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The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of tea consumption on diabetes mellitus in the Chinese population. This multi-centre, cross-sectional study was conducted in eight sites from south, east, north, west and middle regions in China by enrolling 12 017 subjects aged 20–70 years. Socio-demographic and general information was collected by a standardised questionnaire. A standard procedure was used to measure anthropometric characteristics and to obtain blood samples. The diagnosis of diabetes was determined using a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. In the final analysis, 10 825 participants were included and multiple logistic models and interaction effect analysis were applied for assessing the association between tea drinking with diabetes. Compared with non-tea drinkers, the multivariable-adjusted OR for newly diagnosed diabetes were 0·80 (95 % CI 0·67, 0·97), 0·88 (95 % CI 0·71, 1·09) and 0·86 (95 % CI 0·67, 1·11) for daily tea drinkers, occasional tea drinkers and seldom tea drinkers, respectively. Furthermore, drinking tea daily was related to decreased risk of diabetes in females by 32 %, elderly (>45 years) by 24 % and obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) by 34 %. Moreover, drinking dark tea was associated with reduced risk of diabetes by 45 % (OR 0·55; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·72; P < 0·01). The results imply that drinking tea daily was negatively related to risk of diabetes in female, elderly and obese people. In addition, drinking dark tea was associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The microbiota–gut–brain axis, especially the microbial tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis and metabolism pathway (MiTBamp), may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, studies on the MiTBamp in MDD are lacking. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gut microbiota composition and the MiTBamp in MDD patients.
We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 26 MDD patients and 29 healthy controls (HCs). In addition to the microbiota community and the MiTBamp analyses, we also built a classification based on the Random Forests (RF) and Boruta algorithm to identify the gut microbiota as biomarkers for MDD.
The Bacteroidetes abundance was strongly reduced whereas that of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the MDD patients compared with the abundance in the HCs. Most noteworthy, the MDD patients had increased levels of Bifidobacterium, which is commonly used as a probiotic. Four Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologies (KOs) (K01817, K11358, K01626, K01667) abundances in the MiTBamp were significantly lower in the MDD group. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between the K01626 abundance and the HAMD scores in the MDD group. Finally, RF classification at the genus level can achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.890.
The present findings enabled a better understanding of the changes in gut microbiota and the related Trp pathway in MDD. Alterations of the gut microbiota may have the potential as biomarkers for distinguishing MDD patients form HCs.
Severe phase coarsening and separation in Sn–Bi alloys have brought increasing reliability concern in microelectronic packages. In this study, a phase field model is developed to simulate the microstructural evolution and evaluate the change in macroscopic physical properties of the flip chip Cu/Sn58Bi/Cu joint under the conditions of isothermal aging, as well as the coupled loads of elastic stress and electric current stressing. Results show that large-sized Bi-rich phase particles grow up at the expense of small-sized ones. Under the coupled loads, Bi atoms migrate along the electron flow direction, consequently Bi-rich phase segregates to form a Bi-rich phase layer at the anode. The current crowding ratio in the solder decreases rapidly first and then fluctuates slightly with time. Current density and von Mises stress exhibit inhomogeneous distribution, and both of them are higher in the Sn-rich phase than in the Bi-rich phase. Electric current transfers through the Sn-rich phase and detours the Bi-rich phase. As time proceeds, the resistance of the solder joint increases, and the average von Mises stress of the solder joint decreases. The Bi-rich phase coarsens much faster under the coupled loads than under the conditions of isothermal aging.
Although it is crucial to improve the treatment status of people with severe mental illness (SMI), it is still unknown whether and how socioeconomic development influences their treatment status.
To explore the change in treatment status in people with SMI from 1994 to 2015 in rural China and to examine the factors influencing treatment status in those with SMI.
Two mental health surveys using identical methods and ICD-10 were conducted in 1994 and 2015 (population ≥15 years old, n = 152 776) in the same six townships of Xinjin County, Chengdu, China.
Compared with 1994, individuals with SMI in 2015 had significantly higher rates of poor family economic status, fewer family caregivers, longer duration of illness, later age at first onset and poor mental status. Participants in 2015 had significantly higher rates of never being treated, taking antipsychotic drugs and ever being admitted to hospital, and lower rates of using traditional Chinese medicine or being treated by traditional/spiritual healers. The factors strongly associated with never being treated included worse mental status (symptoms/social functioning), older age, having no family caregivers and poor family economic status.
Socioeconomic development influences the treatment status of people with SMI in contemporary rural China. Relative poverty, having no family caregivers and older age are important factors associated with a worse treatment status. Culture-specific, community-based interventions and targeted poverty-alleviation programmes should be developed to improve the early identification, treatment and recovery of individuals with SMI in rural China.
An interplanetary autonomous navigation network, named the Internet of Spacecraft (IoS), is proposed in this paper to enable a Solar System-wide autonomous navigation capability for spacecraft. This network consists of two types of spacecraft, namely host and client spacecraft. The former provide the absolute reference for the whole network, and the latter determine their positions by communicating with the host spacecraft or other client spacecraft. To investigate the performance of IoS, a detailed application scheme that supports a flight from Earth to Mars is developed and analysed. IoS is not a simple extension of the navigation constellation. It is independent of the ground tracking system and the configuration of the network is flexible in that any spacecraft-installed identical device can be added to it. Moreover, client spacecraft whose positions have been determined can also be regarded as host spacecraft and provide further navigation information to others. This paper aims to provide technical support for future deep space exploration.
Thermal and hydrological dynamics and their impacts on the stability of a moraine dam were analyzed and simulated for the Longbasaba Lake in the Himalaya, based on soil temperature, moisture and heat flux data observed at different depths in the dam from 2012 to 2016. Annual average heat income is greater than heat expenditure on the dam surface. The mean annual temperature at observed the depths of 0–150 cm is >0°C, although the average annual air temperature was −3.6°C over the dam, indicating a relatively larger temperature difference between moraine dam and air. The volumetric soil moisture content is relatively low with an annual average of 5%, peaking after the snow cover melting and active layer thawing. Simulation results indicate that the average yearly maximum thawing depth has been ~0.3 m deeper than the average yearly maximum freezing depth during the observation period. In the past 55 years, the yearly maximum thawing depth has increased, while yearly maximum freezing depth has decreased, implying that the permafrost in the dam has been deteriorating. The annual surplus heat and increasing permafrost thawing depth will result in further deterioration of permafrost and melting of buried ice in the dam, thereby decreasing its stability.
This research examines how people perceive and respond to potential conflict in work settings. When individuals highly value their interpersonal relationships with others, they may take the potential costs to relationships into consideration in deciding how to handle conflict. We propose that individuals take an avoidance approach to conflict to prevent disruption in relationships from confrontation. Specifically, the value that individuals place on superficial harmony is positively related to their negative anticipation of relationship costs, which in turn leads to conflict avoidance. Furthermore, the direct relationship between superficial harmony and negative anticipation and the indirect relationship between superficial harmony and conflict avoidance are negatively moderated by the closeness of relations between the parties involved. The results of two studies conducted in workplace settings supported our hypothesized moderated mediation model. Highlighting the role of superficial harmony in conflict avoidance, this research contributes to the existing literature on conflict management and has practical implications for effectively managing conflict in the workplace.
Toxoplasmosis is a serious zoonoses disease and opportunistic, and can be life-threatening. Dexamethasone (DEX) is widely used in the clinic for treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, long-term use of DEX is often easy to lead to acute toxoplasmosis in patients, and the potential molecular mechanism is still not very clear. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of DEX on proliferation of Toxoplasma and its molecular mechanisms, and to establish the corresponding control measures. All the results showed that dexamethasone could enhance the proliferation of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. After 72 h of DEX treatment, 566 (±7) tachyzoites were found in 100 host cells, while only 86 (±8) tachyzoites were counted from the non-treated control cells (P < 0·01). Gas chromatography (GC) analysis showed changes in level and composition of fatty acids in DEX-treated host cells, and T. gondii. Fish oil was added as a modulator of lipid metabolism in experimental mice. It was found that mice fed with fish oil did not develop the disease after infection with T. gondii, and the structure of fatty acids in plasma changed significantly. The metabolism of fatty acid in the parasites was limited, and the desaturase gene expression was downregulated. These results indicate that the molecular mechanism of dexamethasone to promote the proliferation of T. gondii may be that dexamethasone induces the change of fatty acids composition of tachyzoites and host cells. Therefore, we recommend supplementation of fatty acid in immunosuppressive and immunocompromised patients in order to inhibit toxoplasmosis.
Both lay beliefs and research findings suggest that people tend to avoid conflicts if interpersonal harmony is highly valued. Counter to this widely accepted convention, we adopt the perspective of motivated social cognition to argue that conflict avoidance is subject to the joint effect of the need for epistemic security (need for closure) and the motivation to prevent losses (prevention focus). Such effect is mediated by negative anticipation towards the consequences of confronting conflicts. Results across three studies indicated that individuals with relatively high need for closure and high prevention focus show the strongest conflict avoidance tendency due to their heightened negative anticipation. However, with low need for closure, the negative anticipation and conflict avoidance tendency of high prevention-focused individuals are weakened or even disappear. This research offers a novel theory about the mechanism of conflict avoidance. The findings about the debiasing role of low need for closure also provide rich implications for conflict resolutions.
Optics surface phase defects induced intensity modulation in high-power laser facility for inertial confinement fusion research is studied. Calculations and experiments reveal an exact mapping of the modulation patterns and the optics damage spot distributions from the surface phase defects. Origins are discussed during the processes of optics manufacturing and diagnostics, revealing potential improvements for future optics manufacturing techniques and diagnostic index, which is meaningful for fusion level laser facility construction and its operation safety.
The prevalence and factors associated with delays in help seeking for people with dementia in China are unknown.
Within 1,010 consecutively registered participants in the Clinical Pathway for Alzheimer's Disease in China (CPAD) study (NCT01779310), 576 persons with dementia (PWDs) and their informants reported the estimated time from symptom onset to first medical visit seeking diagnosis. Univariate analysis of general linear model was used to examine the potential factors associated with the delayed diagnosis seeking.
The median duration from the first noticeable symptom to the first visit seeking diagnosis or treatment was 1.77 years. Individuals with a positive family history of dementia had longer duration (p = 0.05). Compared with other types of dementia, people with vascular dementia (VaD) were referred for diagnosis earliest, and the sequence for such delays was: VaD < Alzheimer's disease (AD) < frontotemporal dementia (FTD) (p < 0.001). Subtypes of dementia (p < 0.001), family history (p = 0.01), and education level (p = 0.03) were associated with the increased delay in help seeking.
In China, seeking diagnosis for PWDs is delayed for approximately 2 years, even in well-established memory clinics. Clinical features, family history, and less education may impede help seeking in dementia care.
In this paper, we propose a biomechatronic design of an anthropomorphic artificial hand that is able to mimic the natural motion of human fingers. The prosthetic hand has 5 fingers and 15 joints, which are actuated by 5 embedded motors. Each finger has three phalanges that can fulfill flexion-extension movements independently. The thumb is specially designed to move along a cone surface when grasping, and the other four fingers are well developed based on the four-bar link mechanism to imitate the motion of the human finger. To accomplish the sophisticated control schemes, the fingers are equipped with numerous torque and position sensors. The mechanical parts, sensors, and motion control systems are integrated in the hand structure, and the motion of the hand can be controlled through electromyography (EMG) signals in real-time. A new concept for the sensory feedback system based on an electrical stimulator is also taken into account. The low-cost prosthetic hand is small in size (85% of the human hand), of low weight (420 g) and has a large grasp power (10 N on the fingertips), hence it has a dexterous and humanlike appearance. The performance of the prosthetic hand is validated in a clinical evaluation on transradial amputees.
A Newton/LU-SGS (lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel) iteration implicit method was developed to solve two-dimensional Euler and Navier-Stokes equations by the DG/FV hybrid schemes on arbitrary grids. The Newton iteration was employed to solve the nonlinear system, while the linear system was solved with LU-SGS iteration. The effect of several parameters in the implicit scheme, such as the CFL number, the Newton sub-iteration steps, and the update frequency of Jacobian matrix, was investigated to evaluate the performance of convergence history. Several typical test cases were simulated, and compared with the traditional explicit Runge-Kutta (RK) scheme. Firstly the Couette flow was tested to validate the order of accuracy of the present DG/FV hybrid schemes. Then a subsonic inviscid flow over a bump in a channel was simulated and the effect of parameters was investigated also. Finally, the implicit algorithm was applied to simulate a subsonic inviscid flow over a circular cylinder and the viscous flow in a square cavity. The numerical results demonstrated that the present implicit scheme can accelerate the convergence history efficiently. Choosing proper parameters would improve the efficiency of the implicit scheme. Moreover, in the same framework, the DG/FV hybrid schemes are more efficient than the same order DG schemes.
The present study aims to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of active components from Costus speciosus against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Bioassay-guided fractionation was employed to identify active compounds from C. speciosus yielding 2 bioactive compounds: Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin. In-vitro assays revealed that Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis at concentrations of 0·8 and 4·5 mg L−1, with median effective concentration (EC50) values of 0·53 and 3·2 mg L−1, respectively. All protomonts and encysted tomonts were killed when the concentrations of Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin were 1·0 and 5·0 mg L−1. In-vivo experiments demonstrated that fish treated with Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin at concentrations of 1·0 and 5·0 mg L−1 carried significantly fewer parasites than the control (P<0·05). Mortality of fish did not occur in the treatment group (Zingibernsis newsaponin at 5·0 mg L−1) during the trial, although 100% of untreated fish died. Acute toxicities (LD50) of Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin for grass carp were 1·64 and 20·7 mg L−1, respectively. These results provided evidence that the 2 compounds can be selected as lead compounds for the development of new drugs against I. multifiliis.
The high repetition rate 10 J/10 ns Yb:YAG laser system and its key techniques are reported. The amplifiers in this system have a multi-pass V-shape structure and the heat in the amplifiers is removed by means of laminar water flow. In the main amplifier, the laser is four-pass, and an approximately 8.5 J/1 Hz/10 ns output is achieved in the primary test. The far-field of the output beam is approximately 10 times the diffraction limit. Because of the higher levels of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in the main amplifier, the output energy is lower than expected. At the end we discuss some measures that can improve the properties of the laser system.
The protective effects of a novel stilbene derivative, (E)-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl)-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine (MSTMP), on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced human derived neuroblastoma cell (SH-SY5Y) damage and its molecular mechanisms were investigated.
SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to 200 μmol·L−1 H2O2 for 12 h. The effect of MSTMP on cell viability and apoptosis was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl- thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry method. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) in cells were determined by commercial kits. The expressions of pro-apoptotic factor caspase-3, caspase-9 and inducible NOS (iNOS) were detected by Western blotting. Intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assessed using 6-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescent probe.
MSTMP increased the SH-SY5Y cell viability by inhibition of cell apoptosis induced by H2O2. These effects were accompanied by an increase of SOD activity, GSH level, and a decrease of MDA content. Moreover, MSTMP showed stronger effects on inhibition of LDH leakage, apoptotic cells, intracellular ROS level and the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 than TMP. Furthermore, MSTMP induced a decrease of NO level and the activity of iNOS, tNOS in a time-dependent manner.
MSTMP prevents H2O2-induced cell injury through anti-oxidation and anti-apoptosis via ROS-NO pathway.
A study of 7,388 consecutive patients after hepatic resection between 2011 and 2012 identified hepatolithiasis, cirrhosis, and intraoperative blood transfusion as the only independent risk factors of both incisional and organ/space surgical site infection (SSI). Patients with these conditions should be cared for with caution to lower SSI rates.
Pertusaria yunnana G. L. Zhou & Lu L. Zhang from south-western China is described as new to science. This corticolous species is characterized by the white pruinose disciform apothecia, asci with 8 ascospores, and the presence of atranorin in addition to fumarprotocetraric acid. Related lichen taxa are discussed and a key to 21 corticolous species of Pertusaria with disciform apothecia and 8-spored asci is also provided.
The hot water tail-flick test is widely used to measure the degree of nociception experienced by laboratory animals. This study was carried out to optimise interval times for the hot water immersion tail-flick tests in rats.
Ten different intervals from 10 s to 1 h were tested in 60 Sprague–Dawley male rats. At least eight rats were tested for each interval in three consecutive hot water tail-flick tests. Dixon's up-and-down method was also used to find the optimal intervals. The same rats were then divided into two groups. In Group N, naloxone was injected to reverse the prolonged latency times, whereas saline was used in the control Group S.
Intervals of 10 s, 20 s, 30 min and 1 h did not significantly impact latencies, yielding similar results in three consecutive tests (p > 0.05). However, interval times of between 30 s and 20 min, inclusively, caused significantly prolonged latencies in the second and third tests (p < 0.001). Dixon's up-and-down method showed that 95% of the rats had prolonged latencies in hot water tail-flick tests at intervals longer than 32 s. Naloxone reversed prolonged latencies in Group N, whereas the latencies in Group S were further prolonged in 5 min interval tests.
The optimal intervals for hot water tail-flick tests are either shorter than 20 s or longer than 20 min. The prolonged latencies after repetitive tests were attributable to an endocrine opioid.