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In the manufacturing process of sophisticated and individualized large components, classical solutions to build large machine tools cannot meet the demand. A hybrid robot, which is made up of a 3 degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) parallel manipulator and a 2-DOF serial manipulator, has been developed as a plug-and-play robotized module that can be rapidly located in multi-stations where machining operations can be performed in situ. However, processing towards high absolute accuracy has become a huge challenge due to the movement of robot platform. In this paper, a human-guided vision system is proposed and integrated in the robot system to improve the accuracy of the end-effector of a robot. A handheld manipulator is utilized as a tool for human–robot interaction in the large-scale unstructured circumstances without intelligence. With 6-DOF, humans are able to manipulate the robot (end-effector) so as to guide the camera to see target markers mounted on the machining datum. Simulation is operated on the virtual control platform V-Rep, showing a high robust and real-time performance on mapping human manipulation to the end-effector of robot. And then, a vision-based pose estimation method on a target marker is proposed to define the position and orientation of machining datum, and a compensation method is applied to reduce pose errors on the entire machining trajectory. The algorithms are tested on V-Rep, and the results show that the absolute pose error reduces greatly with the proposed methods, and the system is immune to the motion deviation of the robot platform.
The dipeptide DL-methionyl-DL-Methionine (Met-Met) has extremely low water solubility and better absorption than other methionine sources (such as DL-methionine and L-methionine) available in the market. Therefore, six diets (D1, D2, D3, D4, D5 and D6) containing 0 %, 0.07%, 0.15%, 0.21%, 0.28% and 0.38% Met-Met were formulated to investigate the effects of Met-Met on Oreochromis niloticus. The results indicated that percent weight gain and specific growth rate of fish fed with D2 and D3 diets were higher than those fed with D1, D4-D6 diets. The levels of total essential amino acid in whole body of fish fed with D3 and D4 diets were significantly higher than those fed the D1 diet. Superoxide dismutase activity and malondialdehyde content were no significant difference in fed the diet with or without Met-Met supplementation. Majority of reads derived from the fish intestines belonged to members of Fusobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria. Diversity of intestinal microbiota and total antioxidant capacity in fish fed with D3 diet was significantly higher than that of other groups. Since due to the growth results the authors conclude the optimal proportion of Met was 0.61%, and the addition of Met-Met was 0.15% in O. niloticus.
Wire-shaped supercapacitors (WSSCs) hold great promise in portable and wearable electronics. Herein, a novel kind of high-performance coaxial WSSCs has been demonstrated and realized by scrolling porous carbon dodecahedrons/Al foil film electrode on vertical FeOOH nanosheets wrapping carbon fiber tows (FeOOH NSs/CFTs) yarn electrode. Remarkably, ionogel is utilized as solid-state electrolyte and exhibits a high thermal/electrochemical stability, which effectively ensures the great reliability and high operating voltage of coaxial WSSCs. Benefiting from the intriguing configuration, the coaxial WSSCs with superior flexibility act as efficient energy storage devices and exhibit low resistance, high volumetric energy density (3.2 mW h/cm3), and strong durability (82% after 10,000 cycles). Importantly, the coaxial WSSCs can be effectively recharged by harvesting sustainable wind source and repeatedly supply power to the lamp without a decline of electrochemical performance. Considering the facile fabrication technology with an outstanding performance, this work has paved the way for the integration of sustainable energy harvesting and wearable energy storage units.
Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis are the common causes of human echinococcosis in China. An accurate species identification tool for human echinococcosis is needed as the treatments and prognosis are different among species. The present work demonstrates a method for the simultaneous detection of these three Echinococcus species based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR). Specific primers of this mPCR were designed based on the mitochondrial genes and determined by extensive tests. The method can successfully detect either separated or mixed target species, and generate expected amplicons of distinct size for each species. Sensitivity of the method was tested by serially diluted DNA, showing a detection threshold as less as 0.32 pg for both E. granulosus s.s. and E. canadensis, and 1.6 pg for E. multilocularis. Specificity assessed against 18 other parasites was found to be 100% except weakly cross-react with E. shiquicus. The assay was additionally applied to 69 echinococcosis patients and 38 healthy persons, confirming the high reliability of the method. Thus, the mPCR described here has high application potential for clinical identification purposes, and can further provide a useful tool for evaluation of serology and imaging method.
Paediatric Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia in China. Data on epidemiology of paediatric MPP from China are little known. This study retrospectively collected data from June 2006 to June 2016 in Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University of North China and aims to explore the epidemiological features of paediatric MPP and severe MPP (SMPP) in North China during the past 10 years. A total of 27 498 paediatric patients with pneumonia were enrolled. Among them, 37.5% of paediatric patients had MPP. In this area, an epidemic took place every 2–3 years at the peak, and the positive rate of MPP increased during these peak years over time. The peak age of MPP was between the ages of 6 and 10 years, accounting for 75.2%, significantly more compared with other age groups (χ2 = 1384.1, P < 0.0001). The epidemics peaked in September, October and November (χ2 = 904.9, P < 0.0001). Additionally, 13.0% of MPP paediatric patients were SMPP, but over time, the rate of SMPP increased, reaching 42.6% in 2016. The mean age of paediatric patients with SMPP (6.7 ± 3.0 years old) was younger than that of patients with non-SMPP (7.4 ± 3.2 years old) (t = 3.60, P = 0.0001). The prevalence of MPP and SMPP is common in China, especially in children from 6 to 10 years old. Paediatric patients with SMPP tend to be younger than those with non-SMPP. MPP outbreaks occur every 2–3 years in North China. September, October and November are the peak months, unlike in South China. Understanding the epidemiological characteristics of paediatric MPP can contribute to timely treatment and diagnosis, and may improve the prognosis of children with SMPP.
The preparation of three-dimensional honeycomb nitrogen-doped carbon materials (3D-HNCMs) which can be used as electrode materials for supercapacitors is reported. The composites with the 3D honeycomb structure exhibited better electrochemical performance, and the structure and properties were proved by various means, such as SEM, TEM, IR, N2 sorption, XRD and XPS. Used as electrode materials for supercapacitors in the KOH electrolyte, 3D-HNCMs displayed a significantly high specific capacitance (409 F/g at a current of 0.5 A/g). Moreover, the 3D-HNCM electrode exhibited superior electrochemical performance, such as excellent cycling stability (98% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles), a maximum energy density of 15.37 W h/kg, a maximum power density of 40.3 kW/kg, and low equivalent series resistance (2.1 Ω). Particularly, the electrochemical characteristic of 3D-HNCMs could be attributed to the synergistic effect of a high surface area, unique microporous and mesoporous structure, and nitrogen atom doping. These carbon materials with unique structure are promising electrode materials for future supercapacitor application.
We present laboratory measurement and theoretical analysis of silicon K-shell lines in plasmas produced by Shenguang II laser facility, and discuss the application of line ratios to diagnose the electron density and temperature of laser plasmas. Two types of shots were carried out to interpret silicon plasma spectra under two conditions, and the spectra from 6.6 Å to 6.85 Å were measured. The radiative-collisional code based on the flexible atomic code (RCF) is used to identify the lines, and it also well simulates the experimental spectra. Satellite lines, which are populated by dielectron capture and large radiative decay rate, influence the spectrum profile significantly. Because of the blending of lines, the traditional
value are not applicable in diagnosing electron temperature and density of plasma. We take the contribution of satellite lines into the calculation of line ratios of He-
lines, and discuss their relations with the electron temperature and density.
Electrocatalytic water splitting for the production of H2 is increasingly becoming a significant method to mitigate the current energy crisis and environmental pollution. However, oxygen evolution reaction (OER), a slow four-electron progress, is the bottle neck of water splitting. Thus, developing new, low cost, and effective catalysts for OER is a research hotspot in material and energy resource fields. Therefore, the research of nonprecious, metal-based OER catalysts has been popular. In this work, it is validated that 3D hollow Co(OH)2 nanoflowers synthesized by a facile template-based strategy at room temperature are effective electrocatalysts for OER. The catalysts display high activity with a current density of 10 mA/cm2 at an overpotential of 310 mV and a small Tafel slope of 68.9 mV/dec in alkaline condition. It’s noteworthy that this material is stable for over 20 h of chronopotentiometry. This work offers a simple and promising way to prepare efficient and durable electrocatalysts.
Glacial lake outburst flood hazards in the Himalayan region have received considerable attention in recent years. Accurate volume estimation for glacial lakes is important for calculating outburst flood peak discharge and simulating flood evolution. Longbasaba lake, a potentially dangerous moraine-dammed lake, is located on the north side of the Himalaya. Its depth was surveyed using the SyQwest Hydrobox™ high-resolution echo sounder, and 6916 measurements were collected in September 2009. The maximum and average depths of the lake were 102 ± 2 and 48 ± 2 m, respectively. The morphology of the lake basin was modeled by constructing a triangulated irregular network, and the lake was found to have a storage capacity of 0.064 ± 0.002 km3. Multi-source remote-sensing images from Landsat MSS, Landsat TM/ETM+ and Terra ASTER and a topographic map were digitized to delineate the outlines of the lake between 1977 and 2009. The results indicate that the length and area of the lake have increased during the past 32 years, with a drastic expansion occurring since 2000. Based on volume and area data of Longbasaba lake in different periods, we deduced an empirical equation of the lake volume-area relationship that can be used to calculate the storage capacity of similar moraine-dammed lakes in the Himalayan region.
The 2008/09 surge of central Yulinchuan glacier (CYG) on the northwestern slope of Muztag mountain, Tibetan Plateau, is studied based on satellite remote sensing. The widely used cross-correlation feature-tracking method was used to collect satellite image control points and validate their geometric accuracies, as well as to derive glacier surface velocity. Changes in glacier length and area were also retrieved. Results show that the surge of CYG initiated in May 2008 and terminated in July 2009. Two diffluent glacier termini advanced 590 ± 26 m (5.1 ± 0.2% of the 2004 length) and 182 ± 26m (1.8 ± 0.3%), respectively, and glacier area increased by ∼1.41 ± 0.11 km2 (4.6 ± 0.4% of the 2004 area) during this period. The most significant surge period was October 2008 to March 2009, when most of the terminus advances and area increases occurred. The glacier surface drastically crevassed during this time, as much as 1657 ± 297 m of horizontal surface displacements were produced by surge ice, and maximum surface speed reached 13 ± 1.5 m d-1. Results of transverse and longitudinal velocity profiles revealed two surge waves during this surge of CYG.
The Tibetan Plateau interior area (TPIA), often termed the Qangtang Plateau, is distinguished by many dome-like mountains higher than 6000 ma.s.l. These mountains provide favourable conditions for the development of ice caps and glaciers of extreme continental/subpolar type. According to historical topographic maps (1959–80) and recent Landsat images (2004–11), continuous retreat was observed and the glacierized part of this area decreased by 9.5% (0.27% a–1) with respect to the total glacier area of 8036.4 km2 in the 1970s. Glaciers in the Zhari Namco basin have experienced the highest area shrinkage, with a reduction rate of 0.72% a–1, while the smallest reduction occurred in Bangong Co (0.12% a–1) and Dogai Coying basins (0.11% a–1). A regional gradient of area loss was found, with a larger decrease in the south and a smaller decrease in the north of the plateau. Comparisons indicate glaciers have experienced smaller shrinkage in the TPIA than in surrounding regions. Glacier shrinkage in the TPIA is mainly attributed to an increase in air temperature, while precipitation, glacier size and positive difference of glaciation also played an important role.
We use remote-sensing and GIS technologies to monitor glacier changes in the Koshi River basin, central Himalaya. The results indicate that in 2009 there were 2061 glaciers in this region, with a total area of 3225 ±90.3 km2. This glacier population is divided into 1290 glaciers, with a total area of 1961 ±54.9 km2, on the north side of the Himalaya (NSH), and 771 glaciers, with a total area of 1264 ± 35.4 km2, on the south side of the Himalaya (SSH). From 1976 to 2009, glacier area in the basin decreased by about 19±5.6% (0.59±0.17%a–1). Glacier reduction was slightly faster on SSH (20.3 ±5.6%) than on NSH (18.8±5.6%). The maximum contribution to glacier area loss came from glaciers within the 1-5 km2 area interval, which accounted for 32% of total area loss between 1976 and 2009. The number of glaciers in the Koshi River catchment decreased by 145 between 1976 and 2009. Glacier area on SSH decreased at a rate of 6.2 ±3.2% (0.68 ±0.36% a–1), faster than on NSH, where the rate was 2.5 ±3.2% (0.27±0.36% a–1) during 2000-09. Based on records from Tingri weather station, we infer that temperature increase and precipitation decrease were the main causes of glacier thinning and retreat during the 1976-2000 period. Glacier retreat during the 2000-09 period appears to be controlled by temperature increase, since precipitation increase over this period did not offset ice losses to surface melting.
The second Chinese glacier inventory was compiled based on 218 Landsat TM/ETM+ scenes acquired mainly during 2006–10. The widely used band ratio segmentation method was applied as the first step in delineating glacier outlines, and then intensive manual improvements were performed. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model was used to derive altitudinal attributes of glaciers. The boundaries of some glaciers measured by real-time kinematic differential GPS or digitized from high-resolution images were used as references to validate the accuracy of the methods used to delineate glaciers, which resulted in positioning errors of ±10 m for manually improved clean-ice outlines and ±30 m for manually digitized outlines of debris-covered parts. The glacier area error of the compiled inventory, evaluated using these two positioning accuracies, was ±3.2%. The compiled parts of the new inventory have a total area of 43 087 km2, in which 1723 glaciers were covered by debris, with a total debris-covered area of 1494 km2. The area of uncompiled glaciers from the digitized first Chinese glacier inventory is ∼8753 km2, mainly distributed in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, where no images of acceptable quality for glacier outline delineation can be found during 2006–10.
Human adenovirus type 55 (HAdV-55) has recently caused multiple outbreaks. This study examined polymorphisms in CD46 to determine their involvement in HAdV-55 infection.
A total of 214 study subjects infected with HAdV-55 were included in our study. The study subjects were divided into those with silent infections (n=91), minor infections (n=85), and severe infections (n=38). Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from CD46 were examined.
Compared with the AA genotype, the TT genotype at rs2724385 (CD46, A/T) was associated with a protective effect against disease occurrence, with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.20 (0.04-0.97) (P=0.038). There were no significant differences between the patients with minor and severe infection and those who had silent HAdV-55 infection in the other CD46 SNPs. We next compared the polymorphisms of these genes according to disease severity in HAdV-55-infected patients with clinical symptoms. The results showed that there were no significant differences between minor infections and severe infections.
Our results suggested that the CD46 SNP at rs2724385 is associated with the occurrence of disease in HAdV-55-infected patients. A much larger number of samples is required to understand the role of CD46 polymorphisms in the occurrence and progression of infection by HAdV-55. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:427–430)
SG-III laser facility is now the largest laser driver for inertial confinement fusion research in China. The whole laser facility can deliver 180 kJ energy and 60 TW power ultraviolet laser onto target, with power balance better than 10%. We review the laser system and introduce the SG-III laser performance here.
This is a case-control study to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors of pain in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).
A total of 200 PD patients from eastern China were enrolled in our study. Accordingly, 200 healthy elderly adults were recruited as controls. The characteristics of pain were collected by using the Visual Analog Scale, Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), SF-36 Bodily Pain Scale, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Hoehn–Yahr Scale (H-Y), Hamilton Depression Scale, and Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs.
Of the 200 PD patients, pain was complained by 106 patients (53%). According to the SF-36 Bodily Pain Scale, pain morbidity in PD patients was significantly higher than in the control group. The average pain during last 24 h measured by the BPI was 2.67. About 76% of PD patients were found to have one pain type, 21.7% were having two pain types, and 1.9% had three pain types. Further, 69.8% of these patients were presented with musculoskeletal pain, 4.7% with dystonic pain, 22.6% with radicular-neuropathic pain, 20.8% with central neuropathic pain, and 9.4% with akathisia pain. The onset age and depression were the most significant predictors of pain in PD patients (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant association between pain and gender, age, disease duration, or severity of the disease. Only 5.7% of PD patients with pain received treatment in this study.
Pain is frequent and disabling, independent of demographic and clinical variables, and is significantly more common in PD patients.
The protective effects of a novel stilbene derivative, (E)-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl)-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine (MSTMP), on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced human derived neuroblastoma cell (SH-SY5Y) damage and its molecular mechanisms were investigated.
SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to 200 μmol·L−1 H2O2 for 12 h. The effect of MSTMP on cell viability and apoptosis was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl- thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry method. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) in cells were determined by commercial kits. The expressions of pro-apoptotic factor caspase-3, caspase-9 and inducible NOS (iNOS) were detected by Western blotting. Intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assessed using 6-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescent probe.
MSTMP increased the SH-SY5Y cell viability by inhibition of cell apoptosis induced by H2O2. These effects were accompanied by an increase of SOD activity, GSH level, and a decrease of MDA content. Moreover, MSTMP showed stronger effects on inhibition of LDH leakage, apoptotic cells, intracellular ROS level and the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 than TMP. Furthermore, MSTMP induced a decrease of NO level and the activity of iNOS, tNOS in a time-dependent manner.
MSTMP prevents H2O2-induced cell injury through anti-oxidation and anti-apoptosis via ROS-NO pathway.