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The present study explores whether embodied meaning is activated in comprehension of action-related Mandarin counterfactual sentences. Participants listened to action-related Mandarin factual or counterfactual sentences describing transfer events (actions towards or away from the participant), and then performed verb-compatible or -incompatible motor action after a transfer verb (action towards or away from the participant) onset. The results demonstrated that motor simulation, specifically the interfering action-sentence compatibility effect (ACE), was obtained in both factual and counterfactual sentences. Additionally, the temporal course of motor resonance was slightly different between factual and counterfactual sentences. We concluded that embodied meaning was activated in action-related Chinese counterfactual sentences. The results supported a neural network model of Chersi, Thill, Ziemke, and Borghi (2010), proposed within the embodiment approach, which explains the interaction between processing action-related sentences and motor performance. Moreover, we speculated that the neural network model of Chersi et al. was also applicable to action-related Mandarin counterfactual comprehension.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychological disorder, which could be caused by traumatic events. The prevalence of PTSD among survivors after a typhoon or hurricane varied widely. Therefore, this study aimed to determine a combined prevalence of PTSD among survivors after a typhoon or hurricane. A systematic search of literature was performed in the 3 English databases: PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD), ISI Web of Science (Thomson Reuters, New York, NY), and Embase (Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands). Also, a similar search was performed in the 2 Chinese databases such as Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and WanFang. Loney et al.’s criteria were used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles for this study. The combined prevalence of PTSD among the study population was estimated using the Freeman–Tukey double arcsine transformation method. Subgroup analyses and a meta-regression analysis were carried out to explore the origin of heterogeneity. Thirty-nine eligible articles were included in this study. They comprised 43 123 typhoon and hurricane survivors of which 9373 were diagnosed with PTSD. The combined prevalence of PTSD among this population was 17.81%. Subgroup analyses revealed that the combined prevalence of PTSD related to typhoon and hurricane Categories 5, 4, and 2 showing a corresponding decreasing tendency. About 18% of people who experienced a severe typhoon or hurricane develop PTSD with the prevalence decreasing with reduced severity of the typhoon or hurricane.
In this study, a new ultra-wideband (UWB) band-edge selectivity antenna with a modified radiation slot using defected ground structure (DGS) is presented to obtain bandpass filtering reflection coefficient and gain performance. The well-designed DGS is designed on backside metallic of the substrate and can be seen as a low-pass filter that provides a good roll-off at a higher frequency. By connecting the DGS and the stepped slot and making them merge with each other, good cut-off property in the upper passband and better in-band impedance characteristics are obtained. Measured results show that the proposed design not only shows good band-edge selectivity in reflection coefficient and gain performance but also has a good impedance matching of −13.5 dB reflection coefficients and a good radiation efficiency of 90% in the operating frequencies. The measured bandwidth defined with the reflection coefficient less than −10 dB is from 3.1–11.2 GHz. Furthermore, the size of the filtering UWB antenna is 22 mm × 12 mm, which is smaller than many individual UWB antennas and UWB filters.
A compact reconfigurable filtering ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna with switchable band-notched functions is proposed. The basic structure of the proposed design is a filtering slot antenna with good band-edge selectivity using stepped impedance resonator feeding line. The reconfigurability is achieved by using two microstrip lines paralleling to the feeding line and two PIN diodes. The reconfigurable structure and bias circuit of the antenna are relatively simple and are not connected to the radiation structure, so they have little negative influence on the radiation characteristics of the antenna. Total four states could be achieved by using two PIN diodes to short the microstrip lines and ground. To verify the performance of the final design, multiple measured and simulated results in frequency and time domain are studied and analyzed. The measured results agreed very well with simulation. Compared with the traditional UWB antenna, the proposed antenna has advantages in size, filtering function in-band and out-of-band, and tunable states for multiple UWB applications.
Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) is an evidence-based treatment program for people with severe mental illness developed in high-income countries. We report the first randomized controlled trial of ACT in mainland China.
Sixty outpatients with schizophrenia with severe functional impairments or frequent hospitalizations were randomly assigned to ACT (n = 30) or standard community treatment (n = 30). The severity of symptoms and level of social functioning were assessed at baseline and every 3 months during the 1-year study. The primary outcome was the duration of hospital readmission. Secondary outcomes included a pre-post change in symptom severity, the rates of symptom relapse and gainful employment, social and occupational functioning, and quality of life of family caregivers.
Based on a modified intention-to-treat analysis, the outcomes for ACT were significantly better than those of standard community treatment. ACT patients were less likely to be readmitted [3.3% (1/30) v. 25.0% (7/28), Fisher's exact test p = 0.023], had a shorter mean readmission time [2.4 (13.3) v. 30.7 (66.9) days], were less likely to relapse [6.7% (2/30) v. 28.6% (8/28), Fisher's exact test p = 0.038], and had shorter mean time in relapse [3.5 (14.6) v. 34.4 (70.6) days]. The ACT group also had significantly longer times re-employed and greater symptomatic improvement and their caregivers experienced a greater improvement in their quality of life.
Our results show that culturally adapted ACT is both feasible and effective for individuals with severe schizophrenia in urban China. Replication studies with larger samples and longer duration of follow up are warranted.
The Sinoalidae, as one of the three Mesozoic froghopper families, was recently recognized from the latest Middle–earliest Late Jurassic Daohugou Biota of northeastern China. We herein report some new materials from the same horizon and locality, providing some new insights on morphological diversity and evolution of this family. Shufania hani new genus new species indicates that the relative branching position of veins M and CuA of the forewing is highly variable within the Sinoalidae and not appropriate for family-level diagnosis. The venations of three reported sinoalid hind wings are conservative, likely due to its simplified topology and reduced terminal branches. Color patterns of hind wings are likely variable for different sinoalid froghoppers. However, considering that color pattern is easily weakened or even erased by diagenetic processes for imprint fossils, the morphological character is not reliable for distinguishing different sinoalid taxa. Additionally, our new material suggests that the number of lateral spines of the hind tibia can vary intra-individually for sinoalids, just as in some recent froghoppers.
An iterative method to determine the self-consistent orbital solutions of single-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB1s) along with compatible physical properties of component stars via a simultaneous fit including both the Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data (HIAD) and radial velocity data is introduced in this work. For the method, a stellar evolutionary model is used to distribute the total mass and luminosity to the primary and the secondary and update the ratio of the semimajor axes of the photocenter to the primary orbits. Once the Gaia Intermediate Astrometric Data (GIAD) are released, the method can be applied to study the Gaia SB1s and give self-consistent orbital solutions and compatible physical properties of component stars.
The paper provides a review of the subfamily Panchaetothripinae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in China, including descriptions of two new species: Helionothrips rugatus Mirab-balou and Tong new species and Panchaetothrips bifurcus Mirab-balou and Tong new species. Rhipiphorothrips concoloratus Zhang and Tong, originally described in Chinese, is re-described based on type specimens. Identification keys to 13 genera and 32 species of Chinese panchaetothripine are presented.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for DCT (C12H12Cl2N6O4S2 • C6H15N) are reported [a = 18.991(9) Å, b = 19.057(2) Å, c = 7.346(8) Å, α = β = γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 2659.05 Å3, Z = 4, and space-group P212121]. No detectable impurity was observed.
Hepcidin, a key regulator of Fe homeostasis, is an ideal drug target for treating patients with Fe disorders such as haemochromatosis, anaemia of chronic inflammation and Fe-deficiency anaemia. However, whether (and how) traditional Chinese black foods (e.g. black soyabeans) target hepcidin and improve Fe-deficiency anaemia remains unclear. Herein, we report that black soyabean seed coat extract (BSSCE) can potently inhibit the in vitro and in vivo expression of hepcidin. In the present study, in cells treated with 200 μg/ml BSSCE, hepcidin expression was found to be reduced to only 6 % of the control levels (P< 0·01). An AIN-76A diet containing 2 % BSSCE was fed to 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice for 0, 1, 7, 15 or 30 d; importantly, compared with the day 0 group, the day 7 group exhibited nearly a 50 % decrease in hepatic hepcidin expression (P< 0·01), a 35 % decrease in splenic Fe concentrations (P< 0·05) and a 135 % increase in serum Fe concentrations (P< 0·05). Mechanistically, the effect of BSSCE on hepcidin expression was mediated via a reduction in the phosphorylation levels of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog proteins (Smad)1/5/8. Consequently, the mice in the day 30 group exhibited large increases in erythrocyte counts (111 % v. day 0, P< 0·01), Hb concentrations (109 %, P< 0·01) and haematocrit values (108 %, P< 0·01). In conclusion, these results indicate that black soyabean extract regulates Fe metabolism by inhibiting the expression of hepcidin. This finding can be used to optimise the intervention of patients with hepcidin-related diseases, including Fe-deficiency anaemia.
Nanobiosensors have drawn significant research interest in recent years owing to the advantages of label-free, electrical detection. However, nanobiosensors fabricated by bottom-up process are limited in terms of yield and device uniformity due to the challenges in assembly. Nanobiosensors fabricated by top-down process, on the other hand, exhibit better uniformity but require time and costly processes and materials to achieve the critical dimensions required for high sensitivity. In this report, we introduce a top-down nanobiosensor based on polysilicon nanoribbon. The polysilicon nanoribbon devices can be fabricated by conventional photolithography with only materials and equipments used in the standard CMOS process, thus resulting in great time and cost efficiency, as well as scalability. The devices show great response to pH changes with a wide dynamic range and high sensitivity. Biomarker detection is also demonstrated with clinically relevant sensitivity. Such results suggest that polysilicon nanoribbon devices exhibit great potential toward a highly efficient, reliable and sensitive biosensing platform.
Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1) plays an important role in restraining the growth of intracellular pathogens within macrophages. In this study, Nramp1 cDNA was cloned from Qinchuan cattle and its anti-bacterial activity was demonstrated as being able to significantly inhibit the growth of Salmonella abortusovis and Brucella abortus in macrophages. Calf fibroblasts stably transfected with pSP–NRAMP1–HA vector were used to reconstruct bovine embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Reconstructed embryos were maturated in vitro and the blastocyst formation rate (14.0%) was similar to that of control embryos (14.5%). Transgenic blastocysts were transplanted into 43 recipient cattle, of which 14 recipients became pregnant as evidenced by non-return estrus and by rectal palpation. One fetus was aborted after 6½ months of pregnancy and transgene integration was confirmed by semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Together, this study showed that bovine Nramp1 retains biological function against the growth of intracellular bacteria and can be used to reconstruct embryos and produce Nramp1 transgenic cattle, which may benefit the animal and enhance their ability to prevent attack by intracellular pathogens.
In this work, we investigated the influence of N-polar wet etching on the properties of nitride-based hexagonal pyramids array (HPA) vertical-injection light emitting diodes (V-LEDs). The cathodeluminescence images showed the randomly distribution of hexagonal pyramids with isolated active regions. The transmission electron microscopy images demonstrated the reduced density of threading dislocations. The IQE was estimated by temperature dependence of photoluminescence, which showed 30% increase for HPA V-LEDs compared with broad area (BA) V-LEDs. The improved extraction efficiency was verified by finite difference time domain simulation, which was 20% higher than that of roughened BA V-LEDs. The electrical properties of HPA V-LEDs were measured by conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) measurements. HPA V-LEDs exhibited much lower leakage current due to the improved crystal quality.
The present study was undertaken to establish an effective method for in vitro maturation (IVM) of denuded oocytes (DOs) by simulating the ovarian three-dimensional status in vivo using buffalo ovarian tissues or cumulus cells, so as to provide a model for investigating the mechanisms of oocyte maturation. Buffalo cumulus–oocyte complexes from ovaries taken at slaughter were denuded by pipetting, and then allocated randomly into four groups for IVM by direct culture in maturation medium (M1, control group), co-culture with a monolayer of cumulus cells (M2), embedded in cumulus cell clumps (M3) and ovarian tissue (M4) for 24 h. The nuclear maturation of DOs was assessed by the extrusion of the first polar body and the cytoplasmic maturation was evaluated by subsequently developmental capacity after parthenogenetic activation. More DOs matured to MII (56.89%) and developed to blastocysts (25.75%) when they were matured in vitro with M3 in comparison with DOs matured in vitro with M1 (45.14 and 15.97%) and M4 (40.48 and 13.49%). Further detection of gap junctions by injecting Lucifer yellow directly into cytoplasm of matured DOs with adherent cumulus cells and scanning with confocal microscope showed that Lucifer yellow were found in nine out of 11 the adherent cumulus cells in M3, indicating that the gap junctions between oocytes and cumulus cells was reconstructed in vitro. These results indicate that co-culture of DOs embedded in cumulus cell clumps can improve their nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of DOs, possibly through the reconstruction of gap junctions in vitro.
α-Tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) has been shown to be a potent apoptosis inducer and growth inhibitor in a variety of cancer cells. Our previous studies showed the important role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the apoptosis induced by α-TOS. However, the relationship of oxidative stress with ER stress is still controversial. The objective of the present study was to investigate the interplay between the two stress responses induced by α-TOS in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells. In response to α-TOS, cytological changes typical of apoptosis, induction of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein transcription factor (CHOP), and activation of caspase-4 were observed. And the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine inhibited induction of both GRP78 and CHOP by α-TOS transcriptionally and translationally. Furthermore, knocking down CHOP by RNA interference decreased ROS generation, increased glutathione level and induced glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression in α-TOS-treated cells, whereas catalase and superoxide dismutases mRNA expression were not altered. The results imply that α-TOS induces ER stress response through ROS production, while CHOP perturbs the redox state of SGC-7901 cells treated with α-TOS.
Emerging NVM devices have been extensively studied as candidates to extend density scaling and power reduction beyond Si-based flash. Recently, resistive-random-access-memory (ReRAM) devices in the form of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures have attracted substantial attention due to their potential scalability, low power operation, and high speed. HfO2 is attractive compared to other transition metal oxides from the vantage point of CMOS process compatibility. Here, we investigate doped HfO2 with a Pt top electrode on an n+-Si substrate. By doping HfO2 with Hf or Au, improved resistive switching properties have been demonstrated in terms of enhanced cycling endurance and lower switching voltages for SET and RESET. The improvements were attributed to doping-induced oxygen vacancies. In addition, Cu-doped HfO2 devices have exhibited multilevel resistive switching.
To evaluate the associations between sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics and food label (FL) use in US adults.
Data from the 1994–1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and the Diet and Health Knowledge Survey were used. High socio-economic status (SES) was defined as >high school education and poverty–income ratio (PIR) >350 %, low SES as <high school level or PIR <130 %. Dietary intakes were assessed using 24 h recalls.
Metropolitan statistical area-central city, -suburban, and rural areas in the USA.
US adults (n 2797; 1460 men, 1337 women) aged 20–64 years.
Approximately 80 % of Americans reported using FL, including checking the nutrition panel, list of ingredients, short phrases, serving size, or health benefits. Only 26 % used all FL information. Compared with white women of higher SES, white men, black men and women with lower SES were 77–90 % less likely to use FL. Rural residents were 40 % less likely (OR = 0·60; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·86). Participants with good nutrition knowledge, perceptions and beliefs were twice as likely to check FL for nutrient content of foods (OR = 2·28; 95 % CI 1·53–3·40). Those who were unaware of diet–disease relationships were less likely to use FL (OR = 0·53; 95 % CI 0·32–0·85). Among overweight/obese Americans (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), those who perceived their weight ‘about right’ were 51 % less likely to use FL than those perceiving themselves as overweight.
Men, especially black men, women of low SES, rural residents and overweight Americans with inaccurate self-perception of body weight are less likely to use FL and should be targeted for increased intervention.
ZnTe/Zn1-xMnxTe superlattices were grown on GaAs (001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The multi-phonon processes including overtones and combinations of optical phonons have been studied by near resonant Raman scattering in the temperature range 13 K to 300 K. The strain arising from lattice mismatch gives rise to a shift in the optical-phonon frequencies. A two-phonon interface mode of superlattice has been observed and identified for the first time. Strain-induced red shifts of exciton energies related to transitions from the conduction subband to the light-hole and heavy-hole subband have been found by photoreflectance measurements. Experimental results agree well with the calculated strain-induced shift in superlattices.
In this paper, polycrystalline CuIn(SxSe1–x)2 thin films with tunable x and Eg (band gap) values were prepared by controlling the sulfurization temperature (T) of CuInSe2 thin films. X-ray diffraction indicated the CuIn(SxSe1–x)2 films exhibited a homogeneous chalcopyrite structure. When T increases from 150 to 500 °C, x increases from 0 to 1, and Eg increases from 0.96 to 1.43 eV. The relations between x and Eg and the sulfurization process of CuIn(SxSe1–x)2 thin films have been discussed. This work provides an easy and low-cost technique for preparing large area absorber layers of solar cell with tunable Eg.