 500 yr, the lake expanded and water salinity decreased. The data imply that the East Asian summer monsoon did not intensify until 8300 yr ago and weakened dramatically 4300 to 3350 yr ago.
One of the most important non-destructive methods for on-site analysis of bronze artifacts is portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). However, bronze artifacts are usually heterogeneous in composition due to, among other things, the segregation of lead, which is hard to be eliminated through annealing treatments. In the present work, Cu-Sn-Pb alloys with homogenous composition and microstructure is fabricated by powder metallurgy technique. The suitability of the standard curve using Cu-Sn-Pb alloys by powder metallurgy as the standard samples for XRF on the analysis of bronze artifacts is evaluated. It is shown that this proposed method can be transferred to portable XRF to acquire accurate on-site composition information of bronze artifacts.
The paper aims to develop an effective preconditioner and conduct the convergence analysis of the corresponding preconditioned GMRES for the solution of discrete problems originating from multi-group radiation diffusion equations. We firstly investigate the performances of the most widely used preconditioners (ILU(k) and AMG) and their combinations (Bco and Bco), and provide drawbacks on their feasibilities. Secondly, we reveal the underlying complementarity of ILU(k) and AMG by analyzing the features suitable for AMG using more detailed measurements on multiscale nature of matrices and the effect of ILU(k) on multiscale nature. Moreover, we present an adaptive combined preconditioner Bcoα involving an improved ILU(0) along with its convergence constraints. Numerical results demonstrate that Bcoα-GMRES holds the best robustness and efficiency. At last, we analyze the convergence of GMRES with combined preconditioning which not only provides a persuasive support for our proposed algorithms, but also updates the existing estimation theory on condition numbers of combined preconditioned systems.
To examine the vitamin D status, SNP of the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) and the effects of vitamin D supplementation on parathyroid hormone and insulin secretion in adult males with obesity or normal weight in a subtropical Chinese city.
An intervention trial.
Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province, China.
From a cross-sectional survey conducted from June to July, eighty-two normal-weight and ninety-nine obese males (18–69 years) were screened to analyse their vitamin D status and for five SNP of VDR. From these individuals, in the same season of a different year, obese and normal-weight male volunteers (twenty-one per group) were included for an intervention trial with oral vitamin D supplementation at 1250 µg/week for 8 weeks.
For the survey, there was no significant difference (P>0·05) in baseline circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations or in the percentages of participants in different categories of vitamin D status between the two groups. The VDR SNP, rs3782905, was significantly associated with obesity (P=0·043), but none of the examined SNP were correlated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D when adjusted for age, BMI and study group. After vitamin D supplementation, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, hypersecretions of parathyroid hormone and insulin, and insulin resistance in the obese were changed beneficially (P<0·05); however, the increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was less than that of the normal-weight men.
For obese and normal-weight men of subtropical China, the summer baseline vitamin D status was similar. However, oral vitamin D supplementation revealed a decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obese men and ameliorated their hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone and insulin resistance.
What reasoning rules can be used for the deduction of bisimulation formulas in coalgebraic specifications is problematic because those rules used in algebraic specifications possibly cannot be applied to bisimulation formulas. Although some categorical bisimulation proof methods for coalgebras have been proposed, they are not based on specification languages of coalgebras so that they cannot be used as reasoning rules. In this paper, a specification language based on paths of polynomial functors is proposed to specify polynomial coalgebras. Paths of polynomial functors give detailed observations and transitions on the state space of coalgebras so that the techniques used in transition system specifications can be applied to such a path-based language. In particular, because bisimulations can be characterized by paths, the notions of progressions, respectful functions and faithful contexts can be defined based on paths, and then bisimulation up-to proof techniques, including bisimulation up-to bisimilarities and up-to contexts for transition systems can be transformed into reasoning rules in the language. Several examples illustrate how to reason syntactically about bisimulations in the language by using the rules induced by the bisimulation proof techniques.
Introduction: Earthquake exposure has been associated with adverse consequences for coronary heart disease. However, the natural history and prognostic significance of earthquake-related, new-onset angina have not been characterized.
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between episodes of depressive symptoms and one-year prognosis after the first admission to the hospital among adults with new-onset angina before and after the Sichuan earthquake.
Methods: One hundred forty-one first hospitalized patients with new-onset angina before and after the Sichuan earthquake underwent psychological assessments during their first admission to the hospital following the earthquake. Patients were followed for 12 months to determine survival status. The independent relationships between baseline variables and readmission risk after the earthquake were examined. Baseline somatic and psychosocial variables were collected with the aid of standard, validated questionnaires.
Results: The proportion of patients with moderate/severe depression symptom in the earthquake-related group is higher than among their counterparts (23.7% vs. 8.9%, p = 0.026). Patients with new-onset angina after the Sichuan earthquake had a higher risk of readmission (22.4% vs. 8.9%, p = 0.041) and longer total hospitalization (average of 13.4 ±6.8 vs. 10.7 ±5.5 days, p = 0.015). The risks for readmission was associated with moderate/severe depression (adjusted hazard ratio, 9.18 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.09–27.23, p = 0.0000]) and low ejection fraction (adjusted hazard ratio, 6.66 [95%CI = 2.131–20.781, p = 0.001]).
Conclusions: Among patients diagnosed with new-onset angina, those with first episode after the Sichuan earthquake generated more moderate/severe depressive symptoms and had a higher risk for readmission and longer hospital stay. Depressive symptoms upon admission and low ejection fractions were significant predictors of 12-month risk for readmission, which indicates that antidepressants should be prescribed.
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