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The condition of caregivers is important to the quality of care received by people with Parkinson’s disease (PD), especially at the late disease stages. This study addresses the distress placed on caregivers by participants’ neuropsychiatric symptoms at different stages of PD in Taiwan
This prospective study enrolled 108 people with PD. All participants were examined with the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI), and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. Caregiver distress was measured using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Caregiver Distress Scale (NPI-D). Statistical analysis was used to explore the PD-related factors that contribute to caregiver distress.
The mean follow-up interval in the 108 PD participants were 24.0 ± 10.2 months with no participant lost to follow-up due to death. NPI-distress (the sum of NPI caregiver distress scale across the 12 domains of the NPI) was positively correlated with NPI-sum (the total score across the 12 domains of the NPI) (r = 0.787, p < 0.001), CDR (r = 0.403, p < 0.001), UPRDS (r = 0.276, p = 0.004), and disease duration (r = 0.246, p = 0.002), but negatively correlated with CASI (r = −0.237, p = 0.043) and MMSE (r = −0.281, p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only NPI-sum and disease duration were independently correlated with NPI-distress.
The disease duration and NPI-sum are independent predictors of caregiver distress in Taiwanese populations with PD. Early detection and reduction of neuropsychiatric symptoms in people with PD can help decrease caregiver distress.
To examine the effect of taking an elective psychiatry and literature
course during the first year of medical school on performance in the
later mandatory general psychiatry curriculum. Class members were
surveyed for baseline characteristics at the time of their admission to
medical school. Following completion of their fourth year, average grades
in psychiatry were calculated and results compared for those who did and
those who did not take the course. Multiple regression analysis was used
to assess the effects of baseline characteristics that were significantly
different between the groups.
Students who took the course had statistically significant
(t = −3.34, P <0.001) higher
grades in fourth year psychiatry. They had lower admission interview
scores (t = −2.15, P <0.05) and
reported less academic stress (t = −9.55,
P <0.01) before taking the course.
Literature is an effective medium through which to teach medical students
psychiatry as it can lead to a greater understanding of the topic.
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