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Comprehensive screening of rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica Kato) germplasm resources with different nitrogen (N) efficiency levels is effective for improving N use efficiency (NUE) while reducing pollution and providing high quality, yield, and efficiency agriculture. We investigated 14 indices of 38 varieties under three N application levels to assess differences among genotypes. Rice varieties were classified for screening and identifying N efficient. Descriptive statistical analysis results indicated significant differences in relative yield, and also in NUE indices (agronomic utilization rate and partial productivity of N fertilizer). The genotype main effects and genotype–environment interaction effects (GGE) biplot analysis was used to evaluate suitable varieties, compare the stable and high yield capabilities of different varieties, find the ideal variety, and describe the correlation, discrimination and representativeness of the indices under different N application levels. Descriptive statistical, discrimitiveness and representativeness and factor analysis were used to select indices, in which the panicle number per plant and soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) value were the key indices for evaluation and identification. Heatmap and hierarchical cluster analysis based on the average value of evaluation indices, and scatter plot based on the comprehensive value of N efficiency (P) according to formula showed that all varieties could be divided into five types under different N treatments. Our findings work toward developing N efficient rice varieties to improve NUE, reduce N fertilizer application and thus N waste, consequently mitigating the effects of rice production on the environment to ensure food security and sustainable agricultural development.
The microbiota–gut–brain axis, especially the microbial tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis and metabolism pathway (MiTBamp), may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, studies on the MiTBamp in MDD are lacking. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gut microbiota composition and the MiTBamp in MDD patients.
We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 26 MDD patients and 29 healthy controls (HCs). In addition to the microbiota community and the MiTBamp analyses, we also built a classification based on the Random Forests (RF) and Boruta algorithm to identify the gut microbiota as biomarkers for MDD.
The Bacteroidetes abundance was strongly reduced whereas that of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the MDD patients compared with the abundance in the HCs. Most noteworthy, the MDD patients had increased levels of Bifidobacterium, which is commonly used as a probiotic. Four Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologies (KOs) (K01817, K11358, K01626, K01667) abundances in the MiTBamp were significantly lower in the MDD group. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between the K01626 abundance and the HAMD scores in the MDD group. Finally, RF classification at the genus level can achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.890.
The present findings enabled a better understanding of the changes in gut microbiota and the related Trp pathway in MDD. Alterations of the gut microbiota may have the potential as biomarkers for distinguishing MDD patients form HCs.
We assessed inheritance of resistance to sugarcane brown rust (Puccinia melanocephala) in selfing F1 populations of wild sugarcane germplasm Erianthus rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’. We tested parent and selfing F1 individuals for the brown rust resistance gene, Bru1, that has been shown to confer resistance to brown rust in sugarcane. The Bru1 gene was not detected in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’, E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ or their selfing F1 individuals, and we found there was segregation of resistance in the two selfing F1 populations (segregation ratio: 3:1). The results confirmed resistance in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ to sugarcane brown rust is controlled by a novel, single dominant gene.
The accelerated retreat of glaciers and the reduction of glacier ice reserves caused by climate change can significantly affect regional water resources and hydrological cycles. Changes in glacier thickness are among the key indicators that reflect this process. We analyzed changes observed in the elevation of glacier surfaces in the Gongga Mountains (GGM) using multi-temporal Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) derived from topographic maps, SRTM, ICESat and ZY-3 data. The results showed that the mean rate of change in glacier surface altitude in the GGM was ~−26.7 ± 2.03 m (0.54 ± 0.04 m a−1) between 1966 and 2015. The mean melt rates differed over different time periods, latterly showing an accelerating trend. As a general rule, glaciers appear to be losing more volume at lower than at higher elevations. Further analysis of these results suggests that supraglacial debris coverage in the GGM promotes higher rates of mass loss.
Global climate change is causing widespread glacier retreat, with many small glaciers disappearing from the world's mountain ranges. We obtained the annual mass balance of a small glacier (the Ningchan No.1 Glacier) located on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, from the years 2010 to 2015 using glaciological and geodetic methods. We also measured the glacier's thickness in 2014 using ground-penetrating radar. Employing topographical maps and ZY-3 images, we obtained Digital Elevation Models for 1972 and 2014. Our results showed that the mean annual mass balance from 2010 to 2015 was ~−0.9 ± 0.5 m w.e. The mean equilibrium line altitude was ~4680 m in the period 2010–15, which exceeds the maximum elevation of the glacier. The glacier has lost area and mass across its elevation range. The mean ice thickness was 24.0 ± 2.5 m in 2014. From 1972 to 2014, the glacier's area shrank from 0.77 ± 0.05 to 0.39 ± 0.04 km2, and the ice volume decreased by (14.96 ± 0.97) × 106 m3, equivalent to (12.72 ± 0.82) × 106 t w.e. over the same period.
We investigate the changes at nine glaciers in the Ningchan and Shuiguan river source, eastern Qilian Mountains, between 1972 and 2010. According to analysis of topographic maps and multispectral satellite data, all nine glaciers in the study area have retreated, by a maximum of 250 ± 57.4 m and a minimum of 91 ± 57.4 m. The total glacier area decreased by 1.20 km2, corresponding to 9.9% of the glacierized area in 1972. Comparing the two DEMs generated from the topographic maps and Real-Time Kinematic GPS data, the mean glacier thinning rate was 0.64 m yr− 1 between 1972 and 2010. The most significant thinning generally occurred on the termini. The ice-volume loss was about 106.8 ± 46.7 × 10− 3 km3 (equal to 90.8 ± 39.7 × 10− 3 km3 w.e.), which suggested a mean water discharge of 0.1 ± 0.05 m3/s during 1972–2010. Based on analysis of meteorological data, the summer temperature (June–August) tends to increase over a similar time period. The consistency of temperature increase and glacier shrinkage allows us to suggest that air temperature plays an important role in glacier changes in this region.
Neurosyphilis (NS) may present with neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by cognitive impairment, personality disorders, and confusion, among others. Very few studies have focused on neuropsychiatric disorders secondary to NS in elderly people.
A retrospective chart review was performed to characterize the psychiatric findings, clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory findings, and brain magnetic resonance imaging results of ten elderly inpatients with NS.
In these ten patients, the most common presenting symptoms included a wide variety of psychiatric manifestations. The serum rapid plasma regain (RPR) and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA) of the ten patients were positive, with positive CSF TPPA and RPR rates of 100% and 60%, respectively. In addition, 90% of the patients demonstrated abnormal imaging, including cerebral atrophy, infarct ischemic stroke, and hydrocephalus.
Our findings support the importance of serological tests for syphilis as a routine component of the evaluation of patients with clinically evident neurological or psychiatric symptoms. If the serology is positive, all of the patients should be examined with a lumbar puncture. Moreover, psychiatric illnesses secondary to NS in the elderly also deserve medical attention.
Minor Fe additions are necessary to enhance the corrosion resistance of commercial Cu-Ni alloys. The present paper aims at optimizing the Fe content in three alloy series Cu90(Ni,Fe)10, Cu80(Ni,Fe)20, and Cu70(Ni,Fe)30 (at.%) from the viewpoint of their corrosion performance in a 3.5% NaCl solution. An Fe/Ni = 1/12 solid solubility limit line was revealed in the Cu-Ni-Fe phase diagram. Three Fe/Ni = 1/12 alloys, Cu90Ni9.23Fe0.77 (at.%) = Cu-8.6Ni-0.7Fe (wt.%), Cu80Ni18.46Fe1.54 = Cu-17.3Ni-1.4Fe, and Cu70Ni27.7Fe2.3 = Cu-26.2Ni-2.1Fe, show the best corrosion performances in their respective alloy series. The Fe/Ni = 1/12 solubility limit is explained by assuming isolated Fe-centered FeNi12 cuboctahedral clusters embedded in a Cu matrix. The three Fe/Ni = 1/12 alloys can be respectively described by cluster formulas [Fe1Ni12]Cu117, [Fe1Ni12]Cu52, and [Fe1Ni12]Cu30.3. The Fe/Ni = 1/12 rule may serve an important guideline in the industrial Cu-Ni alloy selection because above this limit, easy precipitation would negate the corrosion properties of the Cu-Ni-based alloys.
Introduction. Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne sp.) cause significant economic damage to Prunus species in China. One of the most economical and environmentally sustainable methods to reduce the impact of root-knot nematodes is the use of resistant rootstock cultivars. Our aim was to examine resistance to M. incognita and its mechanisms. Materials and methods. Four rootstocks were assessed: Tsukuba-4 (P. persica), Tsukuba-5 (P. persica), Nanking cherry (P. tomentosa) and wild peach (P. persica). The susceptible tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivar ‘Baiguoqiangfeng’ was used as a positive control. Results. Nematodes did not penetrate roots of Tsukuba-4 and Tsukuba-5, which were considered to be immune varieties. Nanking cherry was highly resistant to M. incognita, whereas wild peach was susceptible. Conclusion. The differences in resistance among the rootstocks were not attributed to differences in effects of root diffusates, but were related to the different structural organizations of the root tips. The epidermal structure of Tsukuba-4 and Tsukuba-5 completely prevented the penetration of second-stage juveniles of M. incognita (J2). In Nanking cherry, penetration of J2 juveniles was reduced, and the development of nematodes from the J2 to female stage was delayed.
Accumulated evidence suggests that social support is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. However, there are little data that examine this issue from Asian samples. We reported results from a preliminary study that examined familial effects on social support in a Chinese adult twin sample. We administered a 10-item social support instrument that measures three dimensions of social support (i.e., objective support, subjective support, and utilization of support) developed for the Chinese population. Two hundred forty-two same-sex twin pairs, where both members of the pair completed the personal interview, were included in the final analysis. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate additive genetic (A), shared environmental (C), and nonshared environmental (E) effects on each dimension of social support. Familial factors (A+C) explained 56.63% [95% CI = 45.48–65.72%] and 42.42% [95% CI = 29.93–53.25%] of the total phenotypic variances of subjective support and utilization of support, respectively. For the objective support, genetic effects did not exist, but common environmental effect explained 37.56% [95% CI = 26.17–48.28%] of the total phenotypic variances. Neither gender nor age effects were seen on any dimension of social support. Except for objective support, genetic factors probably influence variation in subjective support and utilization of support. Shared environmental factors may influence all dimensions of social support.
A liquid crystal polarized light microscope (LC PolScope) was used to examine spindle dynamics in living mouse oocytes. Immature oocytes were cultured for 0–48 h and spindles were imaged with the PolScope at various time points of culture. Oocytes at metaphase I (M-I) and metaphase II (M-II) were also exposed to shifts of temperature from 25 to 41 °C to examine the effects of fluctuations of temperature on spindle dynamics. After examination with the PolScope, some oocytes were fixed and examined by immunocytochemical staining and confocal microscopy. After culturing for 6 h, 76% and 2% of the oocytes reached M-I and M-II stages and all oocytes had birefringent spindles. When the oocytes were cultured for 14–16 h, 88% and 6% of oocytes were at M-II and M-I stages respectively and all oocytes had birefringent spindles. However, when the oocytes were cultured for 22–48 h, the proportions of oocytes with birefringent spindles decreased as culture time was increased. Exposure of oocytes to 25 °C induced spindle disassembly within 10–20 min in both M-I and M-II oocytes. Most (93–100%) oocytes reassembled spindles after warming at 37 °C. Furthermore, exposure of oocytes at M-I stage but not at M-II stage, to 30 °C also induced significant microtubule disassembly. However, exposure of oocytes to 38–41 °C did not obviously change the quantity of microtubules in the spindles, which was measured by retardance. This study indicates that the PolScope can be used to examine spindle dynamics in living oocytes, and it has the advantage over the routine fluorescence microscope in that images can be obtained in the same individual oocyte and the quantity of microtubules can be measured by retardance in living oocytes. These results also indicate that the M-II spindle in mouse oocytes is sensitive to oocyte ageing and cooling, but not heating, and M-I spindle is more sensitive to temperature decline than M-II spindle.
The ion-beam-sputtered polycrystalline SiGe film and its doping properties have been studied. Boron and phosphorus have been doped into the sputtered poly-SiGe film by ion implantation and diffusion. To activate the implanted impurities, both rapid thermal annealing and fiirnace annealing have been used. The electrical measurements show that boron and plhosphorus can be doped into sputtered SiGe films and effectively activated by both ion implantation with post-annealing and diffiision. Hall mobilities as high as 31 cm2/V-s and 20 cm2/V.s have been obtained in B-difflhsed and P-diffused SiGe films, respectively. The x-ray diffraction spectra of the sputtered Sifie filhn show its typical polycrystalline structure with (111), (220) and (311) as the preferential orientations.
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