To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Vertebrates, including mammals, are considered to have evolved by whole genome duplications. Although some fish have been reported to be polyploids that have undergone additional genome duplication, there have been no reports of polyploid mammals due to abnormal development after implantation. Furthermore, as the number of physiologically existing tetraploid somatic cells is small, details of the functions of these ploidy-altered cells are not fully understood. In this present study, we aimed to clarify the details of the differentiation potency of tetraploids using tetraploid embryonic stem cells. To clarify the differentiation potency, we used mouse tetraploid embryonic stem cells derived from tetraploid embryos. We presented tetraploid embryonic stem cells differentiated into neural and osteocyte lineage in vitro and tetraploid cells that contributed to various tissues of chimeric embryos ubiquitously in vivo. These results revealed that mouse embryonic stem cells maintain differentiation potency after altering the ploidy. Our results provide an important basis for the differentiation dynamics of germ layers in mammalian polyploid embryogenesis.
Variations in fossil diatom assemblages and their relationship with global and Indian monsoon climate changes for the last 600,000 yr were investigated using a core of ancient lake (Paleo-Kathmandu Lake) sediments drilled at the Kathmandu Basin, Nepal Himalaya. Chronological scales of the core were constructed by tuning pollen wet and dry index records to the SPECMAP δ18O stack record. Examinations of biogenic silica contents and fossil diatom assemblages revealed that variations in productivity and compositions of diatom assemblages were closely linked with global and Indian monsoon climate changes on glacial and interglacial time scales. When summer monsoonal rainfall increased during interglacials (interstadials), diatom productivity increased because of increased inputs of terrestrial nutrients into the lake. When summer monsoonal rainfall reduced and/or winter monsoonal aridification enhanced during glacials (stadials), productivity of the diatoms decreased and lake-level falling brought about changes in compositions of diatom assemblages. Monospecific assemblages by unique Cyclotella kathmanduensis and Puncticulata versiformis appeared during about 590 to 390 ka. This might be attributed to evolutionary fine-tuning of diatom assemblages to specific lake environmental conditions. Additionally, low-amplitude precessional variations in monsoon climate and less lake-level changes may have also allowed both species to dominate over the long periods.
The present study examined in vitro development and the cytological status of non-enucleated rat oocytes after microinjection of cumulus nuclei and chemical activation. Oocyte–cumulus complexes were collected from gonadotropin-treated prepubertal female Wistar rats 14 h after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection. Cumulus nuclei were injected into ovulated oocytes and then stimulated in the presence of 5 mM SrCl2 for 20 min at various time points (0–3.5 h) after injection. Some of the reconstituted eggs were cultured to observe the pronuclear formation, cleavage, and blastocyst formation. The incidences of eggs forming at least one pronucleus or containing two pronuclei were not significantly different among the periods (82.4–83.5% and 43.4–51.9%, respectively). Nor did the incidences of eggs cleaving (86.7–97.7%) and developing to the blastocyst stage (0–3.5%) differ depending on when, after injection, stimulation began. When some of the reconstituted eggs were observed for cytological morphology 1–1.5 h after injection, 71.7% of the eggs caused premature chromatin condensation, but only 46.2% of them formed two spindles around each of maternal and somatic chromatins. However, the morphology of the somatic spindles differed from that of the spindles, which formed around the oocyte chromatins. Only 7.5% of the eggs contained the normal chromosomal number. In many reconstituted oocytes, before activation, an abnormal spindle formation was observed in the somatic chromatins. In conclusion, these results show that non-enucleated rat oocytes injected with cumulus nuclei can form pronuclei and cleave following chemical activation, whereas blastocyst formation is very limited, probably caused by abnormalities in the spindle formation and distribution of somatic chromatids.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.