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Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable mental illness that transmits intergeneratively. Previous studies supported that first-degree relatives (FDRs), such as parents, offspring, and siblings, of patients with bipolar disorder, had a higher risk of bipolar disorder. However, whether FDRs of bipolar patients have an increased risk of schizophrenia, major depressive disorder (MDD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains unclear.
Among the entire population in Taiwan, 87 639 patients with bipolar disorder and 188 290 FDRs of patients with bipolar disorder were identified in our study. The relative risks (RRs) of major psychiatric disorders were assessed among FDRs of patients with bipolar disorder.
FDRs of patients with bipolar disorder were more likely to have a higher risk of major psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder (RR 6.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.95–6.30), MDD (RR 2.89, 95% CI 2.82–2.96), schizophrenia (RR 2.64, 95% CI 2.55–2.73), ADHD (RR 2.21, 95% CI 2.13–2.30), and ASD (RR 2.10, 95% CI 1.92–2.29), than the total population did. These increased risks for major psychiatric disorders were consistent across different familial kinships, such as parents, offspring, siblings, and twins. A dose-dependent relationship was also found between risk of each major psychiatric disorder and numbers of bipolar patients.
Our study was the first study to support the familial coaggregation of bipolar disorder with other major psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, MDD, ADHD, and ASD, in a Taiwanese (non-Caucasian) population. Given the elevated risks of major psychiatric disorders, the public health government should pay more attention to the mental health of FDRs of patients with bipolar disorder.
Effective perioperative hand antisepsis is crucial for the safety of patients and medical staff in surgical rooms. The antimicrobial effectiveness of different antiseptic methods, including conventional hand scrubs and waterless hand rubs, has not been well evaluated.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS
A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the 3 antiseptic methods among surgical staff of Taipei Medical University—Shuang Ho Hospital. For each method used, a group of 80 participants was enrolled.
Surgical hand cleansing with conventional 10% povidone–iodine scrub, conventional 4% chlorhexidine scrub, or waterless hand rub (1% chlorhexidine gluconate and 61% ethyl alcohol).
Colony-forming unit (CFU) counts were collected using the hand imprinting method before and after disinfection and after surgery. After surgical hand disinfection, the mean CFU counts of the conventional chlorhexidine (0.5±0.2, P<0.01) and waterless hand rub groups (1.4±0.7, P<0.05) were significantly lower than that of the conventional povidone group (4.3±1.3). No significant difference was observed in the mean CFU count among the groups after surgery. Similar results were obtained when preexisting differences before disinfection were considered in the analysis of covariance. Furthermore, multivariate regression indicated that the antiseptic method (P=.0036), but not other variables, predicted the mean CFU count.
Conventional chlorhexidine scrub and waterless hand rub were superior to a conventional povidone–iodine product in bacterial inhibition. We recommend using conventional chlorhexidine scrub as a standard method for perioperative hand antisepsis. Waterless hand rub may be used if the higher cost is affordable.
Previous evidence has shown positive associations between post-traumatic
stress disorder (PTSD) and hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes
mellitus, which are all risk factors for stroke, but the role of PTSD in
the subsequent development of stroke is still unknown.
To investigate the temporal association between PTSD and the development
Identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database,
5217 individuals aged 18 years, with PTSD but with no history of stroke,
and 20 868 age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled between 2002
and 2009, and followed up until the end of 2011 to identify the
development of stroke.
Individuals with PTSD had an increased risk of developing any stroke
(hazard ratio (HR) 3.37, 95% CI 2.44–4.67) and ischaemic stroke (HR =
3.47, 95% CI 2.23–5.39) after adjusting for demographic data and medical
comorbidities. Sensitivity tests showed consistent findings (any stroke
HR = 3.02, 95% CI 2.13–4.28; ischaemic stroke HR = 2.89, 95% CI
1.79–4.66) after excluding the first year of observation.
Individuals with PTSD have an increased risk of developing any stroke and
ischaemic stroke. Further studies are required to investigate the
The gas-kinetic scheme is applied to a depth-integrated continuum model for avalanche flows, namely the Savage-Hutter model. In this method, the continuum fluxes are calculated based on the pseudo particle motions which are relaxed from nonequilibrium to equilibrium states. The processes are described by the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation. The benefit of this scheme is its capability to resolve shock discontinuities sharply and to handle the vacuum state without special treatments. Because the Savage-Hutter equation bears an anisotropic stress on the tangential space of the topography, the equilibrium distribution function of the microscopic particles are shown to be bi-Maxwellian. These anisotropic stresses are the key to preserve the coordinate objectivity in the Savage-Hutter model. The effect of the anisotropic stress is illustrated by two examples: an axisymmetric dam break and a finite mass sliding on an inclined plane chute. It is found that the propagation of the flow fronts significantly depends on the orientation of the principal axes of the tangential stresses.
AlN codoped ZnO films were deposited on sapphire substrates at low temperature using a cosputter system under various N2/(N2 + Ar) flow ratios. To investigate the nitrogen function, the ratio of nitrogen ambient was varied during cosputtering. AlN codoped ZnO films with various crystallographic structures and bonding configurations were measured. With an adequate nitrogen atmosphere deposition condition and postannealing temperature at 450 °C, the p-type conductive behaviors of AlN codoped ZnO films were achieved due to the formation of Zn–N bonds. According to the low-temperature photoluminescence spectra, the binding energy (EA) of 0.16 eV for N acceptors can be calculated. Using time-resolved photoluminescence measurement, the carrier lifetime in AlN codoped ZnO films increases due to the reduction of oxygen vacancies caused by the occupation of adequate nitrogen atoms.
Preferential Pb electromigration (EM) in eutectic Sn–Pb molten solder was characterized by examining Pb segregation at the anode of the solder on a thin stripe of Cu metallization. The eutectic Sn–Pb molten solder stressed at current densities of 103−104 A/cm2 was found to form columnar Pb-rich phase (α) at the anode side and Pb deficiency at the cathode side. The columnar α-phase grew in the direction parallel to the electron flow, and its growth rate increased proportionally with the current density applied through the molten solder. By measuring the growth rate of the columnar α-phase, we calculated the Pb effective charge number of EM in the eutectic Sn–Pb molten solder to be 2.7, which is one order of magnitude lower than the reported value of 47 for self-electromigration in bulk Pb. The mechanism for the EM-induced Pb segregation in Sn–Pb solder was also explored.
We studied the incidence and clinical significance of early post-traumatic seizures after severe closed head injury.
This prospective study is based on clinical observation of 3340 adult patients with severe closed head injuries, each of them having a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 3 to 8 after trauma. Anticonvulsant agents were not given to these patients unless there was evidence of seizure.
One hundred and twenty-one patients (3.6%) experienced seizures within 1 week after head injury; 42 of these (1.26% of the series) had seizures within 24 hours after trauma. The incidence of intracerebral parenchymal damage was found to be higher among those patients who developed seizures in the first week (66.1%) than in those who did not (62.7%). However this result did not reach statistical significance. The patients with early seizures had a lower mortality rate (p < 0.01). In patients who survived from the initial injury, the occurrence of early post-traumatic seizures did not appear to influence the neurological recovery at 6 months after injury.
Presence of intracerebral parenchymal damage on CT scan after severe closed head injury does not increase the risk of early post-traumatic seizures. With proper treatment, patients presenting with early seizures may have a lower mortality rate. However, the occurrence of early seizures does not influence the neurological recovery in patients who survive the initial severe closed head injury.
The stability fields of the NdCeCuO (NCCO) films and the Ce0.5Nd0.5O1.75 (CNO) phase grown by laser ablation from the stoichiometric targets, Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4−8, are demonstrated, respectively. The superconducting NCCO films were grown in a specific field below and close to the CuO/Cu2O transition line, i.e., at 700–725°C in 20–50 mTorr, without vacuum annealing. On postdeposition cooling in lower oxygen pressures (<10 mTorr), the superconductivity of the NCCO films was significantly improved without vacuum annealing. The CNO phase usually appeared in the NCCO films at temperatures above 680 °C, and the higher the temperature the greater the CNO phase due to copper loss. A surplus of copper in the NCCO targets effectively suppressed the formation of the CNO phase, and thereby improved the superconductivity of the NCCO films.
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