Paraquat, cultivation, or cultivation plus oat interseeding (56 or 84 kg/ha) into established alfalfa were evaluated for their effect on weeds, forage yield, and forage composition at Santa Ynez, Lancaster, and Stockton, CA. Treatments were applied during the winter to dormant alfalfa and evaluated in the subsequent harvest season. Paraquat reduced first harvest total forage yields 20 to 33% compared to untreated alfalfa, whereas oat interseeding increased total forage yields 16 to 36%. Cultivation reduced total forage yield in the first cutting by 26% at Lancaster but did not affect forage yield at the other sites. Total or component forage yields were not affected by any treatment in the second and subsequent harvests, with the exception of weeds. Paraquat reduced weed biomass in the first harvest by 45 and 49% at Lancaster and Stockton. Oat interseeding reduced first harvest weed biomass by 80% at Lancaster but did not affect weed biomass at Stockton or Santa Ynez. Oat interseeding or paraquat treatment reduced weed biomass in the second harvest at Stockton, but did not affect weeds in any other harvest at any of the sites. Oat interseeding was comparable to paraquat treatment for weed control, with the advantage of also increasing first harvest forage yield.