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Risk factors and prevalence of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases were retrospectively evaluated in 1208 suspected pulmonary TB patients seeking care at the Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University between July 2018 and December 2018. Further analysis of 390 culture-positive cases demonstrated that 358 (358/390, 91.8%) were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), 24 (24/390, 6.2%) with NTM and eight (8/390, 2.0%) with both MTB and NTM. M. intracellulare was the most prevalent NTM isolated (16/24, 66.7%), followed by M. abscessus (3/24), M. kansasii (2/24), M. avium (1/24), M. szulgai (1/24) and M. fortuitum (1/24). The difference between NTM and TB case rates for the ⩾65-year-old age group significantly exceeded the difference for the reference group (patients aged 25–44 years) (OR (95% CI): 4.63 (1.03–20.90)). Pulmonary NTM diseases incidence positively correlated with prior TB history (OR (95% CI): 12.92 (3.24–31.82)). Moreover, pulmonary NTM patients were significantly more likely to exhibit underlying bronchiectasis than pulmonary TB patients (OR (95% CI): 18.89 (7.54–47.88)). In conclusion, approximately one-tenth of culture-positive suspected pulmonary TB patients are infected with NTM (most frequently M. intracellulare) in Zhejiang Province, China. The elderly and those with bronchiectasis or a history of TB are at the greatest risk of contracting pulmonary NTM disease.
In an effort to fight against local protectionism in court enforcement proceedings, China's Supreme People's Court (SPC) promulgated its “Notice on relevant issues pertaining to the people's court handling foreign and foreign-related arbitration” in 1995. Pursuant to this Notice, all Intermediate People's Courts have to report to the SPC and obtain its approval for any decision not to enforce a foreign or foreign-related arbitral award. However, the effectiveness of this internal reporting mechanism in constraining local protectionism has never been empirically tested. This study is based on 98 publicly available non-enforcement reply opinions rendered by the SPC after lower courts have made and reported preliminary non-enforcement decisions. It analyses whether these non-enforcement decisions show any pattern of local protectionism. Statistical results do not suggest that local protectionism is a major barrier hindering effective enforcement of foreign or foreign-related arbitral awards in China. We therefore contend that this internal reporting system may serve other functions by providing an alternative tool to reinforce judicial oversight in spite of China's weak appellant system. At the same time, the Chinese government seems to rely on this internal reporting system to achieve important policy goals. In this sense, analysing the functionality of this internal reporting system offers insights into this mechanism for top-level judicial control.
Information systems (IS) have facilitated workflow in the health care system for years. However, the utilization of IS in disaster medical assistance teams (DMATs) has been less studied.
In Taiwan, we started a program in 2008 to build up an information system, MEDical Assistance and Information Dashboard (MED-AID), to improve the capability and increase the efficiency of our national DMAT.
Method: The mission of our national DMAT was to provide acute trauma care and subacute outpatient care in the field after an emergency event (e.g., earthquakes). We built the IS through a user-oriented process to fit the need of the DMAT. We first analyzed the response work in the DMAT missions and reviewed the current paperwork. We evaluated the eligibility and effectiveness of the core functions of DMATs by experts in Taiwan and then developed the IS. The IS was then tested and revised each year in two table-top exercises and one regional full-scale exercise by the DMAT staffs who came from different hospitals in Taiwan.
During the past 10 years, we identified several core concepts of IS of DMAT: patient tracking, medical record, continuity of care, integration of referral resources, disease surveillance, patient information reporting, and medical resources management. The application of the IS facilitate the DMAT in providing safe patient care with continuous recording and integrate patient referral resources based on geographic information. The IS also help the planning in real-time disease surveillance and logistic function in the medical resources monitoring.
Information systems could facilitate patient care and relieve the workload on information analysis and resources management for DMATs.
This article examines the state sovereign immunity rule in the context of a rising number of sovereign wealth funds and their ever-increasing value of cross-border commercial activities in the aftermath of the latest global financial crisis. The concept of sovereignty and the rule of sovereignty remain in a state of flux while new actors such as sovereign wealth funds are participating in global commercial activities in a nontransparent and politically motivated manner. Accordingly, states may pursue strategic foreign policy objectives through these newer investment arms in an unconventional way, thereby being deeply involved in the political-economic arena and distorting the existing concepts of international law. This article posits that there is an international law black hole in which sovereign wealth funds have come to engage in commercial activities as well as exercise the public functions traditionally associated with states (acts jure imperii). The doctrine of restrictive immunity has come into question and the bulk of local court decisions have offered little clear guidance. Against this backdrop three interconnected perspectives are then discussed with reference to emerging economies like China: the immunity rule, the principle of sovereignty, and the balance of power in globalization.
This paper presents a novel asymmetric coplanar waveguide-fed quad-band hybrid antenna for wireless applications. The proposed hybrid antenna combines a conventional monopole antenna and a zeroth-order resonator antenna to perform a dual-mode operation. The first mode is generated by a slotted monopole antenna, supporting the two higher resonances at about 3.5 and 5.8 GHz. The second mode is supported by loading a composite right-/left-handed transmission line unit cell near the slotted monopole, contributing to the two lower resonances at about 1.6 and 2.5 GHz. It is printed on an FR4 substrate with the overall dimensions of 40 mm × 24 mm × 1.6 mm. Experimental results demonstrate that it can cover the global positioning system (1.57–1.59 GHz), wireless local area network (2.4–2.485, 5.15–5.35, and 5.725–5.825 GHz), and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (2.5–2.69, 3.3–3.7, and 5.25–5.85 GHz) applications with monopole-like radiation patterns and acceptable gains.
In this systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, we aimed to estimate the associations between prenatal vitamin D status and offspring growth, adiposity and metabolic health. We searched the literature in human studies on prenatal vitamin D status and offspring growth in PubMed, up to July 2017. Studies were selected according to their methodological quality and outcomes of interest (anthropometry, fat mass and diabetes in offspring). The inverse variance method was used to calculate the pooled mean difference (MD) with 95 % CI for continuous outcomes, and the Mantel–Haenszel method was used to calculate the pooled OR with 95 % CI for dichotomous outcomes. In all, thirty observational studies involving 35 032 mother–offspring pairs were included. Vitamin D status was evaluated by circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level. Low vitamin D status was based on each study’s cut-off for low 25(OH)D levels. Low prenatal vitamin D levels were associated with lower birth weight (g) (MD −100·69; 95 % CI −162·25, −39·13), increased risk of small-for-gestational-age (OR 1·55; 95 % CI 1·16, 2·07) and an elevated weight (g) in infant at the age of 9 months (g) (MD 119·75; 95 % CI 32·97, 206·52). No associations were observed between prenatal vitamin D status and other growth parameters at birth, age 1 year, 4–6 years or 9 years, nor with diabetes type 1. Prenatal vitamin D may play a role in infant adiposity and accelerated postnatal growth. The effects of prenatal vitamin D on long-term metabolic health outcomes in children warrant future studies.
Freedom from fear and freedom from want are two of the fundamental freedoms and likely related to changes in the environment. It has usually been assumed that our subjective feelings should change accordingly with changes in the objective environment. However, two counterintuitive effects reviewed in this article imply a rather complex psychological mechanism behind how people respond to environmental changes and strive for the freedom from fear and want. The first is the ‘psychological typhoon eye’ effect, in which the closer people are to hazards, the calmer they feel. Several possible explanations have been proposed, but the mechanism behind this effect remains unclear. The findings are important for future post-disaster interventions and helpful for policy makers in risk management and researchers in risk studies. The second effect is the ‘town dislocation’ effect, wherein although inhabitants’ objective quality of life is improved during the urbanisation process, the projected endorsement and rated social ambience of town residents is lower than that of residents in the country and in the city; this effect is mediated by social support. The findings have implications for how to better assess the urbanisation process and how to improve people's affective appraisals of their living environment.
Numerical simulations of two-dimensional (2D) turbulent thermal convection for inhomogeneous boundary condition are investigated using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). This study mainly appraises the temporal evolution and the scaling behavior of global quantities and of small-scale turbulence properties. The research results show that the flow is dominated by large-scale structures in the turbulence regime. Mushroom plumes emerge at both ends of each heat source, and smaller plumes increasingly rise. It is found that the gradient of root mean-square (rms) vertical velocities and the gradient of the rms temperature in the bottom boundary layer decreases with time evolution. It is further observed that the temporal evolution of the Kolmogorov scale, the kinetic-energy dissipation rates and thermal dissipation rates agree well with the theoretical predictions. It is also observed that there is a range of linear scaling in the 2nd-order structure functions of the velocity and temperature fluctuations and mixed velocity-temperature structure function.
In this paper, an asymmetric coplanar strip (ACS)-fed quad-band monopole antenna for the global positioning system (GPS), wireless local area network (WLAN), and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) applications is proposed. It is composed of an F-shaped monopole and a partial ground plane, which are both printed on one side of a low-cost FR4 substrate with a compact volume of 40 × 20 × 1.6 mm3. By cutting an open-ended Γ-shaped slot into the F-shaped monopole, four distinct resonant modes are successfully generated. The design process, especially the geometrical configuration of the critical Γ-shaped slot is studied in detail. The proposed antenna has been fabricated and experimental results show that the −10 dB impedance bandwidth can fully cover the 1.575-GHz GPS (1.57–1.59 GHz), 2.4/5.2/5.8-GHz WLAN (2.4–2.485, 5.15–5.35, and 5.725–5.825 GHz), and 2.5/3.5/5.5-GHz WiMAX (2.50–2.69, 3.30–3.70, and 5.25–5.85 GHz) applications with nearly omni-directional radiation patterns and satisfactory gains.
The Lorentz factor (Γ) is an important parameter related to the relativistic jet physics. We study the evolution patterns of Γ within gamma-ray burst (GRB) and active galactic nuclear jets for individual GRB 090168, GRB 140508A, and 3C 454.3. By estimating the Γ values for well-separated pulses in GRBs 090618 and 140508A with an empirical relation derived from typical GRBs, we find that the Γ evolution pattern in the two GRBs are different. The increasing-to-coasting evolution pattern of Γ in GRB 090618 likely indicates that the GRB fireball is still being accelerated in the prompt phase. The clear decrease evolution pattern of Γ in GRB 140508A suggests the deceleration of the fireball components. By deriving the Γ value through fitting their spectral energy distribution in different flares of 3C 454.3, a pattern of Γ-tracking-γ-ray flux is clearly found, likely indicating that the observed gamma-ray flares are being due to the Doppler boosting effect to the jet emission.
In this paper, we focus on studying the high energy emission of GRB 160625B. The lightcurve of prompt emission is composed of three episodes: short-soft precursor, hard main burst, and possible long extended emission. The spectra of first and third episode can be fitted by a multi-color blackbody and cutoff power-law model, respectively. However, the spectrum of second episode was contributed by both multi-color blackbody and cutoff power-law. One can estimate the Lorenz factor of jet of first two episodes by invoking photosphere model as Γ0 ~ 175 and 1694, respectively. It suggests that the ejecta of this case evolved from photosphere dominated initially to internal shock later. On the other hand, the optical emission is very bright during the second episode, which is likely a prompt optical emission. Finally, a more shallower normal decay segment appeared, which is consistent with standard external shock model.
High energy photon radiations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are dominated by their jet radiations. It was suggested that relativistic jets powered by different mass-scale black holes may share the same physical laws. A tight relation among the peak luminosity, the peak photon energy in the νfν spectrum, and the initial Lorentz factor is found for GRBs. With samples of GeV-TeV BL Lacs, FSRQs, and NLS1 galaxies, we show that these sources do not follow this relation. This may be attributed to the jet geometry and continuous/episodic jet as well as radiation physics for different kinds of sources.
A novel small embedded long-term evolution/wireless wide area network (LTE/WWAN) antenna integrated with the keyboard ground plane in a laptop computer is presented. The antenna is installed on a notched region (40 × 8 mm2) of the keyboard ground plane at a distance of 10 mm from the laptop computer hinge. A coupled-fed loop antenna was used because of its suitability for integration with the ground plane and achieving wide operating bands. This antenna can not only be configured to have a compact configuration but also be designed to excite several resonant modes of the hinge slot between the display ground plane and the keyboard ground plane. The proposed antenna comprises a hook-shaped strip and a shorted strip, which together form a coupled-fed loop that not only has a compact size when printed on a 0.8-mm-thick FR4 substrate 40 × 8 mm2 in size but also provides eight-band LTE/WWAN operation. The proposed antenna can cover LTE/WWAN operation in the 698–960 and 1710–2690 MHz bands. Details of the antenna structure are provided here. The proposed antenna was fabricated and tested, and measurement and simulation results are presented. The measured antenna efficiency was approximately 45–80% in the lower band and approximately 52–75% in the upper band.
To investigate the potential influence of dietary Se intake on mortality among Chinese populations.
We prospectively evaluated all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality risks associated with dietary Se intake in participants of the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS) and the Shanghai Men’s Health study (SMHS). Dietary Se intake was assessed by validated FFQ during in-person interviews. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI.
Urban city in China.
Chinese adults (n 133 957).
During an average follow-up of 13·90 years in the SWHS and 8·37 years in the SMHS, 5749 women and 4217 men died. The mean estimated dietary Se intake was 45·48 μg/d for women and 51·34 μg/d for men, respectively. Dietary Se intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality and CVD mortality in both women and men, with respective HR for the highest compared with the lowest quintile being 0·79 (95 % CI 0·71, 0·88; Ptrend<0·0001) and 0·80 (95 % CI 0·66, 0·98; Ptrend=0·0268) for women, and 0·79 (95 % CI 0·70, 0·89; Ptrend=0·0001) and 0·66 (95 % CI 0·54, 0·82; Ptrend=0·0002) for men. No significant associations were observed for cancer mortality in both women and men. Results were similar in subgroup and sensitivity analyses.
Dietary Se intake was inversely associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both sexes, but not cancer mortality.
Studies of the end-Permian mass extinction have suggested a variety of patterns from a single catastrophic event to multiple phases. But most of these analyses have been based on fossil distributions from single localities. Although single sections may simplify the interpretation of species diversity, they are susceptible to bias from stratigraphic incompleteness and facies control of preservation. Here we use a data set of 1450 species from 18 fossiliferous sections in different paleoenvironmental settings across South China and the northern peri-Gondwanan region, and integrate it with high-precision geochronologic data to evaluate the rapidity of the largest Phanerozoic mass extinction. To reduce the Signor-Lipps effect, we applied constrained optimization (CONOP) to search for an optimal sequence of first and last occurrence datums for all species and generate a composite biodiversity pattern based on multiple sections. This analysis indicates that an abrupt extinction of 62% of species took place within 200 Kyr. The onset of the sudden extinction is around 252.3 Ma, just below Bed 25 at the Meishan section. Taxon turnover and diversification rates suggest a deterioration of the living conditions nearly 1.2 Myr before the sudden extinction. The magnitude of the extinction was such that there was no immediate biotic recovery. Prior suggestions of highly variable, multi-phased extinction patterns reflect the impact of the Signor-Lipps effect and facies-dependent occurrences, and are not supported following appropriate statistical treatment of this larger data set.
Novel composite materials with wide pores were synthesized by an in situ technique using kaolin, palygorskite and pseudoboehmite as raw materials. The characterization results indicated that the synthesis components and conditions influenced the micro-, meso- and macro-porosity of the composite materials. The composites contained 53.5% zeolite Y and had much larger specific surface areas and pore volumes as well as significant hydrothermal stability. Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts were prepared based on the composite materials. The results indicated that the as-prepared catalysts possessed a unique pore structure which assisted in diffusion-controlled reactions. In addition, the attrition resistance, activity and hydrothermal stability of the catalyst studied were superior to those of a reference catalyst. The catalyst studied also exhibited excellent nickel and vanadium passivation performance, strong ‘bottoms upgrading’ selectivity and better gasoline and coke selectivity.
The Critically Endangered Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus, the world's largest amphibian, is severely threatened by unsustainable exploitation of wild individuals. However, field data with which to assess the salamander's status, population trends, or exploitation across its geographical range are limited, and recent field surveys using standard ecological field techniques have typically failed to detect wild individuals. We conducted community-based fieldwork in three national nature reserves (Fanjingshan, Leigongshan and Mayanghe) in Guizhou Province, China, to assess whether local ecological knowledge constitutes a useful tool for salamander conservation. We collected a sample of dated salamander sighting records and associated data from these reserves for comparative assessment of the relative status of salamander populations across the region. Although Fanjingshan and Leigongshan are still priority sites for salamander conservation, few recent sightings were recorded in either reserve, and respondents considered that salamanders had declined locally at both reserves. The species may already be functionally extinct at Mayanghe. Although respondent data on threats to salamanders in Guizhou are more difficult to interpret, overharvesting was the most commonly suggested explanation for salamander declines, and it is likely that the growing salamander farming industry is the primary driver of salamander extraction from Guizhou's reserves. Questionnaire-based surveys can collect novel quantitative data that provide unique insights into the local status of salamander populations, and we advocate wide-scale incorporation of this research approach into future salamander field programmes.
In this paper, we extend the high order finite-difference method with subcell resolution (SR) in  for two-species stiff one-reaction models to multispecies and multireaction inviscid chemical reactive flows, which are significantly more difficult because of the multiple scales generated by different reactions. For reaction problems, when the reaction time scale is very small, the reaction zone scale is also small and the governing equations become very stiff. Wrong propagation speed of discontinuity may occur due to the underresolved numerical solution in both space and time. The present SR method for reactive Euler system is a fractional step method. In the convection step, any high order shock-capturing method can be used. In the reaction step, an ODE solver is applied but with certain computed flow variables in the shock region modified by the Harten subcell resolution idea. Several numerical examples of multispecies and multireaction reactive flows are performed in both one and two dimensions. Studies demonstrate that the SR method can capture the correct propagation speed of discontinuities in very coarse meshes.