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Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common debilitating disorder characterized by impaired spontaneous brain activity, yet little is known about its alterations in dynamic properties and the molecular mechanisms associated with these changes.
Based on the resting-state functional MRI data of 65 first-episode, treatment-naïve patients with MDD and 66 healthy controls, we compared dynamic regional homogeneity (dReHo) of spontaneous brain activity between the two groups, and we investigated gene expression profiles associated with dReHo alterations in MDD by leveraging transcriptional data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas and weighted gene co-expression network analysis.
Compared with healthy controls, patients with MDD consistently showed reduced dReHo in both fusiform gyri and in the right temporal pole and hippocampus. The expression profiles of 16 gene modules were correlated with dReHo alterations in MDD. These gene modules were enriched for various biological process terms, including immune, synaptic signalling, ion channels, mitochondrial function and protein metabolism, and were preferentially expressed in different cell types.
Patients with MDD have reduced dReHo in brain areas associated with emotional and cognitive regulation, and these changes may be related to complex polygenetic and polypathway mechanisms.
We report the first shock-tube experiments on dual-mode Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI). An extended soap-film technique is adopted to generate a dual-mode gaseous interface such that its initial wavenumber (
) and phase of the fundamental waves are well controlled. By extracting interfacial contours from the distinct schlieren images, a Fourier analysis is performed from linear to weakly nonlinear stages and the growth of each basic wave is obtained. A noticeable difference between the growth of each basic mode and the corresponding single-mode RMI is observed, which suggests evident mode coupling effects in the dual-mode RMI. For dual-mode interfaces with in-phase
waves, the mode coupling suppresses (promotes) the growth of the
) mode, while for interfaces with anti-phase
modes, the growth of the
) mode is weakly influenced (evidently inhibited). However, for the combination of
waves, the mode coupling has a negligible influence on the growth of each basic wave. The modal theory of Haan (Phys. Fluids B, vol. 3, 1991, pp. 2349–2355), originally for multi-mode Rayleigh–Taylor instability, is reformulated for the dual-mode RMI, and it is found that this model overestimates the present experimental results for ignoring the nonlinear saturation. This model is then modified by accounting for both the mode coupling and nonlinear saturation, which well predicts the experimental results not only for the growth of the basic waves but also for the growth of second harmonics.
The extent of intertidal flats in the Yellow Sea region has declined significantly in the past few decades, resulting in severe population declines in several waterbird species. The Yellow Sea region holds the primary stopover sites for many shorebirds during their migration to and from northern breeding grounds. However, the functional roles of these sites in shorebirds’ stopover ecology remain poorly understood. Through field surveys between July and November 2015, we investigated the stopover and moult schedules of migratory shorebirds along the southern Jiangsu coast, eastern China during their southbound migration, with a focus on the ‘Critically Endangered’ Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris pygmaea and ‘Endangered’ Nordmann’s Greenshank Tringa guttifer. Long-term count data indicate that both species regularly occur in globally important number in southern Jiangsu coast, constituting 16.67–49.34% and 64.0–80.67% of their global population estimates respectively, and it is highly likely that most adults undergo their primary moult during this southbound migration stopover. Our results show that Spoon-billed Sandpiper and Nordmann’s Greenshank staged for an extended period of time (66 and 84 days, respectively) to complete their primary moult. On average, Spoon-billed Sandpipers and Nordmann’s Greenshanks started moulting primary feathers on 8 August ± 4.52 and 27 July ± 1.56 days respectively, and their moult durations were 72.58 ± 9.08 and 65.09 ± 2.40 days. In addition, some individuals of several other shorebird species including the ‘Endangered’ Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris, ‘Near Threatened’ Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica, ‘Near Threatened’ Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata and Greater Sand Plover Charadrius leschenaultii also underwent primary moult. Our work highlights the importance of the southern Jiangsu region as the primary moulting ground for these species, reinforcing that conservation of shorebird habitat including both intertidal flats and supratidal roosting sites in this region is critical to safeguard the future of some highly threatened shorebird species.
Richtmyer–Meshkov instability of the SF6 gas layer surrounded by air is experimentally investigated. Using the soap film technique, five kinds of gas layer with two sharp interfaces are generated such that the development of each individual interface is highlighted. The flow patterns are determined by the amplitudes and phases of two corrugated interfaces. For a layer with both interfaces planar, the interface velocity shows that the reflected rarefaction waves from the second interface accelerate the first interface motion. For a layer with the second interface corrugated but the first interface planar, the reflected rarefaction waves make the first interface develop with the same phase as the second interface. For a layer with the first interface corrugated but the second interface planar, the rippled shock seeded from the first interface makes the second interface develop with the same phase as the first interface and the layer evolves into an ‘upstream mushroom’ shape. For two interfaces corrugated with opposite (the same) phase but a larger amplitude for the first interface, the layer evolves into ‘sinuous’ shape (‘bow and arrow’ shape, which has never been observed previously). For the interface amplitude growth in the linear stage, the waves’ effects are considered in the model to give a better prediction. In the nonlinear stage, the effect of the rarefaction waves on the first interface evolution is quantitatively evaluated, and the nonlinear growth is well predicted. It is the first time in experiments to quantify the interfacial instability induced by the rarefaction waves inside the heavy gas layer.
The interaction of rarefaction waves and a heavy/light interface is investigated using numerical simulations by solving the compressible Euler equations. An upwind space–time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme with second-order accuracy in both space and time is adopted. Rarefaction waves are generated by simulating the shock-tube problem. In this work, the SF6/air interface evolution under different conditions is considered. First, the gas physical parameters before and after the rarefaction waves impact the interface are calculated using one-dimensional gas dynamics theory. Then, the interaction between the rarefaction waves and a single-mode perturbation interface is investigated, and both the interface evolution and the wave patterns are obtained. Afterwards, the amplitude growth of the interface over time is compared between cases, considering the effects of the interaction period and the strength of the rarefaction waves. During the interaction of the rarefaction waves with the interface, the Rayleigh–Taylor instability induced by the rarefaction waves is well predicted by modifying the nonlinear model proposed by Zhang & Guo (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 786, 2016, pp. 47–61), considering the variable acceleration. After the rarefaction waves leave the interface, the equivalent Richtmyer–Meshkov instability is well depicted by the nonlinear model proposed by Zhang et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 121(17), 2018, 174502), considering the growth rate transition from Rayleigh–Taylor instability to Richtmyer–Meshkov instability. The differences in the heavy/light interface amplitude growth under the rarefaction wave condition and the shock wave condition are compared. The interface perturbation is shown to be more unstable under rarefaction waves than under a shock wave.
The interaction of a shock wave and a water droplet embedded with a vapour cavity is experimentally investigated in a shock tube for the first time. The vapour cavity inside the droplet is generated by decreasing the surrounding pressure to the saturation pressure, and an equilibrium between the liquid phase and the gas phase is obtained inside the droplet. Direct high-speed photography is adopted to capture the evolution of both the droplet and the vapour cavity. The formation of a transverse jet inside the droplet during the cavity-collapse stage is clearly observed. Soon afterwards, at the downstream pole of the droplet, a water jet penetrating into the surrounding air is observed during the cavity-expansion stage. The evolution of the droplet is strongly influenced by the evolution of the vapour cavity. The phase change process plays an important role in vapour cavity evolution. The effects of the relative size and eccentricity of the cavity on the movement and deformation of the droplet are presented quantitatively.
A coaxial-output rolled strip pulse-forming line (RSPFL) with a dry structure is researched for the purpose of miniaturization and all-solid state of pulse-forming lines (PFL). The coaxial-output RSPFL consists of a coaxial-output electrode (COE) and a rolled strip line (RSL). The COE is characterized by quasi-coaxial structure, making the output pulse propagate along the axial direction with a small output inductance. The RSL is rolled on the COE, whose transmission characteristics are analyzed theoretically. It shows that the RSL can be regarded as a planar strip line when the rolling radius of the strip line is larger than 60 times of the thickness of the insulation dielectric layer of RSL. CST modeling was carried out to simulate the discharging characteristic of the coaxial-output RSPFL. It shows that the coaxial-output RSPFL can deliver a discharging pulse with a rise time <6 ns when the impedance of the RSL matches that of the COE, which confirms the theoretical analysis. A prototype of the coaxial-output RSPFL was developed. A 49-kV discharging pulse on a matched load was achieved when it was charged to 100 kV. The discharging waveform has a pulse width of 32 ns, with a rise time of 6 ns, which is consistent with the simulation waveform. An energy-storage density of 1.9 J/L was realized in the coaxial-output RSPFL. By the method of multi-stage connection in series, a much higher output voltage is convenient to be obtained.
Structural distortions at the nanoscale are delicately linked with many exotic properties for ferroic thin films. Based on advanced aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, we observe BiFeO3 thin films with variant tensile strain states and demonstrate at an atomic scale the interplay of intrinsic spontaneous structural distortions with external constraints. Structural parameters (the rhombohedral distortion and domain wall shear distortion) under zero (BiFeO3/GdScO3) and 1.5% (BiFeO3/PrScO3) lateral strain states are quantitatively analyzed which are suppressed within a few unit cells near the film/substrate interfaces. In particular, an interfacial layer with asymmetrical lattice distortions (enhanced and reduced out-of-plane lattice spacing) on the two sides of 109° domain wall is resolved. These structural distortions near the film/substrate interface in ferroic thin films reveal intense tanglement of intrinsic distortions of BiFeO3 with external boundary conditions, which could provide new insights for the development of nanoscale ferroelectric devices.
The metamorphic responses of mussel (Mytilus coruscus) larvae to pharmacological agents affecting G proteins and the adenylate cyclase/cyclic AMP (AC/cAMP) pathway were examined in the laboratory. The G protein activators guanosine 5′-[β,γ-imido]triphosphate trisodium salt hydrate and guanosine 5′-[γ-thio]triphosphate tetralithium salt only induced larval metamorphosis in continuous exposure assays, and the G protein inhibitor guanosine 5′-[β-thio]diphosphate trilithium salt did not exhibit inducing activity. The non-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor theophylline and the cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase IV inhibitor 4-(3-Butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)imidazolidin-2-one exhibited inducing activity, while the non-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine only showed inducing activity at 10−4 M in continuous exposure assays. The cyclic nucleotide analogue N6,2′-O-Dibutyryladenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate sodium salt did not exhibit significant inducing activity. Both the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin and the adenylate cyclase inhibitor nitroimidazole exhibited inducing activity at 10−4 to 10−3 M concentrations in continuous exposure assays. Among these tested agents, the adenylate cyclase inhibitor (±)-miconazole nitrate salt showed the most promising inducing effect. The present results indicate that G protein-coupled receptors and signal transduction by AC/cAMP pathway could mediate metamorphosis of larvae in this species.
The development of high performance Al–Cu based alloys generally depends on the strict control of the Fe content. However, with the increasing use of recycled aluminum alloys, it is necessary to increase the tolerance for the Fe content in Al–Cu cast alloys for the purpose of low cost, energy saving, and environment protection. In this study, the formation of Fe-rich intermetallics and their effect on the tensile properties of squeeze-cast Al–5.0 wt% Cu–0.6 wt% Mn alloys with an Fe content of up to 1.5 wt% have been investigated. The full formation sequence of squeeze-cast Al–5.0 wt% Cu–0.6 wt% Mn alloys with different Fe contents has been established. The results were also compared with the corresponding results obtained for Al–5.0Cu–0.6Mn alloys prepared by gravity die casting. It is found that the Fe-rich intermetallic compounds mainly consist of α-Fe and β-Fe in alloys with a low Fe content, changing into Al6(FeMn) and Al3(FeMn) for alloys with a high Fe content. The applied pressure promotes the formation of the Fe-rich intermetallics α-Fe/Al6(FeMn) and prevents the precipitation of needle-like β-Fe/Al3(FeMn). The elongation of the alloys gradually decreases with the Fe content, and a maximum value for both the ultimate mechanical strength and the yield strength was found for the alloys with 0.5 wt% Fe. The tensile properties of alloys with a different Fe content significantly increased as the applied pressure was increased from 0 to 75 MPa, especially the elongation.
De-novo protein synthesis is required in the development of behavioural sensitization. A prior screening test from our laboratory has implicated heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) as one of the proteins required in this behavioural plasticity. Thus, this study was designed to extend our understanding of the role of Hsp70 in the development of behavioural sensitization induced by a single morphine exposure in mice. First, by employing transcription inhibitor actinomycin D (AD) and protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX), we identified a protein synthesis-dependent labile phase (within 4 h after the first morphine injection) in the development of behavioural sensitization to a single morphine exposure. Second, Hsp70 protein expression in the nucleus accumbens correlated positively with locomotor responses of sensitized mice and, more importantly, the expression of Hsp70 increased within 1 h after the first morphine injection. Third, AD and CHX both prevented expression of Hsp70 and disrupted the development of the single morphine induced behavioural sensitization, which further implied Hsp70 was highly associated with behavioural sensitization. Finally, the selective Hsp70 inhibitor pifithrin-μ (PES) i.c.v. injected in mice prevented the development of behavioural sensitization and, critically, this inhibitory effect occurred only when PES was given within 1 h after the first morphine injection, which was within the labile phase of the development period. Taken together, we draw the conclusion that Hsp70 is crucially involved in the labile phase of the development of behavioural sensitization induced by a single morphine exposure, probably functioning as a molecular chaperone.
The strategies of repair of tetralogy of Fallot change with the age of patients. In children older than 4 years and adults, the optimal strategy may be to use different method of reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract from those followed in younger children, so as to avoid, or reduce, the pulmonary insufficiency that is increasingly known to compromise right ventricular function.
From April, 2001, through May, 2008, we undertook complete repair in 312 patients, 180 male and 132 female, with a mean age of 11.3 years ±0.4 years, and a range from 4 to 48 years, with typical clinical and morphological features of tetralogy of Fallot, including 42 patients with the ventriculo-arterial connection of double outlet right ventricle. The operation was performed under moderate hypothermia using blood cardioplegia. The ventricular septal defect was closed with a Dacron patch. When it was considered necessary to resect the musculature within the right ventricular outflow tract, or perform pulmonary valvotomy, we sought to preserve the function of the pulmonary valve by protecting as far as possible the native leaflets, or creating a folded monocusp of autologous pericardium.
The repair was achieved completely through right atrium in 192, through the right ventricular outflow tract in 83, and through the right atrium, the outflow tract, and the pulmonary trunk in 36 patients. A transjunctional patch was inserted in 169 patients, non-valved in all but 9. There were no differences regarding the periods of aortic cross-clamping or cardiopulmonary bypass. Of the patients, 5 died (1.6%), with no influence noted for the transjunctional patch. Of those having a non-valved patch inserted, three-tenths had pulmonary regurgitation of various degree, while those having a valved patch had minimal pulmonary insufficiency and good right ventricular function postoperatively, this being maintained after follow-up of 8 to 24-months.
Based on our experience, we suggest that the current strategy of repair of tetralogy of Fallot in older children and adults should be based on minimizing the insertion of transjunctional patches, this being indicated only in those with very small ventriculo-pulmonary junctions. If such a patch is necessary, then steps should be taken to preserve the function of the pulmonary valve.
A novel vapor-transport-assisted wet chemistry process was developed to fabricate oxide nanodot arrays from soft polymer templates. The feasibility and wide applicability of the proposed process was demonstrated with creation of high-density oxide nanodot arrays of TiO2, ZnO, and Co3O4. The present process not only avoids the over-growth problem inevitable in wet chemistry processes but also enables formation of oxide nanodots at low temperatures. The process can be readily extended to other compound systems in which the products can be formed through reactions of two reactants, one in liquid phase and the other in vapor phase.
Few psychosocial interventions have been developed in China that are
suitable for use in the community.
To evaluate the effectiveness of the Chinese version of the Community
Re-Entry Module (CRM; a module of a standardised, structured social
skills training programme devised at the University of California, Los
Angeles) for patients with schizophrenia compared with standard group
Patients with schizophrenia (n=103) were randomly
allocated to CRM or psychoeducation groups and followed up for 24 months.
Outcome measures included social functioning, psychiatric symptoms,
insight, re-employment, relapse and re-hospitalisation rates.
The CRM group significantly improved in terms of social functioning,
insight and psychiatric symptoms compared with the psychoeducation group;
the re-employment rate was significantly higher and relapse and
rehospitalisation rates were significantly lower in the CRM group.
The findings support the feasibility and effectiveness of CRM as a
psychosocial intervention for Chinese patients with schizophrenia in the
To evaluate intrahospital and interhospital clonal dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Eight tertiary-care university hospitals and 16 regional hospitals in Taiwan.
Two hundred eleven confirmed ESBL-producing isolates of K. pneumoniae were collected from January 1998 to June 2000. The isolates were characterized by various typing methods, including antibiogram (9 antimicrobial agents), computer-based ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and isoelectric focusing of beta-lactamase.
Ribotyping identified 70 distinct ribogroups among 200 isolates evaluated. Forty-three of these ribogroups were unique. Eleven ribogroups, comprising 115 isolates, were detected in more than one hospital (interhospital dissemination), whereas 16 groups (42 isolates) were detected in more than one patient within a hospital (intrahospital dissemination). The combination of ribotyping and PFGE identified two large epidemic clones, which were called 691.5/PFGE-G and 595.7/PFGE-A. These epidemic clones were detected mainly in the hospitals located in the northern and central regions of Taiwan. However, variation of the profiles of antibiograms and isoelectric focusing was apparent within each clone. In addition, isolates with the same isoelectric focusing profile (isoelectric points 7.9, 8.2, and 8.4) and antibiogram (resistance to 9 compounds evaluated) were present among different molecular-typed clones.
Our results showed that clonal dissemination (both interhospital and intrahospital dissemination) is occurring in several regions of Taiwan. Rapid computer-based ribotyping associated with PFGE demonstrated multiple epidemic clones of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae in Taiwan. The combination of phenotypic and molecular methods has proved useful to characterize these epidemic clones.
Sterile mycelia isolated from Pinus tabulaeformis were grouped into white morphotype strains based on cultural characteristics. Eighteen of the isolates were randomly selected and identified to various taxonomic levels based on nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) sequence analysis. The 5.8S gene and flanking internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS2) regions of nrDNA were amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5.8S gene sequences indicated that the white morphotype strains were Ascomycota. Further identification was achieved by means of sequence similarity comparison and phylogenetic analysis of the ITS regions. Results showed that strains WMS9 and WMS10 were Lophodermium species (Rhytismataceae), while strains WMS11, WMS13 and WMS18 were species of Rhytismataceae. Strains WMS2, WMS3, WMS4, WMS5 and WMS6 were identified to Rosellinia, strain WMS1 to Entoleuca, and strain WMS14 to Nemania (Xylariaceae). Strains WMS7, WMS8, WMS12, WMS15, WMS16 and WMS17 were xylariaceous species. The potential of using DNA sequence analysis in the identification of endophytic fungi is discussed.
A new self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process has been developed for synthesis of AlN powder under low nitrogen pressures. Al and NH4X (X = F, Cl, Br, or I) powders were mixed and pressed into a compact, which was placed in a reaction chamber filled with nitrogen. The combustion synthesis reaction was ignited by heating directly the compact, and high product yields (∼90%) were obtained under nitrogen pressures of around 0.5 MPa. The product yield was affected by the reactant composition, the nitrogen pressure, and the compact-forming pressure. The powder as synthesized consists mainly of fibers, coarse granules, and agglomerated fine particles, which become mostly smaller than 10 μm after grinding. A reaction process was also proposed that explains the effects of the experimental parameters on the product yield.
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