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We perform large-eddy simulations of turbulent flow in a channel constricted by streamwise periodically distributed hill-shaped protrusions. Two Reynolds number cases, i.e.
(Fröhlich et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 526, 2005, pp. 19–66) and
(Kähler et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 796, 2016, pp. 257–284), are repeated and utilized to verify and validate our numerical results, including the pressure and skin friction coefficients on bottom and top walls of the channel, mean velocity profiles and Reynolds stresses. All comparisons show reasonable agreement, providing a measure of validity that enables us to further probe simulation results at higher Reynolds number (
) into aspects of flow physics that are not available from experiments. Effects of variation of Reynolds number are studied, with emphasis on the mean skin friction coefficients, separation bubble size and pressure fluctuations that are related to separation and reattachment. In addition, the main large-scale features of the separation behind the hill, including the scaling of the mean velocity profiles, are discussed. Furthermore, the instantaneous near-wall flow field is analysed in terms of skin friction portraits, and we confirm the existence of the local very small separation bubble on the hill crest as observed in experimental and numerical investigations. The flow field at the top wall, which is generally not given sufficient attention, is evaluated with the empirical friction law and universal logarithmic law as in planar channel flows. It is found that these empirical laws compare well with the large-eddy simulation results, although the hill constrictions behave as a perturbation source and the developed shear layer has some effects on the flow field near the top wall.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
Consumption of a high-fat diet increases fat accumulation and may further lead to inflammation and hepatic injuries. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of Camellia oleifera seed extract (CSE) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). After a 16-week NAFLD-inducing period, rats were assigned to experimental groups fed an NAFLD diet with or without CSE. At the end of the study, we found that consuming CSE decreased the abdominal fat weight and hepatic fat accumulation and modulated circulating adipokine levels. We also found that CSE groups had lower hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β protein expressions. In addition, we found that CSE consumption may have affected the gut microbiota and reduced toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) expression and proinflammatory cytokine concentrations in the liver. Our results suggest that CSE may alleviate the progression of NAFLD in rats with diet-induced steatosis through reducing fat accumulation and improving lipid metabolism and hepatic inflammation.
The condition of caregivers is important to the quality of care received by people with Parkinson’s disease (PD), especially at the late disease stages. This study addresses the distress placed on caregivers by participants’ neuropsychiatric symptoms at different stages of PD in Taiwan
This prospective study enrolled 108 people with PD. All participants were examined with the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI), and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. Caregiver distress was measured using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Caregiver Distress Scale (NPI-D). Statistical analysis was used to explore the PD-related factors that contribute to caregiver distress.
The mean follow-up interval in the 108 PD participants were 24.0 ± 10.2 months with no participant lost to follow-up due to death. NPI-distress (the sum of NPI caregiver distress scale across the 12 domains of the NPI) was positively correlated with NPI-sum (the total score across the 12 domains of the NPI) (r = 0.787, p < 0.001), CDR (r = 0.403, p < 0.001), UPRDS (r = 0.276, p = 0.004), and disease duration (r = 0.246, p = 0.002), but negatively correlated with CASI (r = −0.237, p = 0.043) and MMSE (r = −0.281, p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only NPI-sum and disease duration were independently correlated with NPI-distress.
The disease duration and NPI-sum are independent predictors of caregiver distress in Taiwanese populations with PD. Early detection and reduction of neuropsychiatric symptoms in people with PD can help decrease caregiver distress.
The Richtmyer–Meshkov (RM) instability is numerically investigated on an unperturbed interface subjected to a diffracted convergent shock created by diffracting an initially cylindrical shock over a rigid cylinder. Four gas interfaces are considered with Atwood number ranging from
to 0.67. Results indicate that the diffracted convergent shock increases its strength gradually and reduces its amplitude quickly when it propagates towards the convergence centre. After the strike of the diffracted convergent shock, the initially unperturbed interface deforms with a bulge structure at the centre and two interface steps at both sides, which can be ascribed to the non-uniformity of the pressure distribution behind the diffracted convergent shock. With the decrease of Atwood number, the bulge structure becomes more pronounced. Quantitatively, the interface amplitude experiences a fast but short growing stage and then enters a linear stage. A good collapse of the dimensionless amplitude is found for all cases, which indicates a weak dependence of the growth rate on Atwood number in the deformed shock-induced RM instability. Then the impulsive theory is modified by eliminating the Atwood number and considering the geometry convergence, which well predicts the amplitude growth for the deformed shock-induced RM instability. Finally, the underlying mechanism is decoupled into three parts, and it is found that both the impulsive pressure perturbation and the geometry convergence promote the growth of interface perturbation while the continuous pressure perturbation inhibits the growth. As the Atwood number decreases, the impulsive perturbation plays an increasingly important role, which suggests that the impulsive perturbation dominates the deformed shock-induced RM instability at the linear stage.
We present large-eddy simulation (LES) of flow past different airfoils with
, based on the free-stream velocity and airfoil chord length, ranging from
. To avoid the challenging resolution requirements of the near-wall region, we develop a virtual wall model in generalized curvilinear coordinates and incorporate the non-equilibrium effects via proper treatment of the momentum equations. It is demonstrated that the wall model dynamically captures the instantaneous skin-friction vector field on arbitrary curved surfaces at the resolved scale. By combining the present wall model with the stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model, we apply the wall-modelled LES approach to three different airfoil cases, spanning different geometrical parameters, different attack angles and low to high
. The numerical results are verified with direct numerical simulation (DNS) at low
, and validated with experiment data at higher
, including typical aerodynamic properties such as pressure coefficient distributions, velocity components and also more challenging measurements such as skin-friction coefficient and Reynolds stresses. All comparisons show reasonable agreement, providing a measure of validity that enables us to further probe simulation results into aspects of flow physics that are not available from experiments. Two techniques to quantify hitherto unexplored physics of flows past airfoils are employed: one is the construction of the anisotropy invariant map, and the second is skin-friction portraits with emphasis on flow transition and unsteady separation along the airfoil surface. The anisotropy maps for all three
cases, show clearly that a portion of the flow field is aligned along the axisymmetric expansion line, corresponding to the turbulent boundary layer log-law behaviour and the appearance of turbulent transition. The instantaneous skin-friction portraits reveal a monotonic shrinking of the near wall structure scale. At
, the interaction between the primary separation bubble and the secondary separation bubble contributes to turbulent transition, similar to the case of flow past a cylinder. At higher
, the primary separation breaks into several small separation bubbles. At even higher
, near the turbulent separation, the skin-friction lines show small-scale reversal flows that are similar to those observed in DNS of the flat plate turbulent separation. A notable feature of turbulent separation in flow past an airfoil is the appearance of turbulence structures and small-scale reversal flows in the spanwise direction due to the vortex shedding behaviour.
Triploid and pentaploid breeding is of great importance in agricultural production, but it is not always easy to obtain double ploidy parents. However, in fishes, chromosome ploidy is diversiform, which may provide natural parental resources for triploid and pentaploid breeding. Both tetraploid and hexaploid exist in Schizothorax fishes, which were thought to belong to different subfamilies with tetraploid Percocypris fishes in morphology, but they are sister genera in molecule. Fortunately, the pentaploid hybrid fishes have been successfully obtained by hybridization of Schizothorax wangchiachii (♀, 2n = 6X = 148) × Percocypris pingi (♂, 2n = 4X = 98). To understand the genetic and morphological difference among the hybrid fishes and their parents, four methods were used in this study: morphology, karyotype, red blood cell (RBC) DNA content determination and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR). In morphology, the hybrid fishes were steady, and between their parents with no obvious preference. The chromosome numbers of P. pingi have been reported as 2n = 4X = 98. In this study, the karyotype of S. wangchiachii was 2n = 6X = 148 = 36m + 34sm + 12st + 66t, while that the hybrid fishes was 2n = 5X = 123 = 39m + 28sm + 5st + 51t. Similarly, the RBC DNA content of the hybrid fishes was intermediate among their parents. In ISSR, the within-group genetic diversity of hybrid fishes was higher than that of their parents. Moreover, the genetic distance of hybrid fishes between P. pingi and S.wangchiachii was closely related to that of their parental ploidy, suggesting that parental genetic material stably coexisted in the hybrid fishes. This is the first report to show a stable pentaploid F1 hybrids produced by hybridization of a hexaploid and a tetraploid in aquaculture.
We aimed to explore whether a) step stool use is associated with improved cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality; b) provider adjusted height is associated with improved CPR quality; and if associations exist, c) determine whether just-in-time (JIT) CPR training and/or CPR visual feedback attenuates the effect of height and/or step stool use on CPR quality.
We analysed data from a trial of simulated cardiac arrests with three study arms: No intervention; CPR visual feedback; and JIT CPR training. Step stool use was voluntary. We explored the association between 1) step stool use and CPR quality, and 2) provider adjusted height and CPR quality. Adjusted height was defined as provider height + 23 cm (if step stool was used). Below-average height participants were ≤ gender-specific average height; the remainder were above average height. We assessed for interaction between study arm and both adjusted height and step stool use.
One hundred twenty-four subjects participated; 1,230 30-second epochs of CPR were analysed. Step stool use was associated with improved compression depth in below-average (female, p=0.007; male, p<0.001) and above-average (female, p=0.001; male, p<0.001) height providers. There is an association between adjusted height and compression depth (p<0.001). Visual feedback attenuated the effect of height (p=0.025) on compression depth; JIT training did not (p=0.918). Visual feedback and JIT training attenuated the effect of step stool use (p<0.001) on compression depth.
Step stool use is associated with improved compression depth regardless of height. Increased provider height is associated with improved compression depth, with visual feedback attenuating the effects of height and step stool use.
To study the association between gastrointestinal colonization of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).
We analyzed 31,526 patients with prospective collection of fecal specimens for CPE screening: upon admission (targeted screening) and during hospitalization (opportunistic screening, safety net screening, and extensive contact tracing), in our healthcare network with 3,200 beds from July 1, 2011, through December 31, 2015. Specimens were collected at least once weekly during hospitalization for CPE carriers and subjected to broth enrichment culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction.
Of 66,672 fecal specimens collected, 345 specimens (0.5%) from 100 patients (0.3%) had CPE. The number and prevalence (per 100,000 patient-days) of CPE increased from 2 (0.3) in 2012 to 63 (8.0) in 2015 (P<.001). Male sex (odds ratio, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.15–3.18], P=.013), presence of wound or drain (3.12 [1.70–5.71], P<.001), and use of cephalosporins (3.06 [1.42–6.59], P=.004), carbapenems (2.21 [1.10–4.48], P=.027), and PPIs (2.84 [1.72–4.71], P<.001) in the preceding 6 months were significant risk factors by multivariable analysis. Of 79 patients with serial fecal specimens, spontaneous clearance of CPE was noted in 57 (72.2%), with a median (range) of 30 (3–411) days. Comparing patients without use of antibiotics and PPIs, consumption of both antibiotics and PPIs after CPE identification was associated with later clearance of CPE (hazard ratio, 0.35 [95% CI, 0.17–0.73], P=.005).
Concomitant use of antibiotics and PPIs prolonged duration of gastrointestinal colonization by CPE.
In the recent breakthrough paper by Barbulescu, Gaudry, Joux and Thomé, a quasi-polynomial time algorithm is proposed for the discrete logarithm problem over finite fields of small characteristic. The time complexity analysis of the algorithm is based on several heuristics presented in their paper. We show that some of the heuristics are problematic in their original forms, in particular when the field is not a Kummer extension. We propose a fix to the algorithm in non-Kummer cases, without altering the heuristic quasi-polynomial time complexity. Further study is required in order to fully understand the effectiveness of the new approach.
As the demands of scientific research and application for specimens increase rapidly, biobanks in China have been springing up over the recent years. This paper summarizes Chinese biobanks through investigation and survey on operative, managerial, ethical conditions and challenges of biobanks. At present, hospitals and research institutes in China set up and operate most of the biobanks, collecting human specimens to support clinical and scientific research. With the development of bio-industry and arrival of the big data era, biobanks need not only collect and store human and non-human specimens but also to manage the big data associated with these specimens.
A limited but growing body of evidence supports a significant role of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory micronutrients in pulmonary health. We investigated the associations of dietary and supplemental intakes of vitamins A, C, E and D, Se and n-3 PUFA with pulmonary function in a population-based study.
Population-based, cross-sectional study and data analysis of fruits and vegetables, dairy products and fish, vitamins A, C, E and D, Se and n-3 PUFA supplemental intakes, pulmonary risk factors and spirometry.
Chinese older adults (n 2478) aged 55 years and above in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies.
In multiple regression models that controlled simultaneously for gender, age, height, smoking, occupational exposure and history of asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, BMI, physical activity, and in the presence of other nutrient variables, daily supplementary vitamins A/C/E (b = 0·044, se = 0·022, P = 0·04), dietary fish intake at least thrice weekly (b = 0·058, se = 0·016, P < 0·0001) and daily supplementary n-3 PUFA (b = 0·068, se = 0·032, P = 0·034) were individually associated with forced expiratory volume in the first second. Supplemental n-3 PUFA was also positively associated with forced vital capacity (b = 0·091, se = 0·045, P = 0·045). No significant association with daily dairy product intake, vitamin D or Se supplements was observed.
The findings support the roles of antioxidant vitamins and n-3 PUFA in the pulmonary health of older persons.
This work studies a new strategic game called delegation game. A delegation game is
associated to a basic game with a finite number of players where each player has a finite
integer weight and her strategy consists in dividing it into several integer parts and
assigning each part to one subset of finitely many facilities. In the associated
delegation game, a player divides her weight into several integer parts, commits each part
to an independent delegate and collects the sum of their payoffs in the basic game played
by these delegates. Delegation equilibrium payoffs, consistent delegation equilibrium
payoffs and consistent chains inducing these ones in a delegation game are defined.
Several examples are provided.
To evaluate the associations with chronic disease risk and mortality of the consequences of bean-free diets in Taiwanese adults with regard to gender.
A sub-sample of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) in 2001 agreed to physical examination in the subsequent year. This group then took part in the Taiwanese Survey of Hyperglycaemia, Hyperlipidaemia and Hypertension (TwSHHH) in 2002.
Individual records were linked to the eventual death files from 2002 to 2008.
Up to the end of 2008, a total of 2820 men and 2950 women were tracked by death registry over the 6·8 years of follow-up.
Among 38 077 person-years, an average follow-up 6·5 years, 225 all-cause deaths were identified. Generalized linear models showed beans to be favourable for metabolic syndrome (other than for fasting glucose) in men; in women, beans were favourable for waist circumference and HbA1c. Cumulative logistic regression models for the effect of a bean-free diet on metabolic syndrome scores according to the Taiwanese-modified National Cholesterol Education Program–Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-tw) gave adjusted odds ratios of 1·83 in men and 1·45 in women. Cox regression models for the bean-free diet showed an increased hazard ratio for all-cause mortality among women (1·98, 95 % CI 1·03, 3·81) but not men (1·28, 95 % CI 0·76, 2·16).
A bean-free diet may play a role in developing the metabolic syndrome in both genders, and is a significant predictor of all-cause mortality in Taiwanese women but not men.
In this paper, polycrystalline CuIn(SxSe1–x)2 thin films with tunable x and Eg (band gap) values were prepared by controlling the sulfurization temperature (T) of CuInSe2 thin films. X-ray diffraction indicated the CuIn(SxSe1–x)2 films exhibited a homogeneous chalcopyrite structure. When T increases from 150 to 500 °C, x increases from 0 to 1, and Eg increases from 0.96 to 1.43 eV. The relations between x and Eg and the sulfurization process of CuIn(SxSe1–x)2 thin films have been discussed. This work provides an easy and low-cost technique for preparing large area absorber layers of solar cell with tunable Eg.
This paper is concerned with the dynamics of a non-local delayed reaction–diffusion equation without quasi-monotonicity on an infinite n-dimensional domain, which can be derived from the growth of a stage-structured single-species population. We first prove that solutions of the Cauchy-type problem are positively preserving and bounded if the initial value is non-negative and bounded. Then, by establishing a comparison theorem and a series of comparison arguments, we prove the global attractivity of the positive equilibrium. When there exist no positive equilibria, we prove that the zero equilibrium is globally attractive. In particular, these results are still valid for the non-local delayed reaction–diffusion equation on a bounded domain with the Neumann boundary condition. Finally, we establish the existence of new entire solutions by using the travelling-wave solutions of two auxiliary equations and the global attractivity of the positive equilibrium.
Fossil isopod crustaceans in the suborder Phreatoicidea have a known stratigraphic range from the Carboniferous to the Jurassic. Until now, all Mesozoic records of this group were thought to occur in fresh water habitats. A new phreatoicidean isopod fossil of the Triassic Luoping marine fauna, Yunnan Province, China, is described. The new species, based on several exceptionally complete specimens, is assigned to the genus Protamphisopus Nicholls and the family Amphisopidae Nicholls. This Chinese record is the first report of a Mesozoic-age phreatoicidean isopod outside of Gondwanan terranes, requiring a revision of known biogeographic patterns of the Phreatoicidea. Whether this record is from a marine habitat or is the result of a secondary deposition is not certain. Sottyella Racheboef, Schram and Vidal from the Carboniferous (Stephanian) Lagerstätte of Montceaules-Mines that was assigned to this suborder may be a decapod. Therefore, it has no relationship to this new species.
Complex wave patterns caused by unsteady heat release due to cloud formation in confined compressible flows are discussed. Two detailed numerical studies of condensation-induced waves are carried out. First, the response of a flow of nitrogen in a slender Laval nozzle to a sudden addition of water vapour at the nozzle entrance is considered. Condensation occurs just downstream of the nozzle throat, which initially leads to upstream- and downstream-moving shocks and an expansion fan downstream of the condensation front. Then, the flow becomes oscillatory and the expansion fan disappears, while upstream and much weaker downstream shocks are repeatedly generated. For a lower initial humidity, only a downstream starting shock is formed and a steady flow is established. Second, homogeneous condensation in an unsteady expansion fan in humid nitrogen is considered. In the initial phase, two condensation-induced shocks are found, moving upstream and downstream. The upstream-moving shock changes the shape of the expansion fan and has a strong influence on the condensation process itself. It is even quenching the nucleation process locally, which leads to a renewed condensation process more downstream. This process is repeated with asymptotically decreasing strength. The repeated interaction of the condensation-induced shocks with the main expansion wave leads to a distortion of the expansion wave towards its shape that can be expected on the basis of phase equilibrium, i.e. a self-similar wave structure consisting of dry part, a plateau of constant state and a wet part. The strengths of the condensation-induced waves, as well for the Laval nozzle flow as for the expansion fan, appear to be in qualitative agreement with the results from the analytical Rayleigh–Bartlmä model.
We report on microstructures of HfAl2O5 gate dielectric film grown
on Si substrate with a Ti capping layer treated with rapid thermal annealing
process. X-ray reflectivity, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron
spectroscopy are used to investigate the sample. Results show that a
layer naturally forms at the interface between
the HfAlO layer and the Si substrate in the as-grown sample. With the help
of the Ti capping layer on the HfAlO/Si, the annealing treatment can
effectively remove the Six(SiO
interface layer, which
enhances the capacitance of the dielectric film. On the other side, the
annealing process roughens the interfaces of the sample, which brings into
the increase of the leakage current. Higher temperature of the annealing
treatment results in rougher interfaces. Thus, the annealing temperature
should be chosen properly to improve the capacitance of the film, before the
interface roughening works to increase the leakage current. In this way, the
dielectric and structural properties of the samples can be optimized.
We propose a Π-shaped circuit model for active metamaterials using periodic circuit structures with series inductors and shunt capacitors (LC) and series capacitors and shunt inductors (CL). Using the circuit model, we develop a general theory for active metamaterials, revealing the role of active components and demonstrating the principle for metamaterials to be active. By
inserting negative and positive resistances in the LC and CL structures, we first attain the active superlens using three slabs of effective media made by such metamaterial circuit structures and
show that the amplitude of voltage will be augmented on two interfaces after adding the active/lossy components. Then we realize the active amplification of evanescent waves and show that the
transmission coefficient will be larger than 0 dB near the resonant frequency, which evidently illustrates the active feature of the medium. Both of these two applications have to satisfy the
anti-matching conditions to fulfill the resonance and tunneling effect.