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The Palaeo-Mesozoic geodynamic evolution of the Tangjia–Sumdo accretionary complex belt, which separates the North and South Lhasa Terrane, remains controversial. Moreover, the lack of geological records restricts the understanding of the evolution of the Sumdo Palaeo-Tethys Ocean from the middle Permian until the middle Triassic. Here we present zircon U–Pb geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic compositions of the Yeqing gabbro. Zircon U–Pb geochronology yields ages from 254 ± 1 to 249 ± 1 Ma. In situ Hf isotopic analyses yield ϵHf(t) values of −0.2 to +6.3. These samples have high TiO2 (3.69 wt %) and P2O5 (0.78 wt %) contents, with typical patterns like ocean island basalt (OIB). Besides, they are classified as high-Nb basalts (HNBs) based on the high content of Nb (45.3–113.5 ppm). Whole-rock Sr–Nd isotopic compositions are similar to OIB, with initial 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7047–0.7054, 143Nd/144Nd of 0.512526–0.512647 and ϵNd(t) of 0.3–2.7. These signatures suggest that the Yeqing gabbro is mainly derived from low-degree melting of the garnet lherzolite mantle. Based on field observations of HNBs intruding into the continental margin and their geochemical characteristics, we infer that the Yeqing gabbro was generated in a subduction environment. Combined with the regional geology of the subduction environment and the evolution of oceanic islands in the Sumdo Palaeo-Tethys Ocean, we propose that the Yeqing gabbro may represent a product of the asthenosphere upwelling through a slab window produced by subduction of seismic ridge in the Sumdo Palaeo-Tethys Ocean, called plume – subduction-zone interaction, during the late Permian to early Triassic.
The spatial structure and time evolution of tornado-like vortices in a three-dimensional cavity are studied by topological analysis and numerical simulation. The topology theory of the unsteady vortex in the rectangular coordinate system (Zhang, Zhang & Shu, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 639, 2009, pp. 343–372) is generalized to the curvilinear coordinate system. Two functions $\lambda (q_1,t)$ and $q(q_1,t)$ are obtained to determine the topology structure of the sectional streamline pattern in the cross-section perpendicular to the vortex axis and the meridional plane, respectively. The spiral direction of the sectional streamlines in the cross-section perpendicular to the vortex axis depends on the sign of $\lambda (q_1,t)$. The types of critical points in the meridional plane depend on the sign of $q(q_1,t)$. The relation between the critical points of the streamline pattern in the meridional plane and that in the cross-section perpendicular to the vortex axis is set up. The flow in a three-dimensional rectangular cavity is numerically simulated by solving the three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations using high-order numerical methods. The spatial structures and the time evolutions of the tornado-like vortices in the cavity are analysed with our topology theory. Both the bubble type and spiral type of vortex breakdown are observed. They have a close relationship with the vortex structure in the cross-section perpendicular to the vortex axis. The bubble-type breakdown has a conical core and the core is non-axisymmetric in the sense of topology. A criterion for the bubble type and the spiral type based on the spatial structure characteristic of the two breakdown types is provided.
We reported a case of pheochromocytoma with initial presentation of cardiac arrest. The patient underwent implantable cardioverter defibrillator for primary prevention but subsequently experienced repeated implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks and syncopal episodes. A mass was found in the adrenal gland by CT, which was confirmed by anatomopathological analysis of the surgical specimen.
It is crucial to understand the genetic mechanisms and biological pathways underlying the relationship between obesity and serum lipid levels. Structural equation models (SEMs) were constructed to calculate heritability for body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and the genetic connections between BMI and the four classes of lipids using 1197 pairs of twins from the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). Bivariate genomewide association studies (GWAS) were performed to identify genetic variants associated with BMI and lipids using the records of 457 individuals, and the results were further validated in 289 individuals. The genetic background affecting BMI may differ by gender, and the heritability of males and females was 71% (95% CI [.66, .75]) and 39% (95% CI [.15, .71]) respectively. BMI was positively correlated with TC, TG and LDL-C in phenotypic and genetic correlation, while negatively correlated with HDL-C. There were gender differences in the correlation between BMI and lipids. Bivariate GWAS analysis and validation stage found 7 genes (LOC105378740, LINC02506, CSMD1, MELK, FAM81A, ERAL1 and MIR144) that were possibly related to BMI and lipid levels. The significant biological pathways were the regulation of cholesterol reverse transport and the regulation of high-density lipoprotein particle clearance (p < .001). BMI and blood lipid levels were affected by genetic factors, and they were genetically correlated. There might be gender differences in their genetic correlation. Bivariate GWAS analysis found MIR144 gene and its related biological pathways may influence obesity and lipid levels.
Meat quality is not only influenced by breed but also rearing environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different housing environments on growth performance, carcase traits, meat quality, physiological response pre-slaughter and fatty acid composition in two pig breeds. A total of 120 growing pigs at 60-70 days of age were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design with the breeds (Duroc × Landrace × Large White [D × L × LW] and Duroc × Landrace × Min pig [D × L × M]) and environmental enrichment (barren concrete floor or enriched with straw bedding) as factors. Each treatment was performed in triplicate with ten pigs per replicate. The pigs housed in the enriched environment exhibited a higher average daily gain, average daily feed intake, saturated fatty acid percentage and backfat depth than the pigs reared in the barren environment. Plasma cortisol levels were lower and growth hormone higher in enriched compared to barren pens. The D × L × M pigs showed lower cooking loss compared with the D × L × LW pigs. Moreover, the D × L × M pigs exhibited poor growth performance but had a better water-holding capacity. Only carcase traits and meat quality interaction effects were observed. We concluded that an enriched environment can reduce preslaughter stress and improve the growth performance of pigs and modulate the fatty acid composition of pork products.
Intertemporal choices involve tradeoffs between outcomes that occur at different times. Most of the research has used pure gains tasks and the discount rates yielding from those tasks to explain and predict real-world behaviors and consequences. However, real decisions are often more complex and involve mixed outcomes (e.g., sooner-gain and later-loss or sooner-loss and later-gain). No study has used mixed gain-loss intertemporal tradeoff tasks to explain and predict real-world behaviors and consequences, and studies involving such tasks are also scarce. Considering that tasks involving a combination of gains and losses may yield different discount rates and that existing pure gains tasks do not explain or predict real-world outcomes well, this study conducted two experiments to compare the discount rates of mixed gain-loss intertemporal tradeoffs with those of pure gains or pure losses (Experiment 1) and to examine whether these tasks predicted different real-world behaviors and consequences (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 suggests that the discount rate ordering of the four tasks was, from highest to lowest, pure gains, sooner-loss and later-gain, pure losses, and sooner-gain and later-loss. Experiment 2 indicates that the evidence supporting the claim that the discount rates of the four tasks were related to different real-world behaviors and consequences was insufficient.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between bone quality in terms of metabolism, homeostasis of elements, bone mineral density (BMD), and microstructure and keel-bone fractures in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). One hundred and twenty 17 week old Lohmann White laying hens with normal keel bones were individually housed in furnished cages for 25 weeks. Birds were then euthanased and dissected to assess keel-bone status at 42 weeks. Serum and keel-bone samples from normal keel (NK) and fractured keel (FK) hens were collected to determine the previously mentioned bone quality parameters. The results showed FK hens to have higher levels of the components of osteocalcin, greater alkaline phosphatase activity in serum and keel bones, and greater tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity in keel bones, compared to NK hens. Additionally, FK hens also had higher concentrations of Li, B, K, Cu, As, Se, Sn, Hg, and Pb, but lower concentrations of Na, P, and Ca. Moreover, FK hens showed decreased bone microstructural parameters including bone volume/tissue volume, trabecular number, degree of anisotropy, connectivity density, and BMD, but increased trabecular separation. Meanwhile, no differences were detected in serum TRAP activity, trabecular thickness, bone surface, or bone surface/bone volume. Results showed laying hens with keel-bone fractures to have differences in bone metabolism, elements of home-ostasis, bone microstructure parameters, and BMD. These results suggest that keel-bone fractures may be associated with bone quality.
Limited studies provide direct evidence of Clonorchis sinensis adults in the early stage of gallbladder stone formation. Our current research systematically studied 33 gallbladder stones resembling adult worms and shed light on the definite connection of C. sinensis infection with concomitant cholelithiasis. A total of 33 gallbladder stones resembling adult C. sinensis worms were systematically analysed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy spectrometry were used to analyse the composition and microstructure. Meanwhile, a histopathological examination of the stone was carried out. The 33 gallbladder stones resembling adult C. sinensis worms included nine calcium carbonate (CaCO3) stones, 12 bilirubinate stones and 12 mixed stones. Clonorchis sinensis eggs were found in 30 cases, including all CaCO3 and mixed stones. Parasite tissues were detected in 12 cases, which were mainly CaCO3 stones or bilirubinate–CaCO3 mixed stones. The outer layer of stones was wrapped with 12.88% calcium salt, as revealed by X-ray energy spectrometry, while surprisingly, many C. sinensis eggs were found in the inner part of these stones. Based on our current findings, we concluded that calcification and packaging occurred after C. sinensis adult entrance into the gallbladder, subsequently leading to the early formation of CaCO3 or bilirubinate–CaCO3 mixed gallbladder stones. This discovery highlights definite evidence for C. sinensis infection causing gallbladder stones.
Risk prediction models, using either machine learning or statistical algorithms, can act as inputs of a cost-effectiveness model when predicting costs and effectiveness of an intervention. This systematic review has two objectives: to evaluate methodological quality of the published models to predict diabetic coronary heart disease (CHD) risk; to evaluate whether the models were sufficiently reported to judge their applicability to the cost-effectiveness modelling.
A targeted review of journal articles published in English, Dutch, Chinese, or Spanish was undertaken in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and IEEE Explore from 1 January, 2016 to 31 May, 2021. To assess the methodological quality and reporting of the models, we used PROBAST (Prediction model Risk Of Bias Assessment Tool), CHARMS (a Checklist for critical Appraisal and data extraction for systematic Reviews of prediction Modelling Studies), and a checklist (Betts 2019) summarizing the application of cardiovascular risk prediction models to health technology assessment.
Our search retrieved 6,579 hits, of which 18 models were eligible for inclusion. Among them, four studies developed machine learning models (2 recurrent neural networks, 1 random forest models, and 1 multi-task learning model) while 14 studies developed statistical models (8 Cox models, 5 logistic models, and 1 microsimulation model). More than 70 percent of models were of high methodological quality in aspects of participants (89%), predictors (72%), and outcomes (72%), while only five models (28%) in aspects of statistical analysis. For the reporting, only two models provided sufficient evidence in all aspects (i.e., participants, predictors, and outcomes) for judging their applicability to the cost-effectiveness modelling. Most models were reported sufficiently regarding participants (78%) and outcomes (72%), but only three models regarding predictors (17%).
To apply the CHD risk prediction models to cost-effectiveness modelling, concerns remain regarding the potential risk of bias due to inappropriate use of analysis methods, and regarding insufficient reporting on how to measure and assess the predictors.
The vortex force map method for incompressible viscous flows with multiple bodies is derived in this work. The method breaks the fluid force into inertial, vortex-pressure, viscous-pressure and skin-friction components, and it could be used to analyse the fluid dynamic forces on individual bodies in a multi-body assembly. For the first time, we provide a graphical representation of the vortex-pressure force – the vortex force map – for individual bodies in a multi-body assembly. We have shown that the vortex force map in a multi-body set-up differs from single-bodied counterparts from modifications to their hypothetical potential through a nonlinear cross-coupling, and that the inertial and viscous-pressure contributions contain influences from other bodies explicitly. We then demonstrate the multi-body vortex force decomposition method with a wing–flap starting flow problem using computational fluid dynamics data, identifying the positive and negative force-generating critical regions or directions. It is found that the dominant force is the vortex-pressure force, and the force variation against time is closely related to the evolution of the vortex structures. Furthermore, we showed that the existence of another body significantly alters the force contribution roles of vortices in the flow.
Path planning is a key research issue in the field of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications. In practical applications, multi-objective path planning is usually required for multi-UAVs, so this paper proposes the improved balanced artificial bee colony (IB-ABC) algorithm to optimize multi-objective path planning. The algorithm adopts the ABC algorithm that emphasizes the global search capability, which is based on iterative feedback information. It uses single-element points, multi-element points, and iteration constraints to optimize the strategies of employed bees, follower bees, and scout bees, respectively. In terms of time and priority, simulation experiments prove that the IB-ABC algorithm can balance local and global search capabilities, accelerate the speed of convergence, and realize multi-UAV path planning in complex mountain environments.
Extensive evidence has demonstrated that bilinguals non-selectively activate lexicons of both languages when reading or hearing words in one language. Here, we further investigated the electrophysiological roles of cross-linguistic orthography and phonology in the processing of L2 spoken words in unbalanced Chinese (L1)–English (L2) bilinguals in a cross-modal situation. Relative to unrelated control, the recognition of auditory L2 words showed behavioral interference effects when paired with orthographic or phonological neighbors of the correct translations of L2 words. Moreover, the lexical effects were also exhibited in the electrophysiological data, as reflected by marginally less positive late positive component (500–800 ms) amplitudes in the frontal region. Importantly, the orthographic rather than phonological translation neighbor condition elicited less negative N400 (300–500 ms) amplitudes in the parietal–occipital regions, suggesting that this orthographic translation neighbor condition facilitated the co-activation of spoken L2 words. Taken together, these findings indicate that cross-linguistic orthographic and phonological activation have different temporal dynamics with both bottom-up parallel cross-linguistic activation and the top-down inhibitory control mechanism governing the two-language lexical organization in L2 spoken word recognition.
High-performance electrodes with outstanding catalysts play a vital role in the commercial application of direct ethanol fuel cells. In the present study, a supported catalyst with controllable Pd loading, prepared using a facile impregnation method with sepiolite as a carrier, was synthesized and tested for electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol. Physical characterization revealed the pore structure and large specific surface area of the sepiolite, which provided excellent conditions for the loading of nanometal clusters. The Pd-sepiolite had greater electrocatalytic ethanol activity and anti-intermediate product poisoning performance than a metallic Pd disc electrode under alkaline conditions. Under these experimental conditions, the electrochemical activity in terms of ethanol oxidation increased significantly with increasing Pd loading. Considering both the activity and stability of the electrodes, 23 wt.% Pd loading on sepiolite was selected with a coating amount of 140 μg cm–2 on glassy carbon. Factors such as ethanol/potassium hydroxide concentration, scanning rate and temperature had direct impacts on peak current densities as well as on reaction kinetics as depicted by Tafel plots. The electrochemical impedance test showed that Pd intercalation could improve significantly the conductivity of sepiolite and reduce the electron-transfer resistance in the electrocatalytic process. Thus, Pd-loaded sepiolite is a simple and effective catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells.
Patients with cirrhosis experience worse health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and attempts are warranted further exploration of modifiable factors to improve HRQoL. Data on the impact of malnutrition risk on HRQoL among cirrhosis are limited; thus, we aimed to strengthen understanding by clarifying the relationship between nutritional status and low HRQoL in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Consecutive inpatients with cirrhosis attending our department within a tertiary hospital were studied. Generic health profiles and malnutrition risk were evaluated by the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) and Royal Free Hospital-Nutritional Prioritizing Tool (RFH-NPT) score, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine association of malnutrition risk with low HRQoL. In this cohort of 364 patients with median age of 64 years and 49·5 % male, 55·5 % of the study population reported impairment pertinent to HRQoL in at least one dimension in terms of the EQ-5D. Moreover, malnutrition risk (RFH-NPT score: β coefficient = −0·114, P = 0·038) was proved to be independently associated with poor HRQoL in multiple analysis, after adjustment for significant variables like age, BMI and markers of decompensation. Notably, we found that health dimensions representing physical function (i.e. mobility, self-care and usual activities) are substantially affected, while malnourished patients reported less frequencies of complaints in other domain such as anxiety/depression. In conclusion, the risk of malnutrition assessed by the RFH-NPT score is independently associated with low HRQoL. It is operational to improve HRQoL by identifying patients at high malnutrition risk and providing timely nutrition treatment.
The flow past a cylinder in proximity to a plane wall is investigated numerically for small gap ratios. Three vortex dynamic processes associated with different hairpin vortex generation mechanisms are identified for the first time, and the wake-induced turbulent transition is analysed. The vortex shedding is suppressed at $G/D = 0.1$, while the spanwise vortex is generated via a Kelvin–Helmholtz instability and evolves into hairpin vortices. For $G/D= 0.3$, the upper and lower rollers alternatively shedding from the cylinder, interact with the secondary vortex. The split secondary vortex merges with the upper roller and results in a new vortex downstream, which develops into hairpin vortices. When $G/D = 0.9$, the secondary vortex interacts with the lower roller and then evolves into hairpin vortices. A tertiary vortex induced by the secondary vortex is observed, rotating in the opposite direction to the secondary vortex the wake-induced transitions share the same route. The velocity fluctuations deviate from the optimal growth theory in the pre-transitional region. In the transitional region low-frequency disturbances penetrate the sheltering edge to generate streaks where the disturbance energy declines. In the turbulent region the logarithmic layer is formed, indicating that the turbulent equilibrium is established.