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To examine the availability of nutritional support services in HIV care and treatment sites across sub-Saharan Africa.
In 2008, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of sites providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in nine sub-Saharan African countries. Outcomes included availability of: (i) nutritional counselling; (ii) micronutrient supplementation; (iii) treatment for severe malnutrition; and (iv) food rations. Associations with health system indicators were explored using bivariate and multivariate methods.
President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-supported HIV treatment and care sites across nine sub-Saharan African countries.
A total of 336 HIV care and treatment sites, serving 467 175 enrolled patients.
Of the sites under study, 303 (90 %) offered some form of nutritional support service. Nutritional counselling, micronutrient supplementation, treatment for severe acute malnutrition and food rations were available at 98 %, 64 %, 36 % and 31 % of sites, respectively. In multivariate analysis, secondary or tertiary care sites were more likely to offer nutritional counselling (adjusted OR (AOR): 2·2, 95 % CI 1·1, 4·5). Rural sites (AOR: 2·3, 95 % CI 1·4, 3·8) had increased odds of micronutrient supplementation availability. Sites providing ART for >2 years had higher odds of availability of treatment for severe malnutrition (AOR: 2·4, 95 % CI 1·4, 4·1). Sites providing ART for >2 years (AOR: 1·6, 95 % CI 1·3, 1·9) and rural sites (AOR: 2·4, 95 % CI 1·4, 4·4) had greater odds of food ration availability.
Availability of nutritional support services was high in this large sample of HIV care and treatment sites in sub-Saharan Africa. Further efforts are needed to determine the uptake, quality and effectiveness of these services and their impact on patient and programme outcomes.
To assess the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) or a positive skin test in healthcare workers (HCWs) providing services to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and to determine prospectively the incidence of new infections in this population.
This prospective cohort study enrolled 1,014 HCWs working with HIV-infected populations from 10 metropolitan areas. Purified protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin skin tests were placed at baseline and every 6 months afterwards on those without a history of TB or a positive PPD. Demographic, occupational, and TB exposure data also were collected.
Outpatient clinics, hospitals, private practice offices, and drug treatment programs providing HIV-related healthcare and research programs.
A voluntary sample of staff and volunteers from 16 Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS units.
Factors related to prior TB or a positive skin test at baseline included being foreign-born, increased length of time in health care, living in New York City, or previous bacille Calmette-Guerín vaccination. The rate of PPD conversion was 1.8 per 100 person years of follow-up. No independent relation was found between the amount or type of contact with HIV-infected populations and the risk of TB infection.
These data provide some reassurance that caring for HIV-infected patients is not related to an increased rate of TB infection among HCWs in these settings.
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