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Consumption of probiotics and/or yogurt could be a solution for restoring the balance of the gut microbiota. This study examined associations of regular intake of probiotic supplements or yogurt with the gut microbiota among a diverse population of older adults (N=1,861; 60–72 years). Faecal microbial composition was obtained from 16S rRNA gene sequencing (V1–V3 region). General linear models were used to estimate the associations of probiotic supplement or yogurt intake with microbiome measures adjusting for covariates. Compared to non-yogurt consumers (N=1,023), regular yogurt consumers (≥once/week, N=818) had greater Streptococcus (β=0.29, P=0.0003) and lower Odoribacter (β=−0.33, P<0.0001) abundance. The directions of the above associations were consistent across the five ethnic groups but stronger among Japanese Americans (Streptococcus: β=0.56, P=0.0009; Odoribacter: β=−0.62, P=0.0005). Regular intake of probiotic supplements (N=175) was not associated with microbial characteristics (i.e., alpha diversity and the abundance of 152 bacteria genera). Streptococcus is one of the predominant bacteria genera in yogurt products, which may explain the positive association between yogurt consumption and Streptococcus abundance. Our analyses suggest that changes in Odoribacter were independent of changes in Streptococcus abundance. Future studies may investigate whether these microbial genera and their sub-level species mediate potential pathways between yogurt consumption and health.
To examine associations between serum antioxidant levels and mortality (all-cause, cancer and CVD) among US adults.
We examined the risk of death from all-cause and cause-specific mortality associated with serum antioxidant (vitamin E and carotenoids) and vitamin A levels using Cox regression models to estimate hazards ratios (HR) and 95 % CI.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2002 was followed up through 31 December 2015.
The NHANES 1999–2002 cohort included 8758 participants aged ≥ 20 years. Serum carotenoid levels were only assessed for the 1999–2000 cycle. Therefore, sample size for each assessed antioxidant ranged from 4633 to 8758.
Serum vitamin E level was positively associated with all-cause mortality (HR = 1·22, 95 % CI 1·04, 1·43, highest v. lowest quartile). No other antioxidants were associated with mortality in overall analysis. In race/ethnicity-specific analyses, high vitamin E and α-tocopherol levels were associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality among non-Hispanic Whites. Among non-Hispanic Blacks, serum α-tocopherol level was associated with decreased risk of cancer mortality (HR = 0·30, 95 % CI 0·12, 0·75, third v. first quartile) and total carotenoid levels with reduced risk of CVD mortality (HR = 0·26; 95 % CI 0·07, 0·97, second v. lowest quartile). Hispanics with high β-carotene levels had reduced risk of CVD mortality.
Serum antioxidant levels may be related to mortality; these associations may differ by race/ethnicity and appeared to be non-linear for all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Further studies are needed to confirm our results.
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