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Flaxseed oil is rich in ɑ-linolenic acid (ALA), which is the metabolic precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This study investigated the effect of flaxseed oil supplementation on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced muscle atrophy and carbohydrate oxidation impairment in a piglet model. Twenty-four weaned pigs were used in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment including dietary treatment (5% corn oil vs. 5% flaxseed oil) and LPS challenge (saline vs. LPS). On day 21 of treatment, the pigs were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μg/kg BW LPS, or sterile saline. At 4 h after injection, blood, gastrocnemius muscle and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle were collected. Flaxseed oil supplementation increased ALA, EPA, total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids contents, protein/DNA ratio, and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) quantity in muscles (p<0.05). In addition, flaxseed oil reduced mRNA expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein (NOD) 2 and their downstream signaling molecules in muscles, and decreased plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8, and mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 (p<0.05). Moreover, flaxseed oil inclusion increased the ratios of phosphorylated Akt 1/ total Akt 1 and phosphorylated forkhead Box O (FOXO) 1/ total FOXO1, and reduced mRNA expression of FOXO1, muscle RING finger (MuRF) 1, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) 4 in muscles (p<0.05). These results suggest that flaxseed oil might have a positive effect on alleviating muscle protein loss and carbohydrates oxidation impairment induced by LPS challenge through regulation of TLR4/NOD and Akt/FOXO signaling pathway.
A series of double-perovskite LaAMnNiO6 (A = La, Pr, Sm) catalysts with mesoporous morphology was prepared by a sol–gel method and further applied into photothermal synergistic degradation of gaseous toluene. Transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller characterizations confirmed that double-perovskite LaAMnNiO6 (A = La, Pr, Sm) had obvious mesoporous structure, which can provide a larger specific surface area and further enhancing the reactivity of catalyst. UV-vis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization illustrated that LaSmMnNiO6 possessed higher adsorption oxygen content and light absorption capacity, which contribute to the occurrence of catalytic oxidation in the Mars–van Krevelen redox cycle mechanism. A group of active tests showed that the double-perovskite LaSmMnNiO6 catalyst had a lower reaction initiation temperature (starting reaction at 75 °C) and a lower activity temperature of optimal reaction (more than 90% at 255 °C). Moreover, the research on reaction kinetics of the catalyst demonstrated that LaAMnNiO6 (A = La, Pr, Sm) had lower activation energy and thus exhibited better catalytic activity. The results of the study indicate that the double-perovskite LaAMnNiO6 (A = La, Pr, Sm) has broad application prospects in the field of volatile organic pollutant degradation.
Languages differ typologically in motion event encoding (Talmy, 2000). Furthermore, the cross-linguistic variations in lexicalization modulate cognition in a dynamic and task-dependent manner (Slobin, 1996a). This study aims to investigate whether early Cantonese–English bilinguals behave differently from monolinguals in each language when lexicalizing and categorizing voluntary motion in different language contexts. Specifically, monolinguals were instructed and narrated in their native languages. We assigned bilinguals to a monolingual and a bilingual context by manipulating immediate language use in their oral descriptions. Results from monolinguals suggested an effect of language on event conceptualization. However, results from bilinguals showed that their performances patterned with English monolinguals in both event lexicalization and conceptualization regardless of the language context. These findings indicate that early exposure to a second language has motivated speakers to converge to a single lexicalization pattern compatible for both languages. And the degree of convergence is modulated by the amount of language contact with each language. The study demonstrates that participants draw on their linguistic knowledge during the non-verbal task and provides evidence for L2-biased cognitive restructuring within the framework of thinking-for-speaking.
Food insecurity, or self-reports of inadequate food access due to limited financial resources, remains prevalent among people living with HIV (PLHIV). We examined the impact of food insecurity on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) adherence within an integrated care programme that provides services to PLHIV, including two meals per day.
Adjusted OR (aOR) were estimated by generalized estimating equations, quantifying the relationship between food insecurity (exposure) and cART adherence (outcome) with multivariable logistic regression.
We drew on survey data collected between February 2014 and March 2016 from the Dr. Peter Centre Study based in Vancouver, Canada.
The study included 116 PLHIV at baseline, with ninety-nine participants completing a 12-month follow-up interview. The median (quartile 1–quartile 3) age was 46 (39–52) years at baseline and 87 % (n 101) were biologically male at birth.
At baseline, 74 % (n 86) of participants were food insecure (≥2 affirmative responses on Health Canada’s Household Food Security Survey Module) and 67 % (n 78) were adherent to cART ≥95 % of the time. In the adjusted regression analysis, food insecurity was associated with suboptimal cART adherence (aOR = 0·47, 95 % CI 0·24, 0·93).
While food provision may reduce some health-related harms, there remains a relationship between this prevalent experience and suboptimal cART adherence in this integrated care programme. Future studies that elucidate strategies to mitigate food insecurity and its effects on cART adherence among PLHIV in this setting and in other similar environments are necessary.
Cinnamomum chago is a woody species of the family Lauraceae endemic to Yunnan province, China, previously known from only one location, and categorized as a Plant Species with Extremely Small Population. We surveyed to determine the distribution and population size of C. chago, characterize its habitat, identify any threats, assess its conservation status, and provide guidelines for its management and conservation. During 2014–2017 we found only 64 mature C. chago, in five locations. These small, fragmented populations occur along Lancang River in Dali Prefecture at altitudes of 2,200–2,400 m. The species' extent of occurrence is c. 923 km2, with an area of occupancy of c. 60 km2. The habitat of the species has been degraded by expansion of pastoral activities and deforestation. We recommend categorization of C. chago as Endangered on the IUCN Red List, prevention of the collection of seeds and wood of the species, protection and monitoring, and ex situ propagation for future reintroductions.
The hierarchical Au-loaded SnO2 nanoflowers were synthesized using a new developed self-reductive hydrothermal method, of which the gas-sensing properties were enhanced significantly. The SnO2 hierarchical nanoflowers were composed of well-defined nanosheets with a specific surface area of around 84 m2/g. Gas sensors made of pure and Au-doped SnO2 were fabricated, and their gas-sensing properties were characterized. The 1.0 at.% Au-loaded SnO2 sensor prepared by the new developed self-reductive method showed much more excellent selectivity toward ethanol at 200 °C than the one prepared with the conventional hydrothermal method. Its response to ethanol was around 3 times higher than that of the pure SnO2 sensor. A very wide detection range of 1–500 ppm for ethanol, good repeatability, and long-term stability were also approved.
A novel solid-clad-by-liquid method was developed to form a 10-m long by 10-mm wide by 80-μm thick Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite tape. Three deformation routes (cold rolling, cold rolling with intermediate annealing, and cold rolling combined with warm rolling) have been investigated in short Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite substrate. To optimize the dynamic continuous annealing parameters for the long composite substrates, air-cooled and furnace-cooled annealing procedures were compared in short Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite substrates. Improved cube texture of 98.7% in a 10-m long by 10-mm wide by 80-μm thick Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite substrate was achieved via warm rolling deformation at 550 °C and two-step dynamic continuous annealing (750 °C for 1 h followed by 1200 °C for 1 h). The yield strength, Curie temperature, and saturation magnetization of 176 MPa, 324 K, and 18 emu/g, respectively, were obtained.
Valence Compton profiles (CPs) of multiwall (MWCNTs) and single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were obtained by recording electron energy-loss spectra at large momentum transfer in the transmission electron microscope, a technique known as electron Compton scattering from solids (ECOSS). The experimental MWCNT/SWCNT results were compared with that of graphite. Differences between the valence CPs of MWCNTs and SWCNTs were observed, and the SWCNT CPs indicate a greater delocalization of the ground-state charge density compared to graphite. The results clearly demonstrate the feasibility and potential of the ECOSS technique as a complementary tool for studying the electronic structure of materials with nanoscale spatial resolution.
Metal oxides are promising candidates as the anodes of next-generation lithium ion batteries. However, the low electronic conductivities hinder their practical applications. Herein, through a facile calcination process using ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) as the N source, the nitrogen heteroelement was introduced into the ZnO/CoO micro-/nanospheres, which greatly improves the conductivity of the composites. As the lithium-ion battery anode, the N-doped ZnO/CoO micro-/nanosphere demonstrates much enhanced electrochemical performance. It displays a high initial capacity of 911.8 mA h/g at a current density of 0.2 A/g and long-term cycling stability, with a reversible capacity of 977.8 mA h/g remained after 500 cycles at a current density of 1 A/g. Furthermore, the N-doped ZnO/CoO composite presents an outstanding rate performance, with 605 mA h/g remained even at 5 A/g. The excellent electrochemical properties make N-doped ZnO/CoO micro-/nanospheres a promising candidate as high-performance anodes for next-generation rechargeable LIBs.
The present study aimed to evaluate the validity and reproducibility of a thirteen-item FFQ regarding identification of dietary conditions in a rural population in China.
A reproducibility study repeated the first FFQ (FFQ1) approximately 4 weeks later (FFQ2). A validity study evaluated the mean of three consecutive 24 h diet recalls as the reference measure.
Residents of a rural area in Henan Province, which is located in the central region of China.
A total of 295 individuals participated in the reproducibility study. In addition, 123 people agreed to participate in the validity study. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the two FFQ ranged from 0·06 (vegetables) to 0·58 (eggs). Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the two methods of collection ranged from 0·01 for cereal to 0·49 for staple foods. The mean of the intraclass correlation coefficients of the two FFQ (FFQ1 v. FFQ2) was 0·19. Bland–Altman analysis indicated good agreement for most food groups across the range of intake for the two studies.
The study demonstrated that our FFQ design could be used as a representative tool to conduct a dietary evaluation of a rural population.
Recently, volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) has been used for accurate sampling of a fixed peripheral blood volume (10 muL) on a volumetric swab, and long-term sample storage. The mPlex-Flu assay is a novel, high-throughput assay that simultaneously measures the concentration of antibodies against the hemaggutinin proteins from multiple influenza virus strains with ≤5 µL of serum. Here we describe combining these two methods to measure multidimensional anti-influenza IgG activity in whole blood samples collected by a finger-stick and VAMS, with correction for serum volume based on simultaneous hemoglobin measurement.
We compared capillary blood samples obtained from a finger-stick using a VAMS device with serum samples collected by traditional phlebotomy from 20 subjects, with the influenza antibody profiles measured by the mPlex-Flu assay.
We found that results with the two sampling methods were highly correlated within subjects and across all influenza strains (mean R2 =0.9470). Adjustment for serum volume, based on hemaglobin measurement, was used to estimate serum volume of samples and improve accuracy. IgG measurements were stable over three weeks when VAMS samples were stored at room temperature or transported using a variety of shipping methods. Additionally, when volunteers performed finger stick VAMS at home by themselves, the comparison results of anti-HA antibody concentrations was highly consistent with sampling performed by study personnel on-site (R2 =0.9496).
This novel approach can provide a simple, accurate and low-cost means for monitoring the IgG anti-influenza hemagglutinin antibody responses in large population studies and clinical trials.
Needles of Juniperus rigida are used in Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of brucellosis, dropsy, skin disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. This is the first study that reports anatomical structures of the J. rigida needles collected at different altitudes. The most common anatomical, phytochemical, and histochemical techniques and methods are used. The results show that anatomical structures and chemical composition change significantly at different altitudes. The main anatomical characters are significant xeromorphic structures (thick epidermis, hypodermis, and cuticle), a stomatal band, a developed vascular bundle, and a marginal resin duct. The xeromorphic structures become more pronounced with increasing altitude. The phytochemical and histochemical results demonstrate that the content of the main chemical compounds (phenols and terpenoids) basically increases at a higher elevation. Histochemical analysis localizes the phenols in epidermal cells, sponge tissue, endothelial layer cells, and stomatal bands, and the terpenoids in palisade tissue, sponge tissue, and the edge of the resin duct. This work reveals the relation between anatomy and chemistry in J. rigida needles, contributes to the quality control of its ethno-medicine, and provides the evidence to develop the commercial cultivation.
Endometrial injury is an important cause of intrauterine adhesion (IUA), amenorrhea and infertility in women, with limited effective therapies. Recently, stem cells have been used in animal experiments to repair and improve injured endometrium. To date, our understanding of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in endometrial injury repair and their further therapeutic mechanisms is incomplete. Here, we examined the benefit of ADSCs in restoration of injured endometrium by applying a rat endometrial injury model. The results revealed by immunofluorescence showed that green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled ADSCs can differentiate into endometrial epithelial cells in vivo. At 30 days after ADSCs transplantation, injured endometrium was significantly improved, with increased microvessel density, endometrial thickness and glands when compared with the model group. Furthermore, the fertility of rats with injured endometrium in ADSCs group was improved and had a higher conception rate (60% vs 20%, P = 0.014) compared with the control phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group. However, there was no difference in the control group compared with the sham group. In addition, expression levels of the oestrogen receptor Eα/β (ERα, ERβ) and progesterone receptor (PR) detected by western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were higher in the ADSCs group than in the PBS group. Taken together, these results suggested that ADSC transplantation could improve endometrial injury as a novel therapy for IUA.
Few of the previous studies of clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR) have explored whether outcomes other than conversion, such as poor functioning or treatment responses, are better predicted when using risk calculators. To answer this question, we compared the predictive accuracy between the outcome of conversion and poor functioning by using the NAPLS-2 risk calculator.
Three hundred CHR individuals were identified using the Chinese version of the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms. Of these, 228 (76.0%) completed neurocognitive assessments at baseline and 199 (66.3%) had at least a 1-year follow-up assessment. The latter group was used in the NAPLS-2 risk calculator.
We divided the sample into two broad categories based on different outcome definitions, conversion (n = 46) v. non-conversion (n = 153) or recovery (n = 138) v. poor functioning (n = 61). Interestingly, the NAPLS-2 risk calculator showed moderate discrimination of subsequent conversion to psychosis in this sample with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.631 (p = 0.007). However, for discriminating poor functioning, the AUC of the model increased to 0.754 (p < 0.001).
Our results suggest that the current risk calculator was a better fit for predicting a poor functional outcome and treatment response than it was in the prediction of conversion to psychosis.
The present study was performed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of Theileria annulata transformed dendritic cells (TaDCs) and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) to compare differences in antigen presentation and stimulation of T lymphocyte proliferation. Antigen presentation for T lymphocyte proliferation was analysed by flow cytometry. Additionally, the level of mRNA transcription of small GTPases of the Rab family expressed in the TaDC cell line was analysed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR). The endocytosis rate of TaDCs was significantly (P < 0.01) lower than in MoDCs. In contrast, when T lymphocytes were co-cultured with TaDC-APCs T cell proliferation was similar, while co-culture with MoDC-APC stimulated proliferation of CD4+ cells to a greater degree than CD8+ cells. However, the efficacy of TaDC-APCs to stimulate T lymphocytes dropped as the number of passages of TaDC-APC increased. Likewise, the transcription level of Rab family genes also significantly (P > 0.001) declined with progressive passages (>50) of the TaDC cell line. We conclude that initially the TaDC cell line efficiently presents antigen to stimulate T lymphocyte proliferation to produce a cellular immune response against the presented antigen.
This study explored the mechanism of Zn-methionine (Zn-Met) influencing eggshell quality of laying hens, and investigated whether the mechanism was related to calcium deposition. Hyline Grey layers (n 384, 38 wk) were divided into four groups: 0 mg Zn/kg, 40, 80 mg Zn/kg as Zn-Met, 80 mg Zn/kg as zinc sulfate (ZnSO4). Eggshell quality, zinc contents, zinc-containing enzymes activities and expressions of shell matrix proteins in eggshell gland (ESG) were analyzed. 80 mg/kg Zn-Met treatment increased (P < 0.05) egg weight and eggshell strength throughout the experiments. 80 mg/kg Zn-Met (P < 0.05) group decreased mammillary knob width and had larger relative atomic weight percentage of Ca, stronger signal intensity of Ca in linear distribution, and the Ca was more evenly distributed in transversal surface of eggshell. Zn contents (P < 0.001) in yolk and serum, Ca, albumin (Alb) levels in ESG as well as carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity in serum (P < 0.05) and mRNA levels of CA and Ca-binding protein-d28k (CaBP-D28k) (P < 0.001) in 80 mg/kg Zn-Met group were the highest among all treatments. In conclusion, shell strength as one of eggshell qualities was mostly related to mammillary cones width in ultrastructure caused by the pattern of calcium deposition in eggshell formation. And the increase of Zn-Met-induced calcium deposition may be due to the increased zinc contents in serum and tissues which were attributable to the increased CA concentrations in serum, Ca, Alb levels and up-regulated CA and CaBP-D28k mRNA levels in ESG.
Multidimensional instabilities always develop with time during the process of radiation pressure acceleration, and are detrimental to the generation of monoenergetic proton beams. In this paper, a sharp-front laser is proposed to irradiate a triple-layer target (the proton layer is set between two carbon ion layers) and studied in theory and simulations. It is found that the thin proton layer can be accelerated once to hundreds of MeV with monoenergetic spectra only during the hole-boring (HB) stage. The carbon ions move behind the proton layer in the light-sail (LS) stage, which can shield any further interaction between the rear part of the laser and the proton layer. In this way, proton beam instabilities can be reduced to a certain extent during the entire acceleration process. It is hoped such a mechanism can provide a feasible way to improve the beam quality for proton therapy and other applications.
The present study explores whether embodied meaning is activated in comprehension of action-related Mandarin counterfactual sentences. Participants listened to action-related Mandarin factual or counterfactual sentences describing transfer events (actions towards or away from the participant), and then performed verb-compatible or -incompatible motor action after a transfer verb (action towards or away from the participant) onset. The results demonstrated that motor simulation, specifically the interfering action-sentence compatibility effect (ACE), was obtained in both factual and counterfactual sentences. Additionally, the temporal course of motor resonance was slightly different between factual and counterfactual sentences. We concluded that embodied meaning was activated in action-related Chinese counterfactual sentences. The results supported a neural network model of Chersi, Thill, Ziemke, and Borghi (2010), proposed within the embodiment approach, which explains the interaction between processing action-related sentences and motor performance. Moreover, we speculated that the neural network model of Chersi et al. was also applicable to action-related Mandarin counterfactual comprehension.
High inductive helical support provides a solution to controlling the alignment error of inner electrodes in magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations were performed to examine the current loss mechanism and the effects of structural parameters on electron flow in an MITL with a helical inductor. An empirical expression related to the ratio of electron current loss to anode current and the ratio of anode current to self-limited current was obtained. Electron current loss caused by helical inductor with different structures was displayed. The results indicate that the current loss in an MITL, near an inductive helical support, comprises both the inductor current and the electron current loss. The non-uniform structure and current of a helical inductor cause an abrupt change in the magnetic field near the helical support, which leads to anomalous behavior and current loss of electron flow. In addition, current loss in the inductive helical-supported MITL is negligible when the inductance of the support is sufficiently high. This work facilitates the estimation of electron current loss caused by the inductive helical support in MITLs.