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Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability and polygenic inheritance. Multimodal neuroimaging studies have also indicated that abnormalities of brain structure and function are a plausible neurobiological characterisation of schizophrenia. However, the polygenic effects of schizophrenia on these imaging endophenotypes have not yet been fully elucidated.
To investigate the effects of polygenic risk for schizophrenia on the brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity, which are disrupted in schizophrenia.
Genomic and neuroimaging data from a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia (N = 509) and healthy controls (N = 502) were included in this study. We examined grey matter volume and functional connectivity via structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Using the data from a recent meta-analysis of a genome-wide association study that comprised a large number of Chinese people, we calculated a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each participant.
The imaging genetic analysis revealed that the individual PGRS showed a significantly negative correlation with the hippocampal grey matter volume and hippocampus–medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity, both of which were lower in the people with schizophrenia than in the controls. We also found that the observed neuroimaging measures showed weak but similar changes in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.
These findings suggested that genetically influenced brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity may provide important clues for understanding the pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia and for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia.
A series of CoCrFeNiMox (x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2) high-entropy alloys were designed to develop a eutectic high-entropy alloy system and to acquire a superfine eutectic structure. The results show that for the CoCrFeNiMox alloys, with the increase of Mo content from 0.2 to 1.2, the microstructures shift from a typical dendrite structure to a hypoeutectic microstructure (x = 0.6), and then to a fully eutectic microstructure (x = 0.8) with a lamellar spacing only 110 nm, and finally culminate in the hypereutectic structure (x = 1.0, x = 1.2). The XRD results show that CoCrFeNiMox alloys have a single FCC phase when x is 0.2 or 0.4. When Mo content is over 0.6, it begins to separate Cr9Mo21Ni20 intermetallic compounds. The hardness of the CoCrFeNiMox alloys is increasing significantly from 172.8 to 763.7 HV with the increase of Mo content. Meanwhile, the fracture strength increased but the ductility decreases. Among these alloys, the CoCrFeNiMo0.6 alloy shows excellent integrated mechanical properties of compressive fracture strength and strain, which are 2051 Mpa and 23%, respectively.
Disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to a patient is controversial. There is significant stigma associated with a diagnosis of AD or dementia in China, but the attitude of the society toward disclosure of such a diagnosis had not been formally evaluated prior to our study. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the attitude toward disclosing an AD diagnosis to patients in China with cognitive impairment from their caregivers, and the factors that may affect their attitude.
We designed a 17-item questionnaire and administered this questionnaire to caregivers, who accompanied patients with cognitive impairment or dementia in three major hospitals in Shanghai, China. The caregiver's attitude toward disclosing the diagnosis of AD as evaluated by the questionnaire was compared to that of disclosing the diagnosis of terminal cancer.
A majority (95.7%) of the 175 interviewed participants (mean 14.2 years of education received) wished to know their own diagnosis if they were diagnosed with AD, and 97.6% preferred the doctor to tell their family members if they were diagnosed with AD. If a family member of the participants suffered from AD, 82.9% preferred to have the diagnosis disclosed to the patient. “Cognitive impairment” was the most accepted term by caregivers to disclose AD diagnosis in Chinese.
This study suggests most of the well-educated individuals in a Chinese urban area favored disclosing the diagnosis when they or their family members were diagnosed with AD.
In this paper, the recent studies of laboratory astrophysics with strong magnetic fields in China have been reviewed. On the Shenguang-II laser facility of the National Laboratory on High-Power Lasers and Physics, a laser-driven strong magnetic field up to 200 T has been achieved. The experiment was performed to model the interaction of solar wind with dayside magnetosphere. Also the low beta plasma magnetic reconnection (MR) has been studied. Theoretically, the model has been developed to deal with the atomic structures and processes in strong magnetic field. Also the study of shock wave generation in the magnetized counter-streaming plasmas is introduced.
We aimed to examine the contribution of blood lipids to the association between BMI and blood pressure (BP) in children with overweight and obesity. Data were collected in elementary and high schools of Chaoyang District, Beijing, China in 2012. Participants’ weight, height, BP and fasting plasma lipid profile were measured by standard protocols. Mediation analysis was used to examine the mediation role of blood lipids on the relation between BMI and BP, with age included as a covariate. We found that in boys 8·29 % (mediation effect=0·106, P=0·012) of the association between BMI and systolic BP was mediated through TAG. TAG mediated 12·53 % (mediation effect=0·093, P=0·018) and LDL-cholesterol mediated 7·75 % (mediation effect=0·57, P=0·046) of the association between BMI and diastolic BP was mediated by TAG and LDL-cholesterol, respectively. However, blood lipids did not show the mediation effect in girls. Our findings suggested that there was a sex difference in the contribution of blood lipids to the association between BMI and BP. Controlling TAG or LDL-cholesterol may be beneficial for reducing the risk of the BMI-related high BP in overweight boys; however, this outcome is not the case when controlling TAG or LDL-cholesterol in girls. This study may provide clues to explore the underlying mechanism of the association between obesity and hypertension.
To assess correlations between cruciferous vegetable intake and urinary isothiocyanate (ITC) level, in addition to glutathione S-transferase (GST) genotypes and other individual factors.
The study included cohort participants whose urinary ITC levels had been previously ascertained. Urinary ITC was assessed using HPLC. Usual dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables was assessed using a validated FFQ and total dietary ITC intake was calculated. Recent cruciferous vegetable intake was determined. GST genotypes were assessed using duplex real-time quantitative PCR assays. Spearman correlations were calculated between the covariates and urinary ITC levels and linear regression analyses were used to calculate the mean urinary ITC excretion according to GST genotype.
Urban city in China.
The study included 3589 women and 1015 men from the Shanghai Women’s and Men’s Health Studies.
Median urinary ITC level was 1·61 nmol/mg creatinine. Self-reported usual cruciferous vegetable intake was weakly correlated with urinary ITC level (rs=0·1149; P<0·0001), while self-reported recent intake was more strongly correlated with urinary ITC (rs=0·2591; P<0·0001). Overall, the GST genotypes were not associated with urinary ITC level, but significant differences according to genotype were observed among current smokers and participants who provided an afternoon urine sample. Other factors, including previous gastrectomy or gastritis, were also related to urinary ITC level.
The study suggests that urinary secretion of ITC may provide additional information on cruciferous vegetable intake and that GST genotypes are related to urinary ITC level only in some subgroups.
Early identification of patients with bipolar disorder during their first depressive episode is beneficial to the outcome of the disorder and treatment, but traditionally this has been a great challenge to clinicians. Recently, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (MDD), but it is not clear whether BDNF levels can be used to predict bipolar disorder among patients in their first major depressive episode.
To explore whether BDNF levels can differentiate between MDD and bipolar disorder in the first depressive episode.
A total of 203 patients with a first major depressive episode as well as 167 healthy controls were recruited. After 3 years of bi-annual follow-up, 164 patients with a major depressive episode completed the study, and of these, 21 were identified as having bipolar disorder and 143 patients were diagnosed as having MDD. BDNF gene expression and plasma levels at baseline were compared among the bipolar disorder, MDD and healthy control groups. Logistic regression and decision tree methods were applied to determine the best model for predicting bipolar disorder at the first depressive episode.
At baseline, patients in the bipolar disorder and MDD groups showed lower BDNF mRNA levels (P<0.001 and P = 0.02 respectively) and plasma levels (P = 0.002 and P = 0.01 respectively) compared with healthy controls. Similarly, BDNF levels in the bipolar disorder group were lower than those in the MDD group. These results showed that the best model for predicting bipolar disorder during a first depressive episode was a combination of BDNF mRNA levels with plasma BDNF levels (receiver operating characteristics (ROC) = 0.80, logistic regression; ROC = 0.84, decision tree).
Our findings suggest that BDNF levels may serve as a potential differential diagnostic biomarker for bipolar disorder in a patient's first depressive episode.
A joint diagnostic system was established for the diagnosis of laser-driven shock wave experiments. The system has high temporal resolution (time resolution ~12 ps) and high spatial resolution (spatial resolution ~7 μm) and fits for diagnostics of the experiment with small sample size and short time physical process. The joint diagnostic system was applied for shock wave measurement on the Shenguang-II laser facility. The passive shock breakout signal and active diagnostic signal were simultaneously obtained. The temporal measurement reliability of the system was verified using a multi-layered target. The experimental results show that the two measurement results were consistent.
The preference of fertilized (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) presumptive zygotes for different media when cultured in vitro to the blastocyst stage was evaluated in this study. The experiment comprised two zygote production methods (IVF and SCNT) × two culture media (mSOF and G1.5/G2.5) factorial design in which culture droplets that contained approximate 30 presumptive zygotes formed the experimental plots for the assessment of cleavage and blastocyst development. There were 15 to 20 replicates (culture droplets) per treatment combination. Sub-samples 30 to 41 of the blastocysts produced were assessed for cell number and cell apoptosis. A further 10 blastocysts per treatment combination were used for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to evaluate the relative abundance of Hsp70 and Bax mRNA. Presumptive zygotes produced by IVF were developmentally more competent than SCNT zygotes in terms of cleavage rate (66.9 vs. 57.0%; P < 0.05) and blastocyst development rates (blastocysts of presumptive zygotes 29.7 vs. 24.8%; blastocysts of cleaved zygotes 44.4 vs. 36.6%; P < 0.05). Over both zygote production systems, however, the results were similar whether culture was in mSOF or in G1.5/G2.5 media for cleavage rate (63.2 vs. 62.4%; P > 0.05) and blastocyst development rate (blastocysts of presumptive zygotes 26.4 vs. 25.7%; P > 0.05; blastocysts of cleaved zygotes 41.8 vs. 41.2%; P > 0.05). There was, however, a significant interaction between the method of zygote production and culture medium for the apoptotic index of blastocysts. The interaction was such that IVF-produced zygotes cultured in mSOF had a lower apoptotic index compared with those cultured in G1.5/G2.5 (4.7 ± 1.2% vs. 9.8 ± 0.9%; P < 0.05) whereas SCNT zygotes had a higher apoptotic index when cultured in mSOF compared with those cultured in G1.5/G2.5 (11.9 ± 1.5% vs. 4.5 ± 1.2%; P < 0.05). Moreover, RT-PCR analysis showed that embryos from IVF-produced zygotes cultured in mSOF had a lower expression level of stress-related and apoptosis genes (Hsp70 and Bax) than those cells cultured in G1.5/G2.5 medium, while SCNT-derived embryos cultured in mSOF had a higher expression level of these genes than those embryos cultured in G1.5/G2.5 medium. The results of this study show that bovine IVF- and SCNT-produced presumptive zygotes have different nutrient requirements for in vitro culture to the blastocyst stage of development. IVF-derived zygotes have a preference for mSOF as the culture medium whereas the G1.5/G2.5 medium is more suitable for the culture of bovine SCNT-derived zygotes.
Chemical action between cyclodextrins (CDs) and TOPO-(CdSe)ZnS quantum dots (QDs) generates a water-soluble solution of CD-QDs. Hydrophobic TOPO molecules on surface of the QDs are compatible to thread through the pockets of CDs and make the hydroxyl group on end of CDs to approach the ZnS surface, and then cause the interaction between ZnS and the hydroxyls. In this paper, Photoluminescence of the γ-CD-QD solution appeared about 15 nm of red movement compared with that of the QDs in hexane; 58% replacement of the crystal coordinate bond of Zn-S with that of Zn-O in the ZnS shell was demonstrated by using first-principles density functional theory and the red shift of the photoluminescence of CD-QDs; and –0.11eV of the energy gain of the exchange model was calculated by using an effective mass (EM) model. CD-QDs will provide water-soluble QDs with conjugational group for biology and molecule-device applications.
We investigate aromatic polyureas which can be fabricated in the form of thin films through CVD. It was found that the polymer possesses a flat dielectric response (k∼ 4.2 and loss <1%)) to more than 200°C. The frequency-independent dielectric properties in the investigated frequency range(1kHz∼1MHz), low conductance, low dissipation factor (∼0.005), high breakdown strength (>800MV/m), high energy density (>12J/cm3) and high efficiency suggest this polymer can be a good candidate material for high temperature energy storage capacitors. Breakdown strength was analyzed with Weibull model over a broad temperature range (25°C ∼180°C). Experimental results indicate that aromatic polyurea is more like a nonpolar linear dielectric material because of its highly cross-linked structures. The experiment results further show that this polymer maintains its high performance even at high temperatures.
The effects of specific components in culture medium on embryo physiology have been extensively investigated to optimize in vitro culture systems; however, little attention has been paid to antibiotics, the reagents used most commonly in culture systems to prevent contamination. To investigate the potential effects of routine use of antibiotics on cultured embryos, mouse zygotes were cultured with or without antibiotics. In both groups, the developmental rate and cell number of blastocysts appear to be normal. The proportion of embryos with blastomere fragmentation increased slightly when embryos were cultured with antibiotics. In contrast, the presence of antibiotics in the embryo culture system significantly disturbs expression of zygotically activated genes, damages chromatin integrity and increases apoptosis of cultured embryos. These results provide evidence that, when cultured with antibiotics, embryos with normal appearance may possess intrinsic physiological and genetic abnormalities. We demonstrate that the adverse effects of antibiotics on mammalian embryos are more severe than we previously presumed and that antibiotics are not essential for sterility of embryo culture system therefore abolishing antibiotic supplementation during embryo culture.
In exploring an effective and reliable karyotyping method in Brassica crop plants, Brassica oleracea was successfully karyotyped using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). B. oleracea genomic DNA was labelled as probe using DIG-high prime mix kit, with B. rapa genomic DNA acting as blocking agent. Specific fluorescent signals were detected on each pair of homologous chromosomes, and nine pairs of chromosomes of B. oleracea were clearly identified according to the signal characteristics. A practical and accurate method for conducting karyotyping of small chromosomes has been demonstrated.
To improve the developmental potential of somatic cell cloned embryos derived from demecolcine (DC) induced-enucleated nuclear transfer (INT), we modified the INT procedures by transferring donor nuclei into recipient cytoplasts prior to the induced enucleation of the recipient cytoplasts, and we called this modified INT technique as reverse-order and induced-enucleated nuclear transfer (RINT). Standard nuclear transfer (SNT) and INT were performed as controls. The dynamic changes of maternal and transferred donor nuclei in the RINT oocytes were monitored to evaluate the feasibility of this new nuclear transfer (NT) technique by timed immunofluorescence. Timed immunofluorescence showed that RINT is feasible because none of the transferred donor nuclei were expelled with the second polar body (Pb) in the RINT oocytes, while 42.2% of the oocytes showed extrusion of all maternal chromosome and spindles with the second Pb at 60 min after activation and DC treatment. Although there was no difference in cleavage rate (86.6% vs. 82.1%), the rates of successful enucleation and blastocyst formation were significantly increased in RINT compared with INT (44.1% vs. 27.5% and 43.3% vs. 12.8%, respectively; p < 0.01). Compared with SNT, there was no difference in cleavage rate (86.6% vs. 78.4%), but the blastocyst developmental rate was significantly increased in the RINT group (43.3% vs. 25.3%; p < 0.01). Blastocysts derived from RINT had a higher total cell number than those from SNT (45.1 ± 3 vs. 37.6 ± 4; p < 0.05). Our results provide evidence that RINT is feasible and may provide a more efficient and simple method for NT than INT.
Bacillus cereus can produce α-amylase, which has important industrial production value and can endure high temperatures. The enzymatic characteristics of two α-amylases from B. cereus (B905 and B904) were studied. The results showed that both preserved their activity at 90–100°C. Their thermal stability and enzymatic activity did not depend on Ca2+. However, their protein molecular weights were obviously different. The structural genes of amy905 and amy904 were cloned successfully using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and expressed in Escherichia coli. The amy904 and amy905 genes were 1362 bp and 1761 bp long and their protein molecular weights were about 55 kDa and 68 kDa, respectively.
Bacillus thuringiensis strain WZ-9, isolated from soil in Hebei province, China, was effective against Henosepilachna vigintioctomaculata larvae. The strain presented bipyramidal crystals with a protein band of 130 kDa in SDS–PAGE. The pH changes of the culture media showed important fluctuations during the 24 h growth cycle. The pH varied less in log and stationary phases than it did in the exponential phase. Bioassay results showed that the WZ-9 strain was only harmful to larvae of H. vigintioctomaculata and not to either adults of H. vigintioctomaculata or other several lepidopteran and coleopteran insects. LC50 to second-instar larvae of H. vigintioctomaculata was 2.95×107 cells/ml after 72 h. Genotypic investigations showed that this strain possessed the cry7 gene. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the encoding gene contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 3414 bp and encoded 1138 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence was 99.65% identical to that of the reported Cry7Ab2 sequences. This gene was designated by the Bt δ-endotoxin nomenclature committee as Cry7Ab3 with accession number BI 1015188 in the GenBank database.
Accumulated evidence suggests that social support is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. However, there are little data that examine this issue from Asian samples. We reported results from a preliminary study that examined familial effects on social support in a Chinese adult twin sample. We administered a 10-item social support instrument that measures three dimensions of social support (i.e., objective support, subjective support, and utilization of support) developed for the Chinese population. Two hundred forty-two same-sex twin pairs, where both members of the pair completed the personal interview, were included in the final analysis. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate additive genetic (A), shared environmental (C), and nonshared environmental (E) effects on each dimension of social support. Familial factors (A+C) explained 56.63% [95% CI = 45.48–65.72%] and 42.42% [95% CI = 29.93–53.25%] of the total phenotypic variances of subjective support and utilization of support, respectively. For the objective support, genetic effects did not exist, but common environmental effect explained 37.56% [95% CI = 26.17–48.28%] of the total phenotypic variances. Neither gender nor age effects were seen on any dimension of social support. Except for objective support, genetic factors probably influence variation in subjective support and utilization of support. Shared environmental factors may influence all dimensions of social support.
This paper is concerned with multi-dimensional non-isentropic Euler–Poisson equations for plasmas or semiconductors. By using the method of formal asymptotic expansions, we analyse the quasi-neutral limit for Cauchy problems with prepared initial data. It is shown that the small-parameter problems have unique solutions existing in the finite time interval where the corresponding limit problems have smooth solutions. Moreover, the formal limit is justified.
In vitro development of goat embryos obtained by fertilizing oocytes using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was investigated. The results showed that the blastocyst rate was significantly higher (P<0.05) when the embryos were co-cultured with granular cells (GCs) in media CR1aa supplemented with 10% bovine follicular fluid (BFF) (22.2%) than with 5% (13.1%) and 15% BFF (2.7%). When embryos were co-cultured with GCs in SOFaa media, the highest blastocyst rate was obtained from supplementation with 10% BFF (25.1%), which was significantly different from 5% (12.9%) and 15% BFF (3.0%) groups. When 10% BFF and fetus bovine serum (FBS) were added into CR1aa or SOFaa media, the goat ICSI blastocyst rates were 22.6 and 26.9% or 5.8 and 6.1% respectively. These results suggest that both CR1aa and SOFaa could be used as culture media for goat ICSI embryos, 10% BFF could significantly increase the blastocyst rate and BFF was more efficient than FBS for the early in vitro development of goat ICSI embryos.
The bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB (BMPR-IB) gene, which controls the fecundity of Booroola Merino ewes, was studied as a candidate gene for the prolificacy of Small Tail Han and Hu ewes. A single nucleotide polymorphism of the BMPR-IB gene was detected in both high (Small Tail Han and Hu) and low (Suffolk and Dorset) fecundity sheep breeds by polymerase chain reaction–single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis. The results indicated the presence of the same mutation (A746G) of the BMPR-IB gene in both Small Tail Han and Hu ewes and in Booroola Merino ewes, but not in both Suffolk and Dorset ewes. In Small Tail Han ewes, frequencies of BB, B+ and ++ genotypes were 0.524, 0.383 and 0.093, respectively. In Hu ewes, these frequencies were 0.882, 0.118 and 0.000. The BMPR-IB genotype distributions were significantly different (P<0.001) among high- and low-fecundity sheep breeds. Small Tail Han ewes with genotype BB had 0.92 (P<0.01) and 1.02 (P<0.01) lambs more than those with genotype ++ in the first and second parity, respectively. These results demonstrated that the BMPR-IB gene is a major gene affecting the prolificacy in both Small Tail Han and Hu ewes, and could be used as a molecular genetic marker to select the litter size in sheep.