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We assessed inheritance of resistance to sugarcane brown rust (Puccinia melanocephala) in selfing F1 populations of wild sugarcane germplasm Erianthus rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’. We tested parent and selfing F1 individuals for the brown rust resistance gene, Bru1, that has been shown to confer resistance to brown rust in sugarcane. The Bru1 gene was not detected in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’, E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ or their selfing F1 individuals, and we found there was segregation of resistance in the two selfing F1 populations (segregation ratio: 3:1). The results confirmed resistance in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ to sugarcane brown rust is controlled by a novel, single dominant gene.
Combining density functional theory calculations and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments, the adsorption behavior of various sulfur containing compounds, including C2H5SH, CH3SCH3, tetrahydrothiophene, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, and their derivatives on the coordinately unsaturated sites of Mo27Sx model nanoparticles, are studied systematically. Sulfur molecules with aromaticity prefer flat adsorption than perpendicular adsorption. The adsorption of nonaromatic molecules is stronger than the perpendicular adsorption of aromatic molecules, but weaker than the flat adsorption of them. With gradual hydrogenation (HYD), the binding affinity in the perpendicular adsorption modes increases, while in flat adsorption modes it increases first, then decreases. Significant steric effects on the adsorption of dimethyldibenzothiophene were revealed in perpendicular adsorption modes. The steric effect, besides weakening adsorption, could also activate the S–C bonds through a compensation effect. Finally, by comparing the theoretical adsorption energies with the TPD results, we suggest that HYD and direct-desulfurization path may happen simultaneously, but on different active sites.
We previously reported four heterozygous missense mutations of MYH7, KCNQ1, MYLK2, and TMEM70 in a single three-generation Chinese family with dual Long QT and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy phenotypes for the first time. However, the clinical course among the family members was various, and the potential myocardial dysfunction has not been investigated.
The objective of this study was to investigate the echocardiographic and electrocardiographic characteristics in a genetic positive Chinese family with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and further to explore the association between myocardial dysfunction and electric activity, and the identified mutations.
A comprehensive echocardiogram – standard two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography and three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography – and electrocardiogram were obtained for members in this family.
As previously reported, four missense mutations – MYH7-H1717Q, KCNQ1-R190W, MYLK2-K324E, and TMEM70-I147T – were identified in this family. The MYH7-H1717Q mutation carriers had significantly increased left ventricular mass indices, elevated E/e’ ratio, deteriorated global longitudinal stain, but enhanced global circumferential and radial strain compared with those in non-mutation patients (all p<0.05). The KCNQ1-R190W carriers showed significantly prolonged QTc intervals, and the MYLK2-K324E mutation carriers showed inverted T-waves (both p<0.05). However, the TMEM70-I147T mutation carriers had similar echocardiography and electrocardiographic data as non-mutation patients.
Three of the identified four mutations had potential pathogenic effects in this family: MYH7-H1717Q was associated with increased left ventricular thickness, elevated left ventricular filling pressure, and altered myocardial deformation; KCNQ1-R190W and MYLK2-K324E mutations were correlated with electrocardiographic abnormalities reflected in long QT phenotype and inverted T-waves, respectively.
The metadynamic recrystallization (MDRX) behavior of a Nb–V microalloyed nonquenched and tempered steel was investigated by isothermal hot compression tests on Gleeble-1500 thermal-mechanical simulator. Compression tests were performed using double hit schedules at temperatures of 1273–1423 K, strain rates of 0.01–5 s−1, initial grain sizes of 92–149 μm and an inter-pass time of 0.5–10 s. The experimental results show that MDRX softening fraction increases with the increasing of deformation temperature, strain rate, and inter-pass time, while it decreases with the increasing of initial grain size. Based on the experimental results, the MDRX softening fraction kinetic model and recrystallized grain size model of the tested steel was established. Besides, using the above mathematic models, a finite element model was built to simulate the MDRX process of the tested steel. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental ones, which indicates that finite element method is an effective approach to analyze the MDRX behavior and the established that mathematic models of the tested steel are reliable and accurate.
Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder
(MDD) are likely to be caused by multiple susceptibility genes, each with
small effects in increasing the risk of illness. Identifying DNA variants
associated with schizophrenia and MDD is a crucial step in understanding
the pathophysiology of these disorders.
To investigate whether the SP4 gene plays a significant
role in schizophrenia or MDD in the Han Chinese population.
We focused on nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) harbouring the
SP4 gene and carried out case–control studies in 1235
patients with schizophrenia, 1045 patients with MDD and 1235 healthy
controls recruited from the Han Chinese population.
We found that rs40245 was significantly associated with schizophrenia in
both allele and genotype distributions (Pallele = 0.0005, Pallele = 0.004 after Bonferroni correction; Pgenotype = 0.0023, Pgenotype = 0.0184 after Bonferroni correction). The rs6461563
SNP was significantly associated with schizophrenia in the allele
distributions (Pallele = 0.0033, Pallele = 0.0264 after Bonferroni correction).
Our results suggest that common risk factors in the SP4
gene are associated with schizophrenia, although not with MDD, in the Han
The objective of this study was to build a database to collect infectious disease information at the scene of a disaster through the use of 128 epidemiological questionnaires and 47 types of options, with rapid acquisition of information regarding infectious disease and rapid questionnaire customization at the scene of disaster relief by use of a personal digital assistant (PDA).
SQL Server 2005 (Microsoft Corp, Redmond, WA) was used to create the option database for the infectious disease investigation, to develop a client application for the PDA, and to deploy the application on the server side. The users accessed the server for data collection and questionnaire customization with the PDA.
A database with a set of comprehensive options was created and an application system was developed for the Android operating system (Google Inc, Mountain View, CA). On this basis, an infectious disease information collection system was built for use at the scene of disaster relief. The creation of an infectious disease information collection system and rapid questionnaire customization through the use of a PDA was achieved.
This system integrated computer technology and mobile communication technology to develop an infectious disease information collection system and to allow for rapid questionnaire customization at the scene of disaster relief. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:668–673)
Mussels are typical macrofouling organisms in the world. In this study, the interaction between the settlement of Mytilus coruscus plantigrades and bacterial community on coloured substrata was determined. Bacterial communities in biofilms developed on seven coloured substrata were analysed by Illumina Miseq sequencing. The mussel settlement response to coloured substrata with no biofilms was also examined. Flavobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were the first, second and third most dominant groups in seven biofilm samples. The results suggest that the inducing activities of these biofilms on plantigrade settlement varied with coloured substrata and the lowest percentage of settlement was observed on biofilms on the green substratum. High-throughput sequencing showed that bacterial community in biofilms also changed with the substratum colour. No significant difference in the inducing activity on plantigrade settlement was observed between the coloured substrata with no biofilms. Thus, difference in plantigrade settlement response may be correlated to the changes in bacterial community on coloured substrata. This finding extends current knowledge of interaction among mussel settlement and bacterial community variability.
Developing adequate ship domain models may significantly benefit vessel navigation safety. In essence, navigation safety is collectively affected by the navigable waterway condition, the size and shape of the ship, and operators' skills. The existing ship domains mainly use constant values for the model input parameters, making them incapable of handling site-specific conditions. This study proposes dynamic ship domain models that take into consideration navigable waterway conditions, ship behaviours, ship types and sizes, and operators' skills in a holistic manner. Specifically, the conditions of restricted waterways are classified into navigating along the channel, crossing the channel, joining another flow and turning. The ship types considered include ships that transport non-hazardous goods and Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) ships that are in need of additional security zones. A computational experiment is conducted for model application using data on water channel design and ship traffic volumes related to navigating along the channel, joining another flow and turning. Comparisons of results obtained between the proposed dynamic models with real ship traffic counts reveal that the proposed models could achieve a higher level of accuracy in estimating the capacity of restricted water channels. It therefore could potentially deliver safety enhancements of waterway transportation.
To examine the vitamin D status, SNP of the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) and the effects of vitamin D supplementation on parathyroid hormone and insulin secretion in adult males with obesity or normal weight in a subtropical Chinese city.
An intervention trial.
Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province, China.
From a cross-sectional survey conducted from June to July, eighty-two normal-weight and ninety-nine obese males (18–69 years) were screened to analyse their vitamin D status and for five SNP of VDR. From these individuals, in the same season of a different year, obese and normal-weight male volunteers (twenty-one per group) were included for an intervention trial with oral vitamin D supplementation at 1250 µg/week for 8 weeks.
For the survey, there was no significant difference (P>0·05) in baseline circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations or in the percentages of participants in different categories of vitamin D status between the two groups. The VDR SNP, rs3782905, was significantly associated with obesity (P=0·043), but none of the examined SNP were correlated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D when adjusted for age, BMI and study group. After vitamin D supplementation, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, hypersecretions of parathyroid hormone and insulin, and insulin resistance in the obese were changed beneficially (P<0·05); however, the increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was less than that of the normal-weight men.
For obese and normal-weight men of subtropical China, the summer baseline vitamin D status was similar. However, oral vitamin D supplementation revealed a decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obese men and ameliorated their hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone and insulin resistance.
From continental to regional scales, the zoonosis alveolar echinococcosis (AE) (caused by Echinococcus multilocularis) forms discrete patches of endemicity within which transmission hotspots of much larger prevalence may occur. Since the late 80s, a number of hotspots have been identified in continental Asia, mostly in China, wherein the ecology of intermediate host communities has been described. This is the case in south Gansu, at the eastern border of the Tibetan plateau, in south Ningxia, in the western Tian Shan of Xinjiang, and in the Alay valley of south Kyrgyzstan. Here we present a comparative natural history and characteristics of transmission ecosystems or ecoscapes. On this basis, regional types of transmission and their ecological characteristics have been proposed in a general framework. Combining climatic, land cover and intermediate host species distribution data, we identified and mapped 4 spatially distinct types of transmission ecosystems typified by the presence of one of the following small mammal ‘flagship’ species: Ellobius tancrei, Ochotona curzoniae, Lasiopodomys brandtii or Eospalax fontanierii. Each transmission ecosystem had its own characteristics which can serve as a reference for further in-depth research in the transmission ecology of E. multilocularis. This approach may be used at fine spatial scales to characterize other poorly known transmission systems of the large Eurasian endemic zone, and help in consideration of surveillance systems and interventions.
The crystal structure of a-plane GaN/ZnO heterostructures on r-plane sapphire was investigated by using the XRD and TEM measurment. It was found the formation of (220) ZnGa2O4 and crystal orientation of semipolar (10
3) GaN at GaN/ZnO interface. The epitaxial relation of normal surface direction are the sapphire (1
02) // a-GaN (11
0) and ZnGa2O4 (220) // semi-polar GaN (10
). Beside, the emission peak energy of ZnO appears shift about 60 meV in the GaN/ZnO/GaN heterostructures due to the re-crystallization of ZnO layer with Ga or N atom and the formation of the localized state.
Let 𝒯n(F) denote the monoid of all upper triangular n×n matrices over a finite field F. It has been shown by Volkov and Goldberg that 𝒯n(F) is nonfinitely based if ∣F∣>2 and n≥4, but the cases when ∣F∣>2 and n=2,3 or when ∣F∣=2 have remained open. In this paper, it is shown that the monoid 𝒯2 (F) is finitely based when ∣F∣=2 , and a finite identity basis for it is given. Moreover, all maximal subvarieties of the variety generated by 𝒯2 (F) with ∣F∣=2 are determined.
Chemical bath deposition (CBD) techniques for the growth of CdS polycrystalline thin films are now well developed. However, there usually appear different structures, grain sizes and energy gaps in CdS polycrystalline films by CBD, which implies that the influence of growth process on the structures and properties of CBD CdS thin films must be considered. In this paper, the optical, compositional and structural properties of CBD CdS thin films in the reaction process have been studied by XRD, AFM, XPS and optical transmission spectra measurements. The results can be explained using atomic mechanism and lattice transition in the CdS thin films.
Background: Several studies have investigated the association of FKBP5 gene polymorphisms with mood disorders, but findings are not always consistent. The aim of our study was to assess the association of FKBP5 gene polymorphisms with mood disorders using a meta-analysis.
Methods: Data were collected from the following electronic databases: PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang, with the last report up to March 2010. Meta-analysis was performed in a fixed/random effect model.
Results: We identified six studies using search, and one study was excluded because of unavailable data. One study contained data on two different ethnicities and we treated them independently. Thus, six separate studies (2655 cases and 3593 controls) were included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis was performed for three FKBP5 gene polymorphisms (rs1360780, rs3800373 and rs4713916) in overall and Caucasian populations. We did not detect any association of FKBP5 gene rs1360780 and rs3800373 polymorphisms with mood disorders (p > 0.05). However, a significant association of FKBP5 gene rs4713916 polymorphism with mood disorders was found, and the heterozygous individual (GA genotype) was more susceptible to mood disorders in comparison to homozygous analogues (GG or AA genotype) [overall: GA vs. GG: OR (odds ratio) = 1.20, 95% CI (confidence interval) = 1.03–1.40, p = 0.02; GA vs. AA: OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.09–1.90, p = 0.009; Caucasian: GA vs. GG: OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.04–1.44, p = 0.01; GA vs. AA: OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.09–1.89, p = 0.01].
Conclusion: This meta-analysis shows that mood disorders are associated with FKBP5 gene rs4713916 polymorphism, but not with rs1360780 and rs3800373.
In this paper, we proposed a phase-change random access memory (PCRAM) cell with a self-insulated structure (SIS), which is expected to have better thermal efficiency than the conventional structures. 3-D finite element simulation is used to study the most power consuming RESET process for both SIS and conventional normal bottom contact (NBC) cells driven by a MOSFET. Instead of programming current, power consumption is investigated to give a more fundamental comparison between the two structures. Thermal proximity effect for both kinds of cells is directly analyzed by simulating a 3×3 device array. The potential slow-quenching issue of SIS is also discussed.
Between July 1987 and June 1989, 1054 urinary isolates of enterobacteria from Kaohsiung, Taiwan were studied for their trimethoprim resistance. Trimethoprim resistance was defined as MIC greater than 4 μg/ml and high-level resistance by MIC greater than 1000 μg/ml. The incidence of trimethoprim resistance increased from 33·6% in 1987 to 42·1% in 1989. Among the resistant strains studied, 90% were resistant to high levels of trimethoprim. An increase in the proportion of resistant strains (33·9–46·3%) exhibiting high-level non-transferable trimethoprim resistance was noted. The distribution of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) genes by colony hybridization in 374 trimethoprim-resistant isolates revealed the presence of type I and type V DHFR genes in most of these isolates (45·4% and 10·4% respectively). Type I was predominant in Escherichia coli whereas type V was frequently seen in Enterobacter spp. None showed homology with the type II and type III DHFR probe DNA. In addition, transposon Tn7 was present in 7·8% of 374 trimethoprim-resistant enterobacteria.
To identify Porcine haemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (HEV) 67N receptor in porcine kidney (PK) cell membranes, the S1 protein of HEV was expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatograph. Polyclonal antibodies to HEV were prepared by immunizing rabbits by injecting the purified S1 protein four times. After SDS–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE), the PK cell membrane proteins were transferred on to nitrocellulose membrane. A virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) was performed using the recombinant S1 protein to identify the protein binding receptor, HEV-S1. The result showed that HEV-S1 protein bound to one band (about 90 kDa) in PK cell membranes. This result is very important for the study of the pathogenic mechanism of HEV.
cDNA of the porcine small adipocyte factor 1 (SMAF1) gene was amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with degenerate primers designed according to the conserved sequences between human and mouse genes. The cDNA (GenBank accession No. DQ191892) containing a complete encoding region was 256 bp in length, sharing 86 and 78% identity with that of human and mouse, respectively. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence between porcine SMAF1 and the human, mouse, cattle and rat protein showed that the amino acid similarity was 81, 67, 84 and 70%, respectively. The results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that the porcine gene was expressed abundantly in adipose tissue, and at a significantly lower level in lean-type pigs (Large White pigs) than in lard-type pigs (Meishan pigs) at the age of 4 months (P<0.05). The results suggest that the porcine SMAF1 gene may have similar functions as in other species, that is, it may regulate adipogenesis and/or adipocyte function.