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The authors developed a practical and clinically useful model to predict the risk of psychosis that utilizes clinical characteristics empirically demonstrated to be strong predictors of conversion to psychosis in clinical high-risk (CHR) individuals. The model is based upon the Structured Interview for Psychosis Risk Syndromes (SIPS) and accompanying clinical interview, and yields scores indicating one's risk of conversion.
Baseline data, including demographic and clinical characteristics measured by the SIPS, were obtained on 199 CHR individuals seeking evaluation in the early detection and intervention for mental disorders program at the New York State Psychiatric Institute at Columbia University Medical Center. Each patient was followed for up to 2 years or until they developed a syndromal DSM-4 disorder. A LASSO logistic fitting procedure was used to construct a model for conversion specifically to a psychotic disorder.
At 2 years, 64 patients (32.2%) converted to a psychotic disorder. The top five variables with relatively large standardized effect sizes included SIPS subscales of visual perceptual abnormalities, dysphoric mood, unusual thought content, disorganized communication, and violent ideation. The concordance index (c-index) was 0.73, indicating a moderately strong ability to discriminate between converters and non-converters.
The prediction model performed well in classifying converters and non-converters and revealed SIPS measures that are relatively strong predictors of conversion, comparable with the risk calculator published by NAPLS (c-index = 0.71), but requiring only a structured clinical interview. Future work will seek to externally validate the model and enhance its performance with the incorporation of relevant biomarkers.
The theoretically-predicted enhancement of metal-graphene contacts using the “end-contacted” configuration is studied. Graphene edges at the source/drain regions are created via a CMOS process compatible metal-assisted etching technique. The on-resistance of a graphene device with cobalt-etched-graphene contacts shows 6 times improvement compared to pristine graphene device. Apart from that, four-point contacted graphene devices with nickel-etched-graphene contacts were fabricated and tested under ambient conditions. The proposed graphene devices exhibit contact resistance as low as 14 Ωμm, with an average of 90 Ωμm. Thus, forming metal-etched-graphene contacts is a promising method to obtain low-contact resistance metal contacts to graphene.
Intake of soybean protein was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in a case–control study. It has also been demonstrated to increase menstrual cycle length in an experimental setting.
To ascertain whether the association of soybean protein intakes with menstrual cycle length persists in an uncontrolled community setting.
Cross-sectional food frequency dietary survey, menstrual cycle survey and prospective collection of menstrual cycle data.
A hospital clinic and a nursing college.
Two hundred menstruating women.
An association (P=0.034) of higher intakes of soybean protein with increased menstrual cycle length, as recorded by self report and by prospectively recording three consecutive cycles, was observed. The risk of menstrual cycle length being greater than the median, when comparing the upper quartile (8.7–35.2 g day−1) of soybean intake and the lowest quartile (0.1–3.3 g day−1) was double, and this approached statistical significance (OR=2.02, 95% CI=0.88−4.64 and OR=1.93, 95% CI=0.82−4.56 for self-reported cycle length and cycle length as recorded by diary, respectively). In terms of the absolute association with cycle length, subjects in the upper quartile of soybean intake demonstrated a cycle length 1–2 days longer than did subjects in the lowest quartile.
It is likely that the association between dietary intake of soybean protein and length of menstrual cycle prevails in the community setting. This is shown using both self-reported cycle length and cycle length as recorded in a prospective diary.
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