To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Evidence on the relationship between maternal Hb concentration and spontaneous abortion (SA) risk is limited and conflicting. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether maternal preconception anaemia or high Hb concentration is associated with risk of SA.
A population-based cohort study established between 2013 and 2017.
Local maternal and child care service centres in each county.
In total, 3 971 428 women aged 20–49 years, who participated in National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project from 2013 to 2016 and successfully got pregnant before 2017 in rural China.
A total of 101 700 (2·56 %) women were recorded having SA, with highest SA rate in women with severe anaemia (4·58 %). Compared with women with Hb of 110–149 g/l, the multivariable-adjusted OR for SA was 1·52 (95 % CI: 1·25, 1·86) for women with Hb < 70 g/l, 0·92 (0·84, 1·01) for 70–99 g/l, 0·80 (0·77, 0·83) for 100–109 g/l, 1·11 (1·08, 1·15) for 150–159 g/l, 1·12 (1·04, 1·20) for 160–169 g/l and 1·02 (0·93, 1·12) for ≥ 170 g/l, respectively. An approximate U-shaped curve for the risk of SA with Hb concentrations was observed when Hb concentrations less than 145 g/l, above which the association plateaued (Pnon-linear < 0·001).
Severe anaemia and high Hb concentration before pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of SA. Women with mild anaemia prior to pregnancy had lower risk of SA. Underlying mechanisms need to be further studied.
Evidence on the association between maternal Hb concentration and preterm birth (PTB) risk is inconclusive. This paper aimed to explore whether women with anaemia or high Hb level before pregnancy would be at higher risk of PTB. We conducted a population-based cohort study with 2 722 274 women aged 20–49 years, who participated in National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project between 2013 and 2015 and delivered a singleton before 2016 in rural China. Logistic models were used to estimate OR and 95 % CI after adjusting for confounding variables. Restricted cubic spline models were applied to evaluate the dose–response relationships. A total of 192 819 (7·08 %) women had preterm deliveries. Compared with women with Hb of 110–149 g/l, the multivariable-adjusted OR for PTB was 1·19 (95 % CI 0·98, 1·44) for women with Hb<70 g/l, 1·01 (95 % CI 0·97, 1·03) for 70–99 g/l, 0·96 (95 % CI 0·95, 0·98) for 100–109 g/l, 1·04 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·06) for 150–159 g/l, 1·11 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·17) for 160–169 g/l and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·11, 1·27) for ≥170 g/l, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted OR for very PTB (VPTB) was 1·07 (95 % CI 1·03, 1·12) and 1·06 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·12) for women with Hb <110 and ≥150 g/l, compared with those with Hb of 110–149 g/l, respectively. Our study identified a U-shaped relationship between maternal preconception Hb concentration and PTB risk. Both preconception anaemia and high Hb level can significantly increase VPTB risk. Appropriate intervention for women with abnormal Hb levels before pregnancy is very necessary.
In this study, we investigate a new simple scheme using a planar undulator (PU) together with a properly dispersed electron beam (
beam) with a large energy spread (
) to enhance the free-electron laser (FEL) gain. For a dispersed
beam in a PU, the resonant condition is satisfied for the center electrons, while the frequency detuning increases for the off-center electrons, inhibiting the growth of the radiation. The PU can act as a filter for selecting the electrons near the beam center to achieve the radiation. Although only the center electrons contribute, the radiation can be enhanced significantly owing to the high-peak current of the beam. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that this method can be used for the improvement of the radiation performance, which has great significance for short-wavelength FEL applications.
Although many studies worldwide have focused on the relationship between vitamin D and insulin resistance, results remain controversial. Furthermore, concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in the Chinese population are unclear. We aimed to investigate vitamin D status and its correlation with insulin resistance among a Chinese adult population.
Serum 25(OH)D, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, glycated Hb (HbA1c) and other metabolic parameters were assessed. Neck circumference, waist circumference, hip circumference, weight and height were also measured. Lifestyle factors including smoking and drinking status were obtained. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by HbA1c according to the 2010 American Diabetes Association criteria.
Of 7200 residents included, 6597 individuals were ultimately analysed.
We enrolled 2813 males (mean age 52·7 (sd 13·5) years) and 3784 females (52·3 (sd 13·5) years); mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 43·1 (sd 11·6) and 39·6 (sd 9·8) nmol/l, respectively. Additionally, 83·3 % of participants were 25(OH)D deficient. A significant difference in 25(OH)D was observed between males and females in winter and spring (P<0·001). Furthermore, 25(OH)D concentrations were inversely associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the overweight and pre-diabetic populations. After adjusting for several variables, 25(OH)D was significantly associated with HOMA-IR in winter. When 25(OH)D values were categorized into quartiles, HOMA-IR was significantly associated with decreasing 25(OH)D.
The majority of the Chinese population was vitamin D deficient and this deficiency was negatively associated with insulin resistance, particularly in the overweight and pre-diabetic populations. Moreover, these associations might be more evident in the winter.
Recent studies have suggested an association between vitamin D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, some results are subject to debate. This study was carried out to evaluate the correlation between NAFLD and vitamin D in men and women in East China. The data were obtained from a cross-sectional study that focused on the health and metabolic status of adults in sixteen areas of East China. According to ultrasonic assessments, the patients were divided into normal and NAFLD groups. Demographic characteristics and biochemical measurements were obtained. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association. In total, 5066 subjects were enrolled, and 2193 (43·3 %) were diagnosed with NAFLD; 84·56 % of the subjects showed vitamin D deficiency. Subjects with high vitamin D levels had a lower prevalence of NAFLD, particularly male subjects. Within the highest quartile of vitamin D levels, the prevalence of NAFLD was 40·8 %, whereas the lowest quartile of vitamin D levels showed a prevalence of 62·2 %, which was unchanged in women across the vitamin D levels. Binary logistic analysis showed that decreased vitamin D levels were associated with an increased risk of NAFLD (OR 1·54; 95 % CI 1·26, 1·88). This study suggests that vitamin D levels are significantly associated with NAFLD and that vitamin D acts as an independent factor for NAFLD prevalence, particularly in males in East China. Vitamin D interventional treatment might be a new target for controlling NAFLD; elucidating the mechanism requires further research.
Introduction: The mortality of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and its associated risk factors among clinically definite PD patients in China has been rarely investigated. Our study aimed to identify the mortality rates and predictors of death in PD patients in China. Methods: 157 consecutive, clinically definite PD patients from the urban area of Shanghai were recruited from a central hospital based movement disorder clinic in 2006. All patients were regularly followed up at the clinic until December 31, 2011, or death. Mortality and associations with baseline demographics, health and medical factors were then determined within the cohort. Results: After 5 years, 11(7%) patients had died. The standardised mortality ratio was 0.62 (95% CI 0.32 to 1.07, P=0.104). The main causes of death were pneumonia (54.5%, 6/11) and digestive disorders (18.2%, 2/11), respectively. Age at onset, independent living, the mini mental state examination score, the Parkinson’s disease sleep scale score and the Epworth sleepiness scale score at baseline were statistically significantly different between the survival group and the deceased group (P<0.05). Across all participants, risk factors for death included low mini mental state examination score, and high Epworth sleepiness scale score according to a binary variable logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: This study confirms the similar survival of patients with PD to the control population up to a follow-up of 5 years. Interventions tailored to potential risk factors associated with death may offer further benefits.
Thermal stress can induce birefringence in a laser medium, which can cause depolarization of the laser. The depolarization effect will be very severe in a high-average-power laser. Because the depolarization will make the frequency doubling efficiency decline, it should be compensated. In this paper, the thermal characteristics of two kinds of materials are analyzed in respect of temperature, thermal deformation and thermal stress. The depolarization result from thermal stress was simulated. Depolarization on non-uniform pumping was also simulated, and the compensation method is discussed.
The high repetition rate 10 J/10 ns Yb:YAG laser system and its key techniques are reported. The amplifiers in this system have a multi-pass V-shape structure and the heat in the amplifiers is removed by means of laminar water flow. In the main amplifier, the laser is four-pass, and an approximately 8.5 J/1 Hz/10 ns output is achieved in the primary test. The far-field of the output beam is approximately 10 times the diffraction limit. Because of the higher levels of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in the main amplifier, the output energy is lower than expected. At the end we discuss some measures that can improve the properties of the laser system.
To promote understandings about the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke (IS) through mining key genes, functions and pathways with microarray technology.
Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in blood between patients with IS and healthy people were screened out through comparing microarray data obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus. Overrepresented functions in DEGs were revealed by Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. Interaction network was constructed for the top 24 DEGs with information from Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD). Relevant microRNAs (miRNAs) were retrieved from three databases: TargetScan, miRBase and miRanda.
A total of 503 DEGs were obtained. Functional enrichment analysis showed that immune response, signaling pathways and apoptosis were significantly over-represented. Six key genes with big degree, betweenness and clustering coefficient were then revealed, which might play important roles in the development of IS. In addition, 57 differentially expressed miRNAs targeting the 6 genes were retrieved.
Our study provides insights into the pathogenesis of IS and potential targets to treat the disease.
Numerical simulation of two-phase flow in fractured karst reservoirs is still a challenging issue. The triple-porosity model is the major approach up to now. However, the triple-continuum assumption in this model is unacceptable for many cases. In the present work, an efficient numerical model has been developed for immiscible two-phase flow in fractured karst reservoirs based on the idea of equivalent continuum representation. First, based on the discrete fracture-vug model and homogenization theory, the effective absolute permeability tensors for each grid blocks are calculated. And then an analytical procedure to obtain a pseudo relative permeability curves for a grid block containing fractures and cavities has been successfully implemented. Next, a full-tensor simulator has been designed based on a hybrid numerical method (combining mixed finite element method and finite volume method). A simple fracture system has been used to demonstrate the validity of our method. At last, we have used the fracture and cavity statistics data from TAHE outcrops in west China, effective permeability values and other parameters from our code, and an equivalent continuum simulator to calculate the water flooding profiles for more realistic systems.
CD4+ T cells play a key role in the immune response of pathogen-induced mastitis in dairy cattle. Mammary gland factor STAT5b is involved in the regulation of CD4+T cell differentiation during inflammatory response and milk production. Little is known about the genetic variation effects of bovine CD4 and STAT5b genes on somatic cell score (SCS) and milk production traits in dairy cattle. The aim of the study was to investigate the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of bovine CD4 and STAT5b in Chinese Holsteins and to analyse their association with estimated breeding values (EBVs) for SCS and milk production traits. In the present study, SNPs of CD4 (NC_007303 g.13598C>T) and STAT5b (NC_007317 g.31562 T>C) were identified and genotyped in Chinese Holstein population. The results showed that both SNPs were significantly associated with the EBVs for milk yield and protein yield in Chinese Holstein cows, and the SNP in CD4 was associated with the EBV for SCS (P<0·01). The additive effect of CD4 SNP on protein yield was significant (P<0·05), and the dominant effect of STAT5b SNP was significant on milk yield and protein yield (P<0·01). Cows with combination genotype C7 (CCTT: CD4 g.13598C>T and STAT5b g.31562 T>C) had the highest SCS EBV but lower milk yield, while cows with C2 (TTTC) produced more milk, fat and protein than the other eight combination genotypes. These results suggested that the SNPs in CD4 and STAT5b may be potential genetic markers for SCS and milk/protein yields selecting and warrant further functional research.
Phase-pure nanostructured WB ceramics are hot pressed at ultrahigh pressures of 1.0 to 3.0 GPa and high temperatures of 700 to 1000 °C (UHPHT) for 60 min. The UHPHT samples are nanograin size from 15 to 40 nm. Our experimental observation shows that ultrahigh pressure could improve densification, and the density of WB samples could reach 99.4% of theoretical. The comparative experiments carried out at ambient pressure and temperatures of 550 to 1100 °C for 60 min indicate that the external pressure was favorable for phase-pure and highly dense WB formation. In addition, the UHPHT samples give a high hardness value of 28.9 ± 0.8 GPa.
Bacillus thuringiensis strain WZ-9, isolated from soil in Hebei province, China, was effective against Henosepilachna vigintioctomaculata larvae. The strain presented bipyramidal crystals with a protein band of 130 kDa in SDS–PAGE. The pH changes of the culture media showed important fluctuations during the 24 h growth cycle. The pH varied less in log and stationary phases than it did in the exponential phase. Bioassay results showed that the WZ-9 strain was only harmful to larvae of H. vigintioctomaculata and not to either adults of H. vigintioctomaculata or other several lepidopteran and coleopteran insects. LC50 to second-instar larvae of H. vigintioctomaculata was 2.95×107 cells/ml after 72 h. Genotypic investigations showed that this strain possessed the cry7 gene. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the encoding gene contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 3414 bp and encoded 1138 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence was 99.65% identical to that of the reported Cry7Ab2 sequences. This gene was designated by the Bt δ-endotoxin nomenclature committee as Cry7Ab3 with accession number BI 1015188 in the GenBank database.
Accumulated evidence suggests that social support is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. However, there are little data that examine this issue from Asian samples. We reported results from a preliminary study that examined familial effects on social support in a Chinese adult twin sample. We administered a 10-item social support instrument that measures three dimensions of social support (i.e., objective support, subjective support, and utilization of support) developed for the Chinese population. Two hundred forty-two same-sex twin pairs, where both members of the pair completed the personal interview, were included in the final analysis. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate additive genetic (A), shared environmental (C), and nonshared environmental (E) effects on each dimension of social support. Familial factors (A+C) explained 56.63% [95% CI = 45.48–65.72%] and 42.42% [95% CI = 29.93–53.25%] of the total phenotypic variances of subjective support and utilization of support, respectively. For the objective support, genetic effects did not exist, but common environmental effect explained 37.56% [95% CI = 26.17–48.28%] of the total phenotypic variances. Neither gender nor age effects were seen on any dimension of social support. Except for objective support, genetic factors probably influence variation in subjective support and utilization of support. Shared environmental factors may influence all dimensions of social support.
This study reports on the determination of zygosity in Chinese adult twins by simple questionnaire and physical features comparison. The subjects were 511 twin pairs from two cities and their town areas, consisting of 371 monozygotic (MZ) and 140 same-sex dizygotic (DZ) pairs, identified by ABO blood group and multiplex polymerase chain reaction of several polymorphic short tandem repeat markers. The twins themselves responded to 8 questionnaire items, 4 items on twin similarity, and 4 items on the frequency of mistaking one twin for another by parents, relatives, teachers and strangers when they were 6 to 13 years old. Research assistants responded to 20 items regarding twins' physical features at the moment of interview. A parsimonious model established using stepwise logistic regression analysis of the 28 items showed that the total accuracy of zygosity diagnosis was 90.1%. The accuracy was 89.2% when using only the items dealing with the confusion of twins and 85.4% using only similarity. In the questionnaire, ‘facial appearance’, ‘mistaken by teachers’ and ‘mistaken by strangers’ had stronger discriminating power between MZ and DZ twins. Two physical features — ‘eyelid’ and ‘middigital hair’ — were informative to some extent. There was no statistically significant sex and area difference in the validity of such questionnaire and physical features comparison-based classification. In conclusion, questionnaire-based zygosity assessment in this Chinese adult twin sample could still be regarded as a valid and valuable classification method. Physical features comparison, however, could only provide limited information for zygosity determination.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.