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Magnesium alloys usually lack “operative deformation slip mechanisms” because of their hexagonal close-packed structure. Therefore, the mechanical behavior of magnesium alloys at different temperatures is dictated by other deformation mechanisms such as twinning, detwinning, secondary twinning, or dynamic recrystallization (DRX). Twinning and DRX can affect the development of grain size and orientation distribution, as well as the deformation behavior of magnesium alloys. The current understanding of the mechanisms and mechanics of these different deformation modes and their implementation in crystal plasticity-based modeling are highlighted in this article. Future directions in the development of constitutive models are also discussed.
This paper presents the design of an elliptical shape ultra-wide band antenna for imaging of wood. The antenna is constructed comprising an elliptical shape of patch loaded by a stub to resonate at lower bands, strip loading at the back, and chamfered ground. Despite having miniaturized dimensions of 20 mm × 20 mm, the proposed antenna shows better results compared to recent studies. The simulation results depict a good ultra-wide bandwidth from 2.68 to 16 GHz, and 18.2–20 GHz. Besides, the proposed antenna has two low-frequency bands at 0.89–0.92 and 1.52–1.62 GHz, maximum gain of 5.48 dB, and maximum directivity of 6.9 dBi. The measurement outcomes are performed in air, plywood, and high-density wood and show a good agreement with the simulated results done using electromagnetic simulator CST. In addition to that, the measurement results of S-parameters, transmitted and received signals show a good agreement with the simulated results. Besides, the measured results illustrate a good isolation and uniform illumination among arrays as well as the received signals' shapes do not change in different environments, but only the amplitude. Hence, the proposed antenna seems to be adequate for microwave imaging of wood.
Seed reserves play vital roles in seed germination and seedling growth and their variation may be related to various environment factors, plant traits and phylogenetic history. Here, the evolutionary correlation associated with seed mass and altitude and carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) allocation of seeds among 253 alpine herbaceous plants was tested. In this study, phylogeny had strong limitations on nutrient allocation of seeds across species, and species from younger phylogenetic groups tended to have higher N and P contents, which might be considered as the evolutionary selection of seed plants. Higher seed N and P content would help seedlings to gain more survival chance and stronger competitive capacity, and their progeny would be more likely to be preserved. When phylogeny was considered, altitude only had a significant positive effect on P content, but the negative effects on seed mass were all expressed. The independent effects of altitude and seed mass suggest that the nutrient allocation of seeds might be affected by both environment and plant traits. In addition, altitude and seed mass displayed partial overlapping effects on nutrient allocation of seeds. The negative effects of seed mass were affected slightly by altitude, whereas altitude only had a significant positive effect on P content when seed mass was controlled. Above all, seed P content showed obvious and general correlations with seed mass, altitude and age of clade, which indicated that higher seed P content might be an adaptive selection of species associated with growth and survival of progeny.
Combining density functional theory calculations and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments, the adsorption behavior of various sulfur containing compounds, including C2H5SH, CH3SCH3, tetrahydrothiophene, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, and their derivatives on the coordinately unsaturated sites of Mo27Sx model nanoparticles, are studied systematically. Sulfur molecules with aromaticity prefer flat adsorption than perpendicular adsorption. The adsorption of nonaromatic molecules is stronger than the perpendicular adsorption of aromatic molecules, but weaker than the flat adsorption of them. With gradual hydrogenation (HYD), the binding affinity in the perpendicular adsorption modes increases, while in flat adsorption modes it increases first, then decreases. Significant steric effects on the adsorption of dimethyldibenzothiophene were revealed in perpendicular adsorption modes. The steric effect, besides weakening adsorption, could also activate the S–C bonds through a compensation effect. Finally, by comparing the theoretical adsorption energies with the TPD results, we suggest that HYD and direct-desulfurization path may happen simultaneously, but on different active sites.
The experiments reported in this research communication aimed to plot the expression pattern of Sirt3, a master regulator of energy metabolism and antioxidation defence, in the liver of dairy goats during perinatal period. Ten healthy dairy goats in late pregnancy were chosen, and needle biopsy was applied to collect liver samples at 1-week intervals. Protein levels of hepatic Sirt3 were analysed by western-blotting. Serum enzyme activities of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) levels were measured, and their correlation with Sirt3 mRNA levels was also estimated. Compared with >3-week before parturition (BP), Sirt3 proteins were significantly reduced at 1-week after parturition (AP) and 2-week AP (P < 0·05), but increased on the day of parturition (P < 0·01). Correlation analysis revealed a positive association between hepatic Sirt3 mRNA levels and serum enzyme activity of Mn-SOD (r = 0·46), but a negative association between that and serum NEFA levels (r = −0·41). These data indicate that the decreased hepatic expression of Sirt3 might be one of the reasons that dairy goats undergo oxidative stress after parturition.
Many shorebird populations are in decline along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. The rapid loss of coastal wetlands in the Yellow Sea, which provide critical stop-over sites during migration, is believed to be the cause of the alarming trends. The Yalu Jiang coastal wetland, a protected area in the north Yellow Sea, supports the largest known migratory staging populations of Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica (menzbieri and baueri subspecies) and Great Knots Calidris tenuirostris. Monitoring of the macrozoobenthos food for these shorebirds from 2011 to 2016 showed declines of over 99% in the densities of the bivalve Potamocorbula laevis, the major food here for both Bar-tailed Godwits and Great Knots. The loss of the bivalve might be caused by any combination of, but not limited to: (1) change in hydrological conditions and sediment composition due to nearby port construction, (2) run-off of agrochemicals from the extensive shoreline sea cucumber farms, and (3) parasitic infection. Surprisingly, the numbers of birds using the Yalu Jiang coastal wetland remained stable during the study period, except for the subspecies of Bar-tailed Godwit L. l. menzbieri, which exhibited a 91% decline in peak numbers. The lack of an overall decline in the number of bird days in Great Knots and in the peak numbers of L. l. baueri, also given the published simultaneous decreases in their annual survival, implies a lack of alternative habitats that birds could relocate to. This study highlights that food declines at staging sites could be an overlooked but important factor causing population declines of shorebirds along the Flyway. Maintaining the quality of protected staging sites is as important in shorebird conservation as is the safeguarding of staging sites from land claim. Meanwhile, it calls for immediate action to restore the food base for these beleaguered migrant shorebirds at Yalu Jiang coastal wetland.
Superior and inferior rice grains have different weights and are located on the upper primary branch and lower secondary branches of the panicle, respectively. To study differences in germination vigour of these two types of grain, a number of factors were investigated from 0 to 48 h of germination. The present study demonstrated that in inferior grains the starch granule structure was looser at 0 h, with full water absorption at 48 h, while in superior grains the structure was tight and dense. Relative water content increased, and dry matter decreased, more rapidly in inferior grains than in superior ones. Abscisic acid and gibberellin levels, as well as α-amylase activity, also changed more rapidly in inferior grains, while soluble sugar content and amylase coding gene expression increased more rapidly in inferior than superior grains during early germination. The expression of OsGAMYB was higher in inferior grains at 24 h but higher in superior grains at 48 h. The phenotypic index of seedlings was higher in seedlings from superior grains at the two-leaf stage. However, the thousand-grain weight and yield per plant in superior and inferior plants showed no significant difference at harvest. The present study indicates that inferior grains germinate faster than superior ones in the early germination stage. Although inferior grains produced weaker seedlings, it is worthwhile using them in rice production due to their comparative yield potential over that of superior grains.
In this paper, field effect transistors (FET) based on different kinds of non-graphene materials are introduced, which are MoS2, WSe2 and black phosphorus (BP). Those devices have their unique features in fabrication process compared with conventional FETs. Among them, MoS2 FET shows better electrical characteristics by applying a SiO2 protective layer; WSe2 FET is fabricated based on a new low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method; BP FET acquires high on/off ratio and high hole mobility by using a simple dry transfer method. Those novel non-graphene materials inspire new design and fabrication process of basic logic device.
The present study examines the characteristics of clay minerals in shale gas reservoirs and their influence on reservoir properties based on X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. These analyses were combined with optical microscopy observations and core and well-log data to investigate the genesis, distribution characteristics, main controlling factors and pore features of clay minerals of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation in the East Sichuan area, China. The clay mineral assemblage consists of illite + mixed-layer illite-smectite (I-S) + chlorite. This assemblage includes three sources of clay minerals: detrital, authigenic and diagenetic minerals. The lower section of the Longmaxi Formation in the Jiaoshiba area has sealing ability which resulted in abnormal high pressures during hydrocarbon generation which inhibited illitization. Therefore, an anomalous transformation sequence is present in which the mixed-layer I-S content increases with depth. This anomalous transformation sequence can be used to infer the existence of abnormal high pressures. The detrital components of the formation also affect the clay-minerals content indirectly, especially the abundance of K-feldspar. The transformation of mixed-layer I-S to illite is limited due to the limited availability of K+, which determines the extent of transformation. Three types of pores were observed in the shale reservoir rocks of the Longmaxi Formation: interparticle (interP) pores, intraparticle (intraP) pores and organic-matter pores. The clay-mineral content controls the development of intraP pores, which are dominated by pores within clay particles. For a given clay mineral content, smectite and mixed-layer I-S were more conducive to the development of shale-gas reservoirs than other clay minerals.
To reveal the electron and phonon transport mechanism in bismuth nanowire (BiNW), the electronic structure, the lattice dynamics, and the thermoelectric properties of bismuth bulk (BiB) and BiNW were investigated in this paper through first-principles calculation and the Boltzmann transport theory. The results suggest that BiNW possesses an increased electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, while its thermal conductivity, especially phonon thermal conductivity, is reduced significantly as compared to BiB. As a consequence, a largely enhanced figure of merit (ZT) at 300 K of 2.73 is achieved for BiNW. The enhancement in electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of BiNW is originated from its high density of states and large effective mass of carriers. Such significant suppression in phonon thermal conductivity of BiNW is ascribed to the reduced phonon vibration frequency, the decreased phonon density of states, and the shortened mean free path of phonons. So BiNW should be viewed as an excellent candidate for a thermoelectric material with a high figure of merit. Moreover, we have provided a complete understanding on the relationship between the electronic structure, the dynamics, and the thermoelectric properties of BiNW.
To investigate demographic and lifestyle factors associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) in Israeli adolescents.
Schoolchildren (n 5268) aged 11–19 years answered self-administered questionnaires on food consumption, eating habits and lifestyle; a subset (n 578) also completed 24 h food recalls.
Using a modified KIDMED index, 25·5 % of the students had poor, 55·2 % had average and 19·3 % had good MD adherence. Jewish middle-school children had the highest proportion (28·2 %) of poor MD adherence. Olive oil usage, derived from 24 h food recalls, was 18·1 % in Jewish families v. 71·1 % in Arab homes. In Jewish boys, the odds (OR; 95 % CI) of having poor MD adherence was higher in those who watched television/videos/listened to music for ≥2 h/d (1·25; 0·98, 1·58) and those who sometimes/don’t read food labels (1·69; 1·31, 2·18). In Jewish girls, the odds for having poor MD adherence was significantly higher in those whose mother’s schooling was <12 years (2·06; 1·41, 3·00) and those who sometimes/don’t read food labels (1·35; 1·08, 1·69). In Arab boys, watching television/videos/listening to music for ≥2 h/d was significantly associated with poor MD adherence (1·89; 1·16, 3·07). In Arab girls, no aerobic activity or ball games weekly was associated with poor MD adherence (1·38; 0·91, 2·09).
Israeli adolescents had overall a high rate of poor MD adherence. Jewish middle-school children were at the highest risk. Interventions aimed at increasing physical activity, reducing sedentary time, improving mother’s education and promoting reading of food labels are recommended.
The Green Party Taiwan (GPT) represents an important case both for scholars of environmental politics but also Taiwanese politics. Established in 1996, it is the oldest Asian green party and is one of the most active parties in the Asia-Pacific Greens network. The party has enjoyed mixed electoral fortunes. After promising early election results, the GPT virtually ceased contesting elections between 2000 and 2005. However, from 2006 the party began a gradual revival in its vote shares. This process culminated in the January 2012 Legislative Yuan election when the GPT surprised many observers by coming fifth in the proportional party vote. Considering the limited resources at the party's disposal this was quite an achievement. In this study, we examine and explain the changing electoral fortunes of the GPT since its establishment in 1996. We are interested to see whether standard theories for explaining small or ecological party success, that have been developed in western Europe, work well in the Taiwan context. Our research is based on a range of new fieldwork conducted between 2012 and 2014. These include in-depth interviews with campaigners and party leaders, focus group sessions with party leaders and candidates, and interviews with party supporters.
Areas with low, adequate and excessive I content in water co-exist in China. Limited data are currently available on I nutrition and thyroid disease in lactating women and their breast-fed infants with different I intakes. This study aimed to evaluate I nutrition in both lactating women and their infants and the prevalence of thyroid disease in areas with different levels of I in water. From January to June 2014, a total of 343 healthy lactating women (excluding those taking anti-thyroid drugs or I supplements within a year of the study, consuming seafood at the time of the study or those diagnosed with congenital thyroid disease) from Beihai in Guangxi province and Jiajiazhuang, Yangcheng, Jicun and Pingyao townships in Shanxi province were selected. Compared with the I-sufficient group, median urinary I concentrations in both lactating women and infants as well as breast milk I levels were significantly lower in the I-deficient group (P<0·001). The prevalence of thyroid disease in lactating women, particularly subclinical hypothyroidism, was higher in the I-excess group than in the I-sufficient group (P<0·05). In areas with excessive water I content, high thyroid peroxidase antibody and high thyroglobulin levels were risk factors for abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Our data collectively suggest that excessive I intake potentially causes subclinical hypothyroidism in lactating women. Moreover, enhanced monitoring of I status is important to avoid adverse effects of I deficiency or excess, particularly in susceptible populations such as pregnant or lactating women and infants.
We consider eigenvalue perturbation bounds for Hermitian matrices, which are associated with problems arising in various computational science and engineering applications. New bounds are discussed that are sharper than some existing ones, including the well-known Weyl bound. Two numerical examples are investigated, to illustrate our theoretical presentation.
To examine the vitamin D status, SNP of the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) and the effects of vitamin D supplementation on parathyroid hormone and insulin secretion in adult males with obesity or normal weight in a subtropical Chinese city.
An intervention trial.
Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province, China.
From a cross-sectional survey conducted from June to July, eighty-two normal-weight and ninety-nine obese males (18–69 years) were screened to analyse their vitamin D status and for five SNP of VDR. From these individuals, in the same season of a different year, obese and normal-weight male volunteers (twenty-one per group) were included for an intervention trial with oral vitamin D supplementation at 1250 µg/week for 8 weeks.
For the survey, there was no significant difference (P>0·05) in baseline circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations or in the percentages of participants in different categories of vitamin D status between the two groups. The VDR SNP, rs3782905, was significantly associated with obesity (P=0·043), but none of the examined SNP were correlated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D when adjusted for age, BMI and study group. After vitamin D supplementation, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, hypersecretions of parathyroid hormone and insulin, and insulin resistance in the obese were changed beneficially (P<0·05); however, the increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was less than that of the normal-weight men.
For obese and normal-weight men of subtropical China, the summer baseline vitamin D status was similar. However, oral vitamin D supplementation revealed a decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obese men and ameliorated their hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone and insulin resistance.
The EPR parameters (zero-field splitting D and g-factors g//, g⊥) of Mn5+-doped solid state laser materials Ca2(MO4)Cl (M = P, As, V) are calculated from the complete high-order perturbation formulas of EPR parameters based on the two-mechanism model for 3d2 ions in a approximately tetragonal tetrahedron. The model includes the contributions from both the crystal-field (CF) mechanism and the charge-transfer (CT) mechanism (the latter is neglected in crystal field theory). The calculated results suggest that the contribution to EPR parameters due to CT mechanism is important. So, in the cases of high valence state 3dn ions in crystals, the reasonable explanation of EPR parameters should take both CF and CT mechanisms into account.
The yield behavior of solid polymers may be influenced by the hydrostatic pressure, strain rate, and temperature. In the present work, we focus on evaluating the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the yield strength by instrumented indentation. Using dimensional analysis and finite element analysis, two analytical expressions were derived to relate the indentation data to the plastic properties, and a method for extracting the coefficient of internal friction which reflects the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the yield strength was established. Applications were illustrated on polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC), and unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (UPVC). The coefficient of internal friction determined by this indentation method is 0.20 ± 0.02 for PP, 0.07 ± 0.01 for PC, and 0.10 ± 0.01 for UPVC, which are in good agreement with the values reported in the literature. This demonstrates the proposed indentation method which is useful to evaluate the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the yield strength of solid polymers.
Oocyte-specific linker histone, H1foo, is localized on the oocyte chromosomes during the process of meiotic maturation, and is essential for mouse oocyte maturation. Bovine H1foo has been identified, and its expression profile throughout oocyte maturation and early embryo development has been established. However, it has not been confirmed if H1foo is indispensable during bovine oocyte maturation. Effective siRNAs against H1foo were screened in HeLa cells, and then siRNA was microinjected into bovine oocytes to down-regulate H1foo expression. H1foo overexpression was achieved via mRNA injection. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results indicated that H1foo was up-regulated by 200% and down-regulated by 70%. Based on the first polar body extrusion (PB1E) rate, H1foo overexpression apparently promoted meiotic progression. The knockdown of H1foo significantly impaired bovine oocyte maturation compared with H1foo overexpression and control groups (H1foo overexpression = 88.7%, H1foo siRNA = 41.2%, control = 71.2%; P < 0.05). This decrease can be rescued by co-injection of a modified H1foo mRNA that has escaped from the siRNA target. However, the H1e (somatic linker histone) overexpression had no effect on PB1E rate when compared with the control group. Therefore we concluded that H1foo is essential for bovine oocyte maturation and its overexpression stimulates the process.
Proper dry cow management is critical not only for subsequent milk production and fertility but also for mastitis control. A phenomenon of immunosuppression was commonly observed in transition cows, an example being the high susceptibility of the mammary gland during early the dry period to new infectious agents. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) play important defence roles in the mammary gland of newly dried cows. One of the bactericidal mechanisms of PMN is through producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can be efficiently quantified by chemiluminescence (CL) assay. In the current study, the potential of intramammary application of a commercial Enterococcus faecium SF68 (SF68) product to enhance the local innate immunity of newly dried mammary glands was evaluated based on the CL assay. The preliminary experiments in vitro indicated virtual dose-responsiveness of ROS generation from three different cell preparations, bovine blood PMN, bovine blood PMN pre-conditioned with cow milk, and the post-diapedesis model somatic cells from cow milk, on their exposure to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), viable SF68, and ultrasonicated SF68, but not dry-heated SF68. Because ultrasonication treatment was found to profoundly enhance the immunogenicity of SF68 in vitro, in the following animal trial, single infusion of either 5 or 10×107 original cfu of ultrasonicated SF68 was randomly applied to the front quarters and phosphate-bufferedsaline (PBS) applied to the rear quarters of each of the four experimental cows on the first day of milk stasis. The results showed that within the first post-infusion week, ultrasonicated SF68 induced a faster and greater (P<0·05) recruitment of PMN into mammary lumen with no apparent local or systemic inflammatory sign. Meanwhile, ultrasonicated SF68 also induced a greater (P<0·05) ROS production in response to PMA challenge by in situ somatic cells of mammary secretion. Taken together, ultrasonicated SF68 modulated ROS generation of bovine neutrophils, and would be a potential enhancer of udder innate immunity in drying-off dairy cows. More thorough work is warranted.