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Wire-shaped supercapacitors (WSSCs) hold great promise in portable and wearable electronics. Herein, a novel kind of high-performance coaxial WSSCs has been demonstrated and realized by scrolling porous carbon dodecahedrons/Al foil film electrode on vertical FeOOH nanosheets wrapping carbon fiber tows (FeOOH NSs/CFTs) yarn electrode. Remarkably, ionogel is utilized as solid-state electrolyte and exhibits a high thermal/electrochemical stability, which effectively ensures the great reliability and high operating voltage of coaxial WSSCs. Benefiting from the intriguing configuration, the coaxial WSSCs with superior flexibility act as efficient energy storage devices and exhibit low resistance, high volumetric energy density (3.2 mW h/cm3), and strong durability (82% after 10,000 cycles). Importantly, the coaxial WSSCs can be effectively recharged by harvesting sustainable wind source and repeatedly supply power to the lamp without a decline of electrochemical performance. Considering the facile fabrication technology with an outstanding performance, this work has paved the way for the integration of sustainable energy harvesting and wearable energy storage units.
Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is reported to be associated with cancer development. To investigate the roles ANXA2 plays during the development of cancer, the RNAi method was used to inhibit the ANXA2 expression in caco2 (human colorectal cancer cell line) and SMMC7721 (human hepatocarcinoma cell line) cells. The results showed that when the expression of ANXA2 was efficiently inhibited, the growth and motility of both cell lines were significantly decreased, and the development of the motility relevant microstructures, such as pseudopodia, filopodia, and the polymerization of microfilaments and microtubules were obviously inhibited. The cancer cell apoptosis was enhanced without obvious significance. The possible regulating pathway in the process was also predicted and discussed. Our results suggested that ANXA2 plays important roles in maintaining the malignancy of colorectal and hepatic cancer by enhancing the cell proliferation, motility, and development of the motility associated microstructures of cancer cells based on a possible complicated signal pathway.
Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 (BNT)-based lead-free materials are important for piezoelectric actuator, and several researchers have studied the effect of B-site complex ion doping on strain in (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3–SrTiO3. In this work, a paraelectric perovskite Sr(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3 (SZN) with B-site complex structure was introduced into 0.80(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3–0.20SrTiO3 (BNTST) to investigate the phase structure and electrical properties as well as the field-induced strain behavior. The results showed that SZN substitution decreases the rhombohedrality 90-γ and induces the transition from dominant ferroelectric to nonergodic relaxor by shifting its TF-R to lower temperatures. Moreover, the field-induced ferroelectric domains cannot remain stable at room temperature when SZN substitution is large than 1.0 mol%. These behaviors induced the transition between nonergodic relaxor and ergodic relaxor, which contributed to its large strain and related properties. In this work, this material gave the largest bipolar strain of 0.43% and large normalized unipolar strain of 505 pm/V at the SZN content of 2 mol% under 8 kV/mm, and showed good temperature stability up to 100 °C. The above encouraging results may be helpful for further investigation of BNTST-based ternary systems in search of a potential Pb-free piezoelectric material.
Late-life depression has become an important public health problem. Available evidence suggests that late-life depression is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among older adults living in the community, although the associations have not been comprehensively reviewed and quantified.
To estimate the pooled association of late-life depression with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among community-dwelling older adults.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies that examine the associations of late-life depression with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in community settings.
A total of 61 prospective cohort studies from 53 cohorts with 198 589 participants were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. A total of 49 cohorts reported all-cause mortality and 15 cohorts reported cardiovascular mortality. Late-life depression was associated with increased risk of all-cause (risk ratio 1.34; 95% CI 1.27, 1.42) and cardiovascular mortality (risk ratio 1.31; 95% CI 1.20, 1.43). There was heterogeneity in results across studies and the magnitude of associations differed by age, gender, study location, follow-up duration and methods used to assess depression. The associations existed in different subgroups by age, gender, regions of studies, follow-up periods and assessment methods of late-life depression.
Late-life depression is associated with higher risk of both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among community-dwelling elderly people. Future studies need to test the effectiveness of preventing depression among older adults as a way of reducing mortality in this population. Optimal treatment of late-life depression and its impact on mortality require further investigation.
Previous studies show inconsistent associations between α-linolenic acid (ALA) and risk of CHD. We aimed to examine an aggregate association between ALA intake and risk of CHD, and assess for any dose–response relationship. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science databases for prospective cohort studies examining associations between ALA intake and CHD, including composite CHD and fatal CHD. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis models, comparing the highest category of ALA intake with the lowest across studies. Subgroup analysis was conducted based on study design, geographic region, age and sex. For dose–response analyses, we used two-stage random-effects dose–response models. In all, fourteen studies of thirteen cohorts were identified and included in the meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that higher ALA intake was associated with modest reduced risk of composite CHD (risk ratios (RR)=0·91; 95 % CI 0·85, 0·97) and fatal CHD (RR=0·85; 95 % CI 0·75, 0·96). The analysis showed a J-shaped relationship between ALA intake and relative risk of composite CHD (χ2=21·95, P<0·001). Compared with people without ALA intake, only people with ALA intake <1·4 g/d showed reduced risk of composite CHD. ALA intake was linearly associated with fatal CHD – every 1 g/d increase in ALA intake was associated with a 12 % decrease in fatal CHD risk (95 % CI −0·21, −0·04). Though a higher dietary ALA intake was associated with reduced risk of composite and fatal CHD, the excess composite CHD risk at higher ALA intakes warrants further investigation, especially through randomised controlled trials.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8-week green tea extract (GTE) supplementation on promoting postexercise muscle glycogen resynthesis and systemic energy substrate utilisation in young college students. A total of eight healthy male participants (age: 22·0 (se 1·0) years, BMI: 24·2 (se 0·7) kg/m2, VO2max: 43·2 (se 2·4) ml/kg per min) participated in this study. GTE (500 mg/d for 8 weeks) was compared with placebo in participants in a double-blind/placebo-controlled and crossover study design with an 8-week washout period. Thereafter, all participants performed a 60-min cycling exercise (75 % VO2max) and consumed a carbohydrate-enriched meal immediately after exercise. Vastus lateralis muscle samples were collected immediately (0 h) and 3 h after exercise, and blood and gaseous samples were collected during the 3-h postexercise recovery period. An 8-week oral GTE supplementation had no effects on further promoting muscle glycogen resynthesis in exercised human skeletal muscle, but the exercise-induced muscle GLUT type 4 (GLUT4) protein content was greater in the GTE supplementation trial (P<0·05). We observed that, during the postexercise recovery period, GTE supplementation elicited an increase in energy reliance on fat oxidation compared with the placebo trial (P<0·05), although there were no differences in blood glucose and insulin responses between the two trials. In summary, 8-week oral GTE supplementation increases postexercise systemic fat oxidation and exercise-induced muscle GLUT4 protein content in response to an acute bout of endurance exercise. However, GTE supplementation has no further benefit on promoting muscle glycogen resynthesis during the postexercise period.
This article outlines the evolution of a rescue team in responding to adenovirus prevention with a deployable field hospital. The local governments mobilized a shelter hospital and a rescue team consisting of 59 members to assist with rescue and response efforts after an epidemic outbreak of adenovirus. We describe and evaluate the challenges of preparing for deployment, field hospital maintenance, treatment mode, and primary treatment methods. The field hospital established at the rescue scene consisted of a medical command vehicle, a computed tomography shelter, an X-ray shelter, a special laboratory shelter, an oxygen and electricity supply vehicle, and epidemic prevention and protection equipment. The rescue team comprised paramedics, physicians, X-ray technicians, respiratory therapists, and logistical personnel. In 22 days, more than 3000 patients with suspected adenovirus infection underwent initial examinations. All patients were properly treated, and no deaths occurred. After emergency measures were implemented, the spread of adenovirus was eventually controlled. An emergency involving infectious diseases in less-developed regions demands the rapid development of a field facility with specialized medical personnel when local hospital facilities are either unavailable or unusable. An appropriate and detailed prearranged action plan is important for infectious diseases prevention. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:109–114)
Human adenovirus type 55 (HAdV-55) has recently caused multiple outbreaks. This study examined polymorphisms in CD46 to determine their involvement in HAdV-55 infection.
A total of 214 study subjects infected with HAdV-55 were included in our study. The study subjects were divided into those with silent infections (n=91), minor infections (n=85), and severe infections (n=38). Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from CD46 were examined.
Compared with the AA genotype, the TT genotype at rs2724385 (CD46, A/T) was associated with a protective effect against disease occurrence, with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.20 (0.04-0.97) (P=0.038). There were no significant differences between the patients with minor and severe infection and those who had silent HAdV-55 infection in the other CD46 SNPs. We next compared the polymorphisms of these genes according to disease severity in HAdV-55-infected patients with clinical symptoms. The results showed that there were no significant differences between minor infections and severe infections.
Our results suggested that the CD46 SNP at rs2724385 is associated with the occurrence of disease in HAdV-55-infected patients. A much larger number of samples is required to understand the role of CD46 polymorphisms in the occurrence and progression of infection by HAdV-55. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:427–430)
In this paper, we focus on studying the high energy emission of GRB 160625B. The lightcurve of prompt emission is composed of three episodes: short-soft precursor, hard main burst, and possible long extended emission. The spectra of first and third episode can be fitted by a multi-color blackbody and cutoff power-law model, respectively. However, the spectrum of second episode was contributed by both multi-color blackbody and cutoff power-law. One can estimate the Lorenz factor of jet of first two episodes by invoking photosphere model as Γ0 ~ 175 and 1694, respectively. It suggests that the ejecta of this case evolved from photosphere dominated initially to internal shock later. On the other hand, the optical emission is very bright during the second episode, which is likely a prompt optical emission. Finally, a more shallower normal decay segment appeared, which is consistent with standard external shock model.
Feeding regime is an important concern for sea urchin aquaculture. However, optimal feed regimes have not been established for land-based sea urchin ventures using a formulated feed. In this study, we investigated the effects of short-term continuous and intermittent feeding regimes on food consumption, growth, gonad production and quality of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius (54.90 ± 2.28 mm of test diameter) fed a formulated feed. The results showed that (1) compared with initial conditions, all involved traits except a* (test diameter, test height, body weight, gonad weight, gonad index, gonad moisture, L* and b*) showed significant increase at the end of the experiments; (2) only the longest term feed regime tested in this trial (S2) significantly negatively affected growth and gonad production of S. intermedius fed a formulated feed; (3) there was a trend but this was not significant for inhibiting gonad development of S. intermedius in intermittent feeding regimes and there was no change in the gonad colour and sweetness; (4) S0.5 (fasting half day and then feeding half day) is the optimal intermittent feeding regime for S. intermedius fed a formulated feed. To our knowledge, the present study is the first report of finding an effective intermittent feeding regime for land-based cultured sea urchins of relatively large size, and thus has direct application potential in the field of aquaculture.
The objective of this study was to build a database to collect infectious disease information at the scene of a disaster through the use of 128 epidemiological questionnaires and 47 types of options, with rapid acquisition of information regarding infectious disease and rapid questionnaire customization at the scene of disaster relief by use of a personal digital assistant (PDA).
SQL Server 2005 (Microsoft Corp, Redmond, WA) was used to create the option database for the infectious disease investigation, to develop a client application for the PDA, and to deploy the application on the server side. The users accessed the server for data collection and questionnaire customization with the PDA.
A database with a set of comprehensive options was created and an application system was developed for the Android operating system (Google Inc, Mountain View, CA). On this basis, an infectious disease information collection system was built for use at the scene of disaster relief. The creation of an infectious disease information collection system and rapid questionnaire customization through the use of a PDA was achieved.
This system integrated computer technology and mobile communication technology to develop an infectious disease information collection system and to allow for rapid questionnaire customization at the scene of disaster relief. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:668–673)
To determine dynamic changes in clinical characteristics by examining an outbreak of adenovirus infection that occurred from December 20, 2012, to February 25, 2013, in Tianjin, China.
Active surveillance for febrile respiratory illnesses was conducted, and medical records of patients were collected. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used for pathogen identification and viral genome study, respectively. Student’s t-test was used to compare the mean values of normally distributed continuous variables. Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used if continuous variables were not normally distributed. Pearson’s chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test was used to compare categorical variables.
The outbreak was sourced from the index case diagnosed as the common cold on December 20, 2012; a total of 856 cases were reported in the following 66 days. The pathogen was identified as human adenovirus (HAdV) 55. The symptoms manifested differently in severe and mild cases. Routine blood examinations, liver function indexes, and heart function indexes showed different dynamic patterns over time in hospitalized patients.
Clinical characteristics and laboratory examinations may reveal unique patterns over the course of HAdV-55 infection. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:464–469)
There is growing concern in West Africa about the spread of the Ebola hemorrhagic fever virus. With the increasing global public health risk, a coordinated international response is necessary. The Chinese government is prepared to work in collaboration with West African countries to assist in the containment and control of the epidemic through the contribution of medical expertise and mobile laboratory testing teams. Nationally, China is implementing prevention programs in major cities and provinces, the distribution of Ebola test kits, and the deployment of a new national Ebola research laboratory. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;0:1-2)
The unique properties of silicon oxide materials, no matter intrinsic or doped, utilized in thin film solar cells (TFSCs) in the area of photovoltaic (PV) are making TFSCs one of the most attractive photovoltaic technologies for the development of high-performing electricity production units to be integrated in everyday life. In comparison to other silicon materials, the particular diphasic structure of silicon oxide materials, in which hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) crystallites are surrounded by an oxygen-rich hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) phase, causes them present excellent photoelectrical material properties, such as a low-parasitic absorption in the broadband spectral range, independent controllability of longitudinal and lateral conductivity, refractive indices (3.5-2.0), band gap (2.0-2.6 eV) and conductivity tenability (with orders of 1-10-9 S/cm) with oxygen doping, and so on. Various types of silicon oxide materials, including intrinsic, p- or n- type, further applied in TFSCs have also played significant roles in improving the efficiency of various types of single-, dual-, and triple-junction thin-film solar cells from both the optical and electrical points of view. In this paper, we present our latest progress in studying the performance improvement role of intrinsic or doped silicon oxide materials in pin-type a-Si:H, a-SiGe:H, and μc-Si:H single-junction solar cells. By effectively tuning the band gap values of intrinsic a-SiOx:H materials with oxygen doping and adopting the layers with a suitable band gap (1.86 eV) as the P/I buffer layers of a-Si:H solar cells fabricated on metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) boron-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) substrates, a significant Voc increases up to 909 mV and an excellent external quantum efficiency (EQE) response of 75% at the 400 nm typical wavelength can be achieved by matching the band gap discontinuity between the p-type nc-SiOx:H window and a-Si:H intrinsic layers. The serious leakage current characteristics of pin-type narrow-gap (Eg<1.5 eV) a-SiGe:H single-junction solar cells can also be finely tuned by integrating an n-type μc-SiOx:H layer with a small oxygen content in addition to improving the long-wavelength response, an effective approach gives rise to the highest FF of 70.62% for pin-type a-SiGe:H single-junction solar cells with an average band gap of 1.48 eV. In addition, our studies proved that the application of p-type μc-SiOx:H window layers in μc-Si:H single-junction solar cells can effectively improve the short-wavelength light coupling by suppressing the parasitic absorption and promoting the anti-reflectivity with a graded refractive index profile. On the basis of the optimum single-junction solar cells with omnipotent silicon oxide materials, an initial efficiency of 16.07% has been achieved for pin-type a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/μc-Si:H triple-junction solar cells with an active area of 0.25 cm2. The omnipotent properties of silicon oxide layers in TFSCs, including effective optical coupling and trapping, suitability in compensating for the band gap discontinuity, the shunt-quenching capacity, and so on, make them likely to be extended to other types of solar cells such as polycrystalline chalcopyrite Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and perovskite-sensitized solar cells, opening up new opportunities for acquiring solar cells with higher performance.
Considerable controversy exists regarding the associations of dietary patterns with the risk of all-cause, CVD and stroke mortality. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted to elucidate the potential associations between dietary patterns and the risk of all-cause, CVD and stroke mortality. The PubMed database was searched for prospective cohort studies on the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of all-cause, CVD and stroke mortality published until February 2014. Random-effects models were used to calculate the summary relative risk estimates (SRRE) based on the highest v. the lowest category of dietary pattern scores. Stratified analyses were conducted based on sex, geographical region, follow-up duration, and adjustment/non-adjustment for energy intake. A total of thirteen prospective cohort studies involving 338 787 participants were included in the meta-analysis. There was evidence of inverse associations between the prudent/healthy dietary pattern and the risk of all-cause (SRRE = 0·76, 95 % CI 0·68, 0·86) and CVD (SRRE = 0·81, 95 % CI 0·75, 0·87) mortality and an absence of association between this dietary pattern and stroke mortality (SRRE = 0·89, 95 % CI 0·77, 1·02). However, no significant associations were observed between the Western/unhealthy dietary pattern and the risk of all-cause (SRRE = 1·07, 95 % CI 0·96, 1·20), CVD (SRRE = 0·99, 95 % CI 0·91, 1·08) and stroke (SRRE = 0·94, 95 % CI 0·81, 1·10) mortality. In conclusion, the findings provide evidence that greater adherence to a prudent/healthy dietary pattern is associated with a lower risk of all-cause and CVD mortality and not significantly associated with stroke mortality and that the Western/unhealthy dietary pattern is not associated with all-cause, CVD and stroke mortality. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.
Polycrystalline Ba8Ga16MgxGe30−x compounds were synthesized by combining solid-state reaction with spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. The structural and electronic properties of Mg-substituted Ge type-I clathrate phase Ba8Ga16MgxGe30−x (x = 1, 2, 3, 4) were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Theoretically structural and electronic properties of Ba8Ga16MgxGe30−x were calculated by first-principles method based on the density-functional theory. The results indicate a strong preference for the occupation of the 6c sites by Mg. It is found that Mg substitution for Ge can lower the melting points and bulk modulus of this system. The formation energies and the binding energies decrease with increasing Mg content, suggesting that the Mg-doped Ba8Ga16Ge30 clathrates are stable in a limited range of composition. The calculated results show that these alloys are all indirect gap semiconductors and the values of band gap increase with the increase of Mg content. All specimens exhibit the behavior of the p-type conduction, which is originated from the presence of a shallow acceptor energy level. The electrical conductivity and the room-temperature carrier mobility decrease with increasing Mg content, while the room-temperature carrier concentration increases with increasing Mg content.
Efforts aiming at identifying biomarkers and corresponding methods for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) might be the most appropriate strategy to initiate promising new treatments and/or prevention of AD
The aim of our study is to assess the association of DNA methylation pattern of various leucocyte genes with AD pathogenesis in order to find potential biomarkers and corresponding methods for molecular diagnosis of AD.
DNA methylation level of various genes in AD patients and normal population were compared by bisulphite sequencing PCR and methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Furthermore, real-time PCR was used to explore the effects of DNA methylation on the expression of target genes.
Results showed significant hypermethylation of mammalian orthologue of Sir2 (SIRT1) gene in AD patients compared with normal population. Meanwhile, changes in methylation level of SIRT1 gene between different severities of AD were also found. Specific primers were designed from the SIRT1 CpG islands to differentiate AD and control group by MSP method. Besides, significant demethylation of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene was observed in AD patients, whereas no difference was observed in other AD-related genes. Moreover, significant decrease in expression of SIRT1 gene and increase in expression of APP gene were also found in AD patients. In addition, the expression level of SIRT1/APP genes was associated with the severity, but not with the age or gender, of AD patients.
Conclusion:SIRT1 and APP might be the interesting candidate biomarkers and valuable for clinical diagnosis or treatment of AD.
The water-soluble B vitamins, folate and folic acid, play an important role in reproductive health, but little is known about the effects of folic acid on infertility. The present study tested the hypothesis that folic acid affects oocyte maturation, a possible cause of female infertility. We have studied the in vitro maturation of mouse and Xenopus oocytes. Hypoxanthine (Hx) was used as an inhibitor of mouse oocyte maturation to mimic in vivo conditions by maintaining high levels of cyclic-AMP. The frequency of first polar body (PB1) formation and germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) in mouse oocytes was decreased by Hx. This effect was counteracted by folic acid added to the medium. PB1 extrusion and GVBD percentages rose to 27·7 and 40·0 % from 12·8 and 19·9 %, respectively, by exposure to 500 μm-folic acid. Folic acid also restored the spindle configuration, which had been elongated by Hx, as well as normalising the distribution of cortical granules (CG). In folic acid-treated Xenopus eggs, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 was phosphorylated, cyclin B2 and Mos were up-regulated and the frequency of GVBD was accelerated. Taken together, the findings suggest that folic acid facilitates oocyte maturation by altering the expression and phosphorylation of proteins involved in M-phase-promoting factor and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, as well as causing changes in spindle configuration and CG migration.
Solving elasticity equations with interfaces is a challenging problem for most existing methods. Nonetheless, it has wide applications in engineering and science. An accurate and efficient method is desired. In this paper, an efficient non-traditional finite element method with non-body-fitting grids is proposed to solve elasticity equations with interfaces. The main idea is to choose the test function basis to be the standard finite element basis independent of the interface and to choose the solution basis to be piecewise linear satisfying the jump conditions across the interface. The resulting linear system of equations is shown to be positive definite under certain assumptions. Numerical experiments show that this method is second order accurate in the L∞ norm for piecewise smooth solutions. More than 1.5th order accuracy is observed for solution with singularity (second derivative blows up) on the sharp-edged interface corner.