Field experiments were conducted to compare performance of glyphosate with three different boom arrangements in a winter wheat-fallow rotation near North Platte, NE, in 1994 and 1995. One boom was optically controlled, and the other boom was for broadcast herbicide applications. Spraying with both booms at the same time was called “dual boom.” The sprayers were tested during May, June, and July on two weed density levels established by applying glyphosate at 0.42 kg ae/ha with and without atrazine at 0.84 kg ai/ha in October following wheat harvest. The dual-boom and the broadcast herbicide applications were more efficient in controlling weeds than the optically controlled system. The dual boom reduced weed density 4.5-fold compared with the optically controlled sprayer used alone. Horseweed < 8 cm tall was more difficult to control with the optically controlled sprayer than redroot pigweed and kochia because of its cylindrical-shaped growth patterns. Barnyardgrass and green foxtail seedlings with an erect growth pattern were also difficult for the sensors to detect. Poorer control with the optically controlled sprayer was associated with failure to identify small weeds, chlorotic plants, inconsistency among sensors, and too wide a field of view (FOV), as sensors were spaced farther apart than presently recommended. The number of sensors on a boom needs to be increased to improve the performance of the optically controlled sprayer.