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A Warren-Averbach1-4 X-ray line profile analysis was applied to broadened X-ray diffraction peaks from copper deformed in fatigue. The copper specimens were fatigued by four-point bending at peak-strain amplitudes between 0.00105 and 0.00442 in./in., and measurements were made at various fractions of the total fatigue life. The analysis results in an estimation of (a) an average coherently diffracting domain size normal to the diffracting planes and (b) an rms strain distribution function where the strain normal to the diffracting planes is averaged over a given distance at all points in the diffracting crystals and expressed as a function of averaging distance.
Prior to fatigue cycling, the annealed copper exhibited extinction, which reduced the integrated intensity from the low-angle reflections. After fatigue cycling, the integrated intensity increased with increasing strain amplitude of fatigue. The integrated intensities and the rms strains were established during the first few percent of the fatigue life and were found to increase with fatigue strain amplitude. The measured strains were larger in the <100> direction than in the <111> direction, but the absolute values were small. On the basis of transmission electron microscopy of thin foils, these results may be explained by assuming the strains are due to the presence of numerous dislocation dipoles.
In dairy herds, application of antimicrobials at drying-off is a common mastitis control measure. This article describes a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis to address three crucial points regarding antimicrobial usage at drying-off: (1) comparative efficacy of antimicrobials used for preventing new and eliminating existing intramammary infections (IMI); (2) comparison of selective and blanket dry cow therapy approaches in preventing new and eliminating existing IMI; and (3) assessment of the extra prevention against new IMI that can be gained from using antimicrobial-teat sealant combinations versus antimicrobials alone. Five PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome) questions were formulated to cover the three objectives of the review. Medline, CAB Abstracts, Web of Science, and conference proceedings will be searched along with iterative screening of references. Articles will be eligible if: (1) published after 1966; (2) written in English or French; and (3) reporting field clinical trials and observational studies, conducted on dairy cows at drying-off, with at least one antimicrobial-treated group and one IMI-related outcome. Authors will independently assess the relevance of titles and abstracts, extract data, and assess bias and the overall quality of evidence. Results will be synthesized and analyzed using pairwise and network meta-analysis. The proposed study will significantly update previously conducted reviews.
The History, Electrocardiogram (ECG), Age, Risk Factors, and Troponin (HEART) score is a decision aid designed to risk stratify emergency department (ED) patients with acute chest pain. It has been validated for ED use, but it has yet to be evaluated in a prehospital setting.
A prehospital modified HEART score can predict major adverse cardiac events (MACE) among undifferentiated chest pain patients transported to the ED.
A retrospective cohort study of patients with chest pain transported by two county-based Emergency Medical Service (EMS) agencies to a tertiary care center was conducted. Adults without ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were included. Inter-facility transfers and those without a prehospital 12-lead ECG or an ED troponin measurement were excluded. Modified HEART scores were calculated by study investigators using a standardized data collection tool for each patient. All MACE (death, myocardial infarction [MI], or coronary revascularization) were determined by record review at 30 days. The sensitivity and negative predictive values (NPVs) for MACE at 30 days were calculated.
Over the study period, 794 patients met inclusion criteria. A MACE at 30 days was present in 10.7% (85/794) of patients with 12 deaths (1.5%), 66 MIs (8.3%), and 12 coronary revascularizations without MI (1.5%). The modified HEART score identified 33.2% (264/794) of patients as low risk. Among low-risk patients, 1.9% (5/264) had MACE (two MIs and three revascularizations without MI). The sensitivity and NPV for 30-day MACE was 94.1% (95% CI, 86.8-98.1) and 98.1% (95% CI, 95.6-99.4), respectively.
Prehospital modified HEART scores have a high NPV for MACE at 30 days. A study in which prehospital providers prospectively apply this decision aid is warranted.
The Square Kilometre Array will be an amazing instrument for pulsar astronomy. While the full SKA will be sensitive enough to detect all pulsars in the Galaxy visible from Earth, already with SKA1, pulsar searches will discover enough pulsars to increase the currently known population by a factor of four, no doubt including a range of amazing unknown sources. Real time processing is needed to deal with the 60 PB of pulsar search data collected per day, using a signal processing pipeline required to perform more than 10 POps. Here we present the suggested design of the pulsar search engine for the SKA and discuss challenges and solutions to the pulsar search venture.
Few studies have focussed on the health and immunity of triploid Atlantic salmon and therefore much is still unknown about their response to commercially significant pathogens. This is important if triploid stocks are to be considered for full-scale commercial production. This study aimed to investigate and compare the response of triploid and diploid Atlantic salmon to an experimental challenge with Neoparamoeba perurans, causative agent of amoebic gill disease (AGD). This disease is economically significant for the aquaculture industry. The results indicated that ploidy had no significant effect on gross gill score or gill filaments affected, while infection and time had significant effects. Ploidy, infection and time did not affect complement or anti-protease activities. Ploidy had a significant effect on lysozyme activity at 21 days post-infection (while infection and time did not), although activity was within the ranges previously recorded for salmonids. Stock did not significantly affect any of the parameters measured. Based on the study results, it can be suggested that ploidy does not affect the manifestation or severity of AGD pathology or the serum innate immune response. Additionally, the serum immune response of diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon may not be significantly affected by amoebic gill disease.
Perinatal exposure to nutrients and dietary components may affect the risk for coeliac disease (CD). We investigated the association between maternal use of vitamin D, n-3 fatty acids (FA) and Fe supplements during pregnancy and risk for CD autoimmunity (CDA) and CD in the offspring. Children at increased genetic risk were prospectively followed from birth in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. CDA was defined as having persistently positive tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA). Diagnosis of CD was either biopsy-confirmed or considered likely if having persistently elevated levels of tTGA>100 AU. Of 6627 enrolled children, 1136 developed CDA at a median 3·1 years of age (range 0·9–10) and 409 developed CD at a median 3·9 years of age (range 1·2–11). Use of supplements containing vitamin D, n-3 FA and Fe was recalled by 66, 17 and 94 % of mothers, respectively, at 3–4 months postpartum. The mean cumulative intake over the entire pregnancy was 2014 μg vitamin D (sd 2045 μg), 111 g n-3 FA (sd 303 g) and 8806 mg Fe (sd 7017 mg). After adjusting for country, child’s human leucocyte antigen genotype, sex, family history of CD, any breast-feeding duration and household crowding, Cox’s proportional hazard ratios did not suggest a statistically significant association between the intake of vitamin D, n-3 FA or Fe, and risk for CDA or CD. Dietary supplementation during pregnancy may help boost nutrient intake, but it is not likely to modify the risk for the disease in the offspring.
Ice-core drilling and ice-core analysis (electrical conductivity–salinity, 18O, 3H, density) reveal that the internal structure of the west Ward Hunt Ice Shelf contrasts sharply with that of the east ice shelf. The west ice shelf contains a great thickness (≥22 m) of sea ice (mean salinity, 2.22‰; mean δ18O, -0.8‰), whereas the east ice shelf is entirely of meteoric or fresh-water ice (mean salinity 0.01‰; mean δ18O, -29.7‰). High tritium activities are found only in ice from near the bottom of the east and west ice shelves. The contrasting ice-core data is considered to be a proxy record of variations in water circulation and bottom freezing beneath the ice shelf. The west shelf is underlain by sea water flowing into Disraeli Fiord. Sea ice accretes on to the bottom of the west ice shelf from the sea-water flowing into the fiord. Sea-water flowing out of the fiord is directed below the east ice shelf. However, the east ice shelf is not underlain directly by sea-water but by a layer of fresh water from the surface of Disraeli Fiord. In this region, ice growth resulting from the presence of this stable fresh-water layer has been accompanied by surface ablation over a period of perhaps the last 450 years. As a result, fresh-water ice has completely replaced any sea ice that originally grew in the region of the east ice shelf. Whereas the west and east shelves are underlain almost exclusively by sea-water and fresh water, ice in the south shelf is the result of freezing of fresh, brackish or sea water. This is attributed to mixing of the inflowing and outflowing waters.
Ice salinity and 18O/16O ratios were measured on 12 ice cores drilled from thick, multi-year land-fast sea ice (MLSI) off the north coast of Ellesmere Island, Canada. Fresh, brackish, and sea ice were identified in the ice cores using the 18O/16O ratios. Two cases are considered: case 1, which assumes that no isotopic fractionation occurs on freezing; and, case 2, which assumes that a maximum isotopic fractionation factor (a) of 1.003 applies. The amount of each ice type is variable among the cores, but overall the 12 cores comprise 29.6% brackish ice, 70.0% sea ice, and 0.4% fresh ice in case 1, and 42.3% brackish ice, 57.3% sea ice, and 0.4% fresh ice in case 2. The data suggest that time-dependent brackish sea-water stratification below the ice is quite common and is often associated with the inverted bottom topography. However, the stratification is not always confined to small, areally limited under-ice melt pools in inverted depressions, and neither is it a summer-only phenomenon. Brackish ice growth apparently occurs in a brackish water layer that in some instances underlies the ice sheet year-round. For both case 1 and case 2 the salinity distribution in brackish ice is positively skewed, with 50% of salinity values occurring in the range 0–0.49‰. Sea-ice salinity values are more evenly distributed. In case 1, brackish ice has mean salinity and mean δ18O values of 0.66 and –19.9‰, respectively, compared to mean values of 1.88 and –6.5‰ for the sea ice. In case 2, brackish ice has mean salinity and mean S18O values of 0.75 and –18.1% compared to mean values of 2.03 and –5.2‰ for the sea ice. The salinity of brackish ice and sea ice, ice-growth mechanisms, and the inclusion of brine in the sub-structure are discussed briefly.
Hobson’s Choice Ice Island is a tabular iceberg that calved in 1982-83 from East Ward Hunt Ice Shelf, N.W.T., Canada. Four ice cores have been analyzed for ice-crystal size, structure and fabric, bulk density, liquid electrical conductivity, δ18O and tritium. This has enabled a complete characterization of the physical properties and the structural characteristics of the ice-shelf component of Hobson’s Choice Ice Island and the first ever study of the stratigraphy and growth history of East Ward Hunt Ice Shelf. The δ18O values range from -34.6 to and indicate that all the ice is derived directly and/or indirectly from precipitation. High tritium values occur only in the lowermost 5 m of the ice shelf in a layer named stratum B. The tritium is anthropogenic and indicates bottom accretion of fresh-water ice since 1952, most likely from fresh water flowing out of Disraeli Fiord below the eastern ice shelf. Above this deepest and youngest ice layer is a 35-38 m thick, unconformable layer (stratum A) comprising three ice types: iced-firn, slush ice and lake ice. This depositional-superimposed ice represents past surface accumulation, which, according to δ18O and ice-crystal structure and size variations, occurred in three major periods, each interrupted by major ablation periods. Fresh water flowing out of Disraeli Fiord below the ice shelf during those warm intervals was the most likely agent responsible for the ablation and eventual complete loss of the original sea-ice platform on which stratum A initially accumulated. The three sub-strata of stratum A vary in thickness from core to core and suggest that there has been an inversion of relief during each ablation period. The different properties and occurrences of the three superimposed ice types are due primarily to past topographic variability.
In the early 2000s, a popular and clinically valuable class of drugs known as the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class was being used to treat osteoarthritis and acute pain conditions. Of the several chemical members of this class, rofecoxib was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in May 1999, with Merck and Co. marketing it under the brand names Vioxx and Ceoxx. The drug recorded more than $2 billion a year with more than 75 million patients taking it worldwide.
In September 2004, rofecoxib was withdrawn from the market by Merck and Co. due to worries about its usage leading to increased risk of heart attack and stroke. This observation was noted in patients with long-term, high-dosage use. It has been estimated that these side effects led to the manifestation of heart disease in 100,000 cases.
The FDA intently scrutinized other NSAIDs and continued to do so. Several calls were made by concerned citizens and those affected by the rofecoxib side-effect case that the FDA needed to do more to insure public safety of post-approved drugs. Investigators began focusing on the target (known as COX-2), and it was hypothesized that the side effects observed were related directly to COX-2 inhibition. No concrete data have been observed about whether the cardiovascular effects were solely related to COX-2. However, the mindset was already created that if a side effect was observed through certain drug use then all mechanisms of physiological effects were termed again the “Vioxx effect.” This viewpoint – that all side effects and physiological effects were connected via a central target – impacted multiple other drug discovery projects as well, including the race to deliver the first CCR5 antagonists, which are a class of oral antiretroviral drugs designed to block HIV entry into cells via the CCR5 receptor. There were concerns that the novel mechanism of action of CCR5 antagonists was associated with potential risks of hepatotoxicity and malignancies, which might be adverse events that extend to all compounds in the class. The following work addressed such concerns by employing a wide range of computational approaches, utilizing pharmacology and human gene expression as well as clinical data to address these potential CCR5 antagonist class effects.
Many social scientists have documented that the American corporate capitalist class is highly organized and cohesive, both in terms of formal structural characteristics (Domhoff, 1967; Useem, 1979; Scott, 1979) and informal social patterns (Baltzell, 1964; Domhoff, 1974; Mills, 1956). One of the major structural features integrating corporate capitalists is interlocking directorates, which have been shown to form a single, continuous, cohesive network (Sonquist and Koenig, 1975; Allen, 1974; Mariolis, 1975; Mizruchi, 1982; Pennings, 1980; Scott, 1979; Fennema and Schijf, 1978).
There may have been a time when one could characterize the difference between sociology and history in terms of sociological attention to generalization and theory in contrast to historical specificity. A quarter of a century ago, E. H. Carr (1961) was earnestly exorcising the ghost of Ranke from his discipline while C. Wright Mills (1956) was vehemently ranting against the twin devils of abstract empiricism and grand theory. Happily, we now only evoke the distinction between sociological universalism and historical particularism in required graduate classes or in ritualistic self-affirmations at professional meetings. When sociological books include chapters on Marc Bloch or E. P. Thompson and historical books liberally cite Marx, Weber, and Durkheim while urging social historians to seek higher levels of generalization, how do we explain the difference between the two disciplines to our poor confused graduate students?
Fluid intelligence (Gf) has been related to executive functioning (EF) in previous studies, and it is also known to be correlated with crystallized intelligence (Gc). The present study includes representative measures of Gf, Gc, and EF frequently used in clinical practice to examine this Gf–EF relation. It is hypothesised that the Gf–EF relation is higher than the Gc–EF relation, and that working memory in particular (as a measure of EF) shows a high contribution to this relation.
Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on a mixed neuropsychiatric and non-clinical sample consisting of 188 participants, using the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test, and three executive tasks of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, covering working memory, planning skills, and set shifting.
The model fitted the data well [χ2(24)=35.25, p=0.07, RMSEA=0.050]. A very high correlation between Gf and EF was found (0.91), with working memory being the most profound indicator. A moderate to high correlation between Gc and EF was present. Current results are consistent with findings of a strong relation between Gf and working memory.
Gf and EF are highly correlated. Gf dysfunction in neuropsychiatric patients warrants further EF examination and vice versa. It is discussed that results confirm the need to distinguish between specific versus general fluid/executive functioning, the latter being more involved when task complexity and novelty increase. This distinction can provide a more refined differential diagnosis and improve neuropsychiatric treatment indication.
The old approach: Teacher has information; student has empty head. Teacher’s objective: to push information into student’s empty head. Observations: at outset teacher is fathead; at conclusion student is fathead.
R. Murray Schafer
In this chapter
In this chapter we situate music education as ‘praxis’ (Alperson, 1991; Elliott, 1995), encouraging personal agency and allowing children to become composers, performers and audiences as part of their daily lives (see Chapter 1). The important thing to understand with this approach is that musical learning and musical understanding occur in many ways: through listening, sharing, discussing, reflecting, performing, composing and recording. All of these processes should be conceived of culturally, socially and holistically in ways that enable children to explore connections between concepts, skills and understandings. In this approach, a music learning community of practice that encourages learning in multiple ways through learner agency (Wenger, 2009) can be established in your learning context (see Chapter 1).
By the end of this chapter you should have a clear understanding of:
different approaches to engaging with music in education in early childhood and primary environments
the elements of music as ways to understand music in early childhood and primary environments
the processes of music as ways to engage with music in early childhood and primary environments
the ways in which music operates in Australian and New Zealand curriculum frameworks and early childhood documents, particularly with regard to the notions of making and responding.
My name, the names of these places, the languages of islands and the seas, were given to us. These were given to us by the Ancestors when they made the world.
Laurie Baymarrwangga, Senior Australian of the Year 2012
In this chapter
This chapter explores the current research concerning the value and effect of Arts education and aims to provide you with an argument for the importance of the Arts in education. This research is framed by an understanding of developing modes of engagement in Arts education, and a discussion of the importance of personal agency and Arts education as ‘praxis’ (see Chapter 1). Finally, the notions of learning ‘in’ and ‘through’ the Arts are explored so that you understand the types of learning your students engage in.
By the end of this chapter you should have a clear understanding of:
why the Arts are fundamental to early childhood and primary education
current research that supports the Arts in education
how to use this research to develop your own rationale for the Arts in education
what learning ‘in’ and ‘through’ the Arts means for early childhood and primary education and how this affects learning in these environments.
Wherever we are in society, we are surrounded by the Arts. This very text as been designed by artists, and the words you read are but visual artworks representing the oral storytelling foundation of all societies. Its layout was designed by artists, using multiple media forms. You are reading it in an environment where the soundscape will hopefully allow you to concentrate. Your body is probably positioned to minimise discomfort and maximise efficiency, while communicating to all those around you your current state of thought (whether consciously or not). Surrounding you may be posters, objects, noises, people interacting with facial expressions, some perhaps communicating on Facebook and its graphic interface using new technologies. The Arts power our lives, yet too often we power down children as they enter formal education (preschool and upwards), stifle their natural forms of communication and interaction, and slowly destroy their ability to be creative and to think diversely.
This text aims to demonstrate the power of each of the Arts as a discrete source of knowledge and also as a pedagogical tool to access other Learning Areas. Teaching the Arts: Early childhood and primary education is a book born out of the requests of children and teachers. As authors and educators of pre-service teachers and also as consultants in schools, we were continually met by many colleagues and children who were frustrated by the fact that, while there were excellent texts out there, none seemed to fit their requirements. This text aims to meet that need. This is not the ultimate answer to how to teach the Arts; it is just one of many ways. There is, however, a dichotomy in its title. By its very definition, the title condones and possibly promotes the idea that the Arts are separate from other forms of knowledge and, indeed, from society. However, one of the key threads running through the text is that the Arts are embedded in life and in all aspects of education.
Throughout this book you have been challenged to look at the role the Arts play in society and in the curriculum. Various methodologies have been suggested and each specific Arts area has been broken down. The tools are now in place for you to organise Arts teaching in your classroom and you have reflective tools to apply to the teaching and learning you undertake. In this final chapter, we challenge you to imagine your Arts-rich classroom. What do you want the Arts to look like and how do you want your students to engage in them? These decisions will reflect your vision and rationale for teaching the Arts and your many experiences in working with the Arts as you progressed through this book. They are best made by the person who decides the ‘what’ and ‘how’ for their students every day – you.
By the end of this chapter you should have a clear understanding of:
the characteristics of quality Arts education and how to embed these
Arts-rich early childhood and primary contexts
your vision and role in delivering quality, Arts-rich learning.