The laminar structure and cellular distribution of cytochrome-oxidase (CO) reactivity in supragranular puffs of striate cortex was examined in adult macaque monkeys surviving various periods of monocular enucleation, lid suture, and retinal impulse blockage with tetrodotoxin (TTX). Enucleation and TTX produced a rapid and severe loss in the size of the CO reactive region in puffs dominated by the removed or treated eye compared to slower and less marked reductions obtained in deprived puffs of lid-sutured monkeys. In all deprived animals, the cross-sectional areas of deprived puffs decreased most rapidly in the upper layers (2 and 3A). In long-term enucleated (60 wks) and TTX-treated (4 wks) monkeys, puff area was severely reduced in layer 3B, while reactivity in layer 3B appeared partially spared in lid-sutured monkeys. The density of the CO reaction product was significantly and evenly reduced throughout deprived puffs for all of the monkeys examined; however, this decrease was less severe in adult monkeys lid-sutured for 11 wks. Although no evidence for cell loss was obtained, all three forms of visual deprivation led to lower counts of neuronal perikarya with high levels of CO reaction product in both deprived puff and interpuff areas. This effect was less marked in the deprived puffs of monkeys lid-sutured for 2.5 and 3 yrs, suggesting recovery of CO activity in some neurons. Neurons in deprived puffs and interpuffs were generally similar in size to those in nondeprived regions, although CO-reactive cells were significantly smaller in the deprived puffs of monkeys enucleated for 28.5 or 60 wks. These results indicate that the metabolic response of neuronal elements in supragranular striate cortex depends upon the nature of the visual deficit. The partial sparing of CO reactivity in deprived puffs of lid-sutured monkeys may reflect the continued transmission of certain types of visual stimuli through a closed eyelid.