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A coaxial-output rolled strip pulse-forming line (RSPFL) with a dry structure is researched for the purpose of miniaturization and all-solid state of pulse-forming lines (PFL). The coaxial-output RSPFL consists of a coaxial-output electrode (COE) and a rolled strip line (RSL). The COE is characterized by quasi-coaxial structure, making the output pulse propagate along the axial direction with a small output inductance. The RSL is rolled on the COE, whose transmission characteristics are analyzed theoretically. It shows that the RSL can be regarded as a planar strip line when the rolling radius of the strip line is larger than 60 times of the thickness of the insulation dielectric layer of RSL. CST modeling was carried out to simulate the discharging characteristic of the coaxial-output RSPFL. It shows that the coaxial-output RSPFL can deliver a discharging pulse with a rise time <6 ns when the impedance of the RSL matches that of the COE, which confirms the theoretical analysis. A prototype of the coaxial-output RSPFL was developed. A 49-kV discharging pulse on a matched load was achieved when it was charged to 100 kV. The discharging waveform has a pulse width of 32 ns, with a rise time of 6 ns, which is consistent with the simulation waveform. An energy-storage density of 1.9 J/L was realized in the coaxial-output RSPFL. By the method of multi-stage connection in series, a much higher output voltage is convenient to be obtained.
Advance directives are important for nursing home residents with dementia; for those with advanced dementia, surrogates determine medical decisions. However, in Taiwan, little is known about what influences the completion of these advance directives. The purpose of this study was to identify factors, which influence the presence of advance directives for nursing home residents with dementia in Taiwan.
Our cross-sectional study analyzed a convenience sample of 143 nursing home dyads comprised of residents with dementia and family surrogates. Documentation of residents’ advance directives, physical and cognitive status was obtained from medical charts. Surrogates completed the stress of end-of-life care decision scale and a questionnaire regarding their demographic characteristics. Nursing home characteristics were obtained from each chief administrator.
Less than half of the nursing home residents (39.2%) had advance directives and most (96.4%) had been completed by family surrogates. The following were predictors of an advance directive: surrogates had previously signed a do-not-resuscitate as a proxy and had been informed of advance directives by a healthcare provider; nursing homes had policies for advance directives and a religious affiliation.
Advance directives were uncommon for nursing home residents with dementia. Presence of an advance directive was associated with surrogate characteristics and the nursing home facilities; there was no association with characteristics of the nursing home resident. Our findings emphasize the need to develop policies and strategies, which ensure that all residents of nursing homes and their surrogates are aware of their right to an advance directive.
The Myanmar snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus strykeri was discovered in 2010 on the western slopes of the Gaoligong Mountains in the Irrawaddy River basin in Myanmar and subsequently in the same river basin in China, in 2011. Based on 2 years of surveying the remote and little disturbed forest of the Gaoligong Mountains National Nature Reserve in China, with outline transect sampling and infrared camera monitoring, a breeding group comprising > 70 individuals was found on the eastern slopes of the Gaoligong Mountains in the Salween River Basin. Given the Critically Endangered status of this primate (a total of < 950 individuals are estimated to remain in the wild), efforts to protect the relatively undisturbed habitat of this newly discovered population and to prevent hunting are essential for the long-term survival of this species.
Obesity and hyperlipidaemia increase the risk of CVD. Some strains of probiotics have been suggested to have potential applications in cardiovascular health by lowering serum LDL-cholesterol. In this work, high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidaemia in hamsters was treated with different doses (5×108 and 2·5×109 cells/kg per d) of heat-killed Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 (Lr263) by oral gavage for 8 weeks. The serum lipid profile analysis showed that LDL-cholesterol and plasma malondialdehyde (P-MDA) were reduced in the GMNL-263 5×108 cells/kg per d treatment group. Total cholesterol and P-MDA were reduced in the GMNL-263 2·5×109 cells/kg per d treatment group. In terms of heart function, the GMNL-263 2·5×109 cells/kg per d treatments improved the ejection fraction from 85·71 to 91·81 % and fractional shortening from 46·93 to 57·92 % in the high-fat diet-fed hamster hearts. Moreover, the GMNL-263-treated, high-fat diet-fed hamster hearts exhibited reduced Fas-induced myocardial apoptosis and a reactivated IGF1R/PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway. Interestingly, the GMNL-263 treatments also enhanced the heat-shock protein 27 expression in a dose-dependent manner, but the mechanism for this increase remains unclear. In conclusion, supplementary heat-killed L. reuteri GMNL-263 can slightly reduce serum cholesterol. The anti-hyperlipidaemia effects of GMNL-263 may reactivate the IGF1R/PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway and reduce Fas-induced myocardial apoptosis in high-fat diet-fed hamster hearts.
The present study aimed to compare the effects of a general dietary intervention and an intervention with low glycaemic load (GL) on glycaemic control, blood lipid metabolism and pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.
Participants were randomly assigned to two groups, receiving either an individualized general dietary intervention (Control group) or an intensive low-GL intervention (Low-GL group) every two weeks, from 24–26 weeks of gestation to delivery.
The Center of Maternal Primary Care in Guangdong General Hospital, China.
Ninety-five women with gestational diabetes mellitus were enrolled from June 2008 to July 2009.
After the intervention, both groups significantly decreased their dietary intakes of energy, fat and carbohydrate. The Low-GL group had significantly lower values for GL (122 v. 136) and glycaemic index (50 v. 54) but greater dietary fibre intake (33 v. 29 g/d) than did the Control group (all P<0·01). Significantly greater decreases in fasting plasma glucose (−0·33 v. −0·02 mmol/l, P<0·01) and 2 h postprandial glucose (−2·98 v. −2·51 mmol/l, P<0·01), significantly lower increases in total cholesterol (0·12 v. 0·23 mmol/l) and TAG (0·41 v. 0·56 mmol/l) and a significantly lower decrease in HDL cholesterol (−0·01 v. −0·11 mmol/l) were also observed in the Low-GL group compared with the Control group (all P<0·05). There were no significant differences in body weight gain, birth weight or other maternal–fetal perinatal outcomes between the two groups.
The low-GL targeted dietary intervention outperformed the general dietary intervention in glycaemic control and the improvement of blood lipid levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.
The ability of silver (Ag)-containing borate bioactive glass (BG) coatings to improve the biocompatibility and antibacterial properties of titanium (Ti) implants was investigated in vitro and in vivo in a rabbit tibial fracture model. Dense coatings of borate BG (thickness ≈ 20 μm) containing 0, 0.75, and 1.0 wt% Ag2O were prepared by depositing a layer of particles on Ti plates, followed by sintering at 900 °C. The as-prepared coatings had an adhesive strength of 10 ± 1 MPa, and when immersed in an aqueous phosphate (K2HPO4) solution, the coatings converted to hydroxyapatite, releasing Ag+ ions continuously for over 4 wk. After implantation of BG-coated Ti constructs in a rabbit tibial fracture model and of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-induced osteomyelitis, the BG coating doped with 1.0 wt% Ag2O was most effective for the simultaneous eradication of the infection and fracture fixation. Implants coated with Ag-containing BG coatings could provide an approach for reducing implant-related bone infection.
Ultrashort electron bunch trains can be used for plasma wake field acceleration (PWFA) to overcome the limit of transformer ratio of a single electron bunch, or high-power terahertz (Thz) radiation production by various radiation mechanisms. Basic facility for high-power THz radiation development based on ultrashort electron beam has been set up at accelerator lab of TUB. Using birefringent crystal serials, ultraviolet (UV) pulse shaping for photocathode radio frequency gun to produce THz-repetition-rate pulse train was realized. Driven by such pulses, ultrashort electron bunch train with picosecond (ps) spacing was obtained for THz production. Measurement of the stacked UV pulse trains was done by difference frequency generation (DFG), and the measured group velocity mismatch of α-BBO crystal at 266.7-nm wavelength was 0.8 ps/mm. This method may also be applied to form ramped electron bunch trains for PWFA.
Background: Several studies have investigated the association of FKBP5 gene polymorphisms with mood disorders, but findings are not always consistent. The aim of our study was to assess the association of FKBP5 gene polymorphisms with mood disorders using a meta-analysis.
Methods: Data were collected from the following electronic databases: PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang, with the last report up to March 2010. Meta-analysis was performed in a fixed/random effect model.
Results: We identified six studies using search, and one study was excluded because of unavailable data. One study contained data on two different ethnicities and we treated them independently. Thus, six separate studies (2655 cases and 3593 controls) were included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis was performed for three FKBP5 gene polymorphisms (rs1360780, rs3800373 and rs4713916) in overall and Caucasian populations. We did not detect any association of FKBP5 gene rs1360780 and rs3800373 polymorphisms with mood disorders (p > 0.05). However, a significant association of FKBP5 gene rs4713916 polymorphism with mood disorders was found, and the heterozygous individual (GA genotype) was more susceptible to mood disorders in comparison to homozygous analogues (GG or AA genotype) [overall: GA vs. GG: OR (odds ratio) = 1.20, 95% CI (confidence interval) = 1.03–1.40, p = 0.02; GA vs. AA: OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.09–1.90, p = 0.009; Caucasian: GA vs. GG: OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.04–1.44, p = 0.01; GA vs. AA: OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.09–1.89, p = 0.01].
Conclusion: This meta-analysis shows that mood disorders are associated with FKBP5 gene rs4713916 polymorphism, but not with rs1360780 and rs3800373.
Genetic diversity and genetic variation of 240 adult plants of four tea populations in Hunan – Camellia sinensis var. sinensis, C. sinensis var. assamica cv. Duntsa, C. ptilophylla and C. sinensis var. assamica cv. Jianghua – were studied by rapid amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The results showed 226 loci using 21 random primers (10 bp), of which 201 (88.9%) were polymorphic. The genetic diversity analysis indicated that Shannon's index was 0.43; 74.7% of which was within-population genetic diversity while 25.3% was among-population variation. The gene diversity indexes of total populations (HT), within populations (HS) and among populations (HST) were, respectively, 0.37, 0.28 and 0.09. The coefficient of gene differentiation (GST) among populations was 0.23, indicating a 76.7% variation within populations and 23.3% among populations. These results displayed a rich within-population genetic variation, as in Shannon's diversity index. Interpopulation gene flow (Nm) was 0.74, which indicates the limited genetic exchange between populations.
Accumulated evidence suggests that social support is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. However, there are little data that examine this issue from Asian samples. We reported results from a preliminary study that examined familial effects on social support in a Chinese adult twin sample. We administered a 10-item social support instrument that measures three dimensions of social support (i.e., objective support, subjective support, and utilization of support) developed for the Chinese population. Two hundred forty-two same-sex twin pairs, where both members of the pair completed the personal interview, were included in the final analysis. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate additive genetic (A), shared environmental (C), and nonshared environmental (E) effects on each dimension of social support. Familial factors (A+C) explained 56.63% [95% CI = 45.48–65.72%] and 42.42% [95% CI = 29.93–53.25%] of the total phenotypic variances of subjective support and utilization of support, respectively. For the objective support, genetic effects did not exist, but common environmental effect explained 37.56% [95% CI = 26.17–48.28%] of the total phenotypic variances. Neither gender nor age effects were seen on any dimension of social support. Except for objective support, genetic factors probably influence variation in subjective support and utilization of support. Shared environmental factors may influence all dimensions of social support.
Solder pots used in wave soldering are usually made using different kinds of steel. Dissolution and interfacial reactions of the Fe substrate in molten Sn-Pb and Sn-Cu solders are investigated in this study. FeSn2 phase is formed in the Sn-0.7wt%Cu/Fe couples reacted at 250, 400, and 500 °C, as well as in the Sn-37wt%Pb/Fe couples reacted at 250 and 400 °C. The activation energies of formation are 123 and 121 kJ/mol in the Sn-Cu/Fe and Sn-Pb/Fe couples, respectively. FeSn phase is the reaction product in the Sn-37wt%Pb/Fe couples reacted 500 °C. The dissolution rates of Fe in the Sn-0.7wt%Cu melt are much higher than those in-the Sn-37wt%Pb melt. The FeSn2 phase layer in the Sn-Cu/Fe couple is not as dense as that in the Sn-Pb/Fe couple and accounts for the very different dissolution rates. Detachment of the reaction FeSn2 phase into the solder matrix is observed in the Sn-Cu/Fe couples, and is a potential contaminant source in wave soldering.
To control the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie, a method was developed for the simultaneous detection of bovine- and sheep-derived materials in feedstuffs. Chelex-100 was adopted for the fast extraction of animal genomic DNA. A pair of universal primers, designed on the basis of homology in sequences of bovine and sheep mtDNA, was used for PCR. This method is of great value to quarantine departments for its simplicity and rapid detection.
A facile, surfactant-assisted, hydrothermal approach has been developed to synthesize lanthanide phosphate single-crystalline nanowires/nanorods with smooth surface, uniform diameter, and good crystallinity. The surfactant Pluronic P123 was found to play a crucial role on the uniform morphology of lanthanide phosphate single-crystalline nanowires/nanorods. Photoluminescence spectra of the lanthanide phosphate single-crystalline nanowires/nanorods show that these nanowires/nanorods have strong photoluminescent emissions in the ultraviolet-visible and near-infrared regions. The present work is a preliminary and significant step toward the potential luminescent and catalytic applications of lanthanide compound based one-dimensional nanostructures.
GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs (x=0.5, 0.6, 1.0) superlattices used as buffer layers in HEMT devices have been grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) at. atmospheric pressure, and characterized by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). The initial stage of nucleation on the substrates has been clearly verified by examining the undulations of a 30na GaAs layer sandwiched between the substrate and the superlattice. Both Alo.5Gao.5As/GaAs and AlAs/GaAs superlattices can smooth out interface roughness caused by contaminations and dislocations on the substrate surface. The mechanism of smoothing effect has been discussed in detail.
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